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SAINT LOUIS, 



THK 



Future Great City 



i 



OF TBK 



"W" O I?. L ID- 



BY Jl^V. FIEAVIS. 



FOURTH EDITION. 



Henceforth St. Louis must be viewed in the light of her future — her mightiness in the empire 
of the world — her sway in the rule of Slates and nations. 



» < » > -<- 



ST. LOUIS: 

PRINTED BY E. F. HOBART & CO. 
1873. 

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1 




Entered according to act of Congress, in thp year i8j3, by 

L. U. REAVIS, 

la the office of the Clerk of the District Court of the United States in and for the 
Eastern District of Missouri. 



cbication. 



TO JAMES B. EADS, 

THB SELF-MADE MAN, THE PATRIOT CITIZEN, THE GENEROUS 

FRIEND, AND THE GENIUS OF RARE SKILL, WHO, 

WITH UNRIVALLED ENTERPRISE, PROJECTED 

AND CONSTRUCTED THE ILLINOIS 

AND ST. LOUIS BRIDGE, 

THIS WORK, 

.DEVOTED TO THE FUTURE OF A CITY WHOSE 
BEST HOPE IS IN SUCH MEN, IS RE- 
SPECTFULLY INSCRIBED BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Judge Holmes' Letter i 

Historical Review of St. Louis 9 

Population Considered 42 

The Water Works 52 

The Future Great City — the Argument 63 

Productive Power of the Iron Interest of Missouri ^(> 

Auxiliary Arguments 108 

Population of St. Louis Considered m 

Railway System of St. Louis 120 

River System of St. I^ouis 128 

Merchants and Commerce of St. Louis 130 

Great Bridge at St. Louis 215 

East St. Louis 227 

Missouri and Her Resources 245 

The Minerals of Missouri 252 

Missouri as a Wine-producing State 266 

Leading Cities of Missouri 271 

Importance of Steel Manufacture in Missouri 307 

Appendix 313 



^/f^A^ATPJ^y. 



This is designed to be a Presentation of Causes in 
Nature and Civilization, which, in their reciprocal action, 
TEND to fix the POSITION OF THE FUTURE GREAT CITY 
OF THE WORLD in the Central Plain of North 
America ; showing that the center of the World's Commerce 
and Civilization will, in less than One Hundred Years, be 
organized and represented in the Mississippi Valley, and 
BY ST. LOUIS, occupying, as she does, the most favorable 
position on the continent and the Great River; also, a 
complete representation of the Great Railway System of St. 
Louis, making her the greatest Railway Center in the 
World. 



PROPHETIC VOICES ABOrT ST. LOUIS. 



St . LanlB alone would be an all-sufficient theme; lor who can doubt that this prosperous metvopolis 
is destined to be one of the mighty ceuters of oarmighty Republic?— Charles Scmhek. 

Fair St. Louis, the future Capital of the United States, and of the civilization of the Western Con- 
tinent. — James Parton. 

A glance ai the m;ip of the United States shows what un interestiug place .St. Louis is destined to 

become, when the white population has spread it^jclf more westwardly from the Mississippi and up and 

along the Missouri liver, perhaps it may yet become the capital of a great nation.— Duke of Saxe, 

Wkimae Eisenach. Travels in North America in 1S25--J6. 

New York Tribune, ) 

New York, February 4, 1870. ^ 

Bear Sir: I have twice seen St. Louis in the middle of winter. Nature made her the focus of a 
vast region, embodying a vast area of the most fertile soil on the .'lobe. Man will soon accomplish hot- 
destiny by rendering her the seat of an immense industry, the home of a far-reaching, ever-expanding 
commerce. Her gait is not so rapid as that of some of her Western sisters, but she advances steadily and 
surely to her predestined station of first inland city on the globe. 

Yours, HORACE GUEELEY. 

L. U, Reavis, Esq., Missouri. 

I also remember that I am in the city of St. Louis — destined, ere long, robe the greatest city on 
th« continent (renewed cheers) ; the greatest central point between the East and the Wi-st, at once 
destined to be the entrepot and depot of all the internal commerce of the greatest and most prospei-ous 
country the world has ever seen: connected soon with India by the Pacific, and receiving the goods of 
China and Japan; draining, with its immense rivers centering hf>re, the great Northwest, and opening 
into the Gulf through the gi-eat river of this nation, the Father oi Waters— the Mississippi. Whenever— 
and that time is not far distant — the internal commerce shall exct-i- i our foreign commerce, then shall 
St. Louis take the very first rank among the cities of the nation. And that time, my friemis, is much 
sooner than any one of us at the present time actually realizes. Suppose that it had been told to you — 
any one of you here present, of middle age — within twenty years past, that within r lat t ;ne such a 
city should grow up here, with such a population as coTers the teeming prairies of Illinois and Indiana, 
between this and the Ohio, who would have reali/en the prediction? And so the next quarter of a 
century shall see a larger population west of the Mississippi than the last quarter of a century saw east 
of the Mississippi; and the city of St. Louis, from its central location, and through the vigor, the 
energy, the industry and th^ enterprise of its inhabitants, shall become the very first city of the United 
States of America, now and hereafter destined to ho the great republican nation of the world. — Extract 
from a speech delivered in St. Louis, October \Z, 1866, 'j'j Gen. B. F. Bdtler. 

Now, sir, when I see this country, when I see its vastness and its almost illimitable extent; when I 
Beeth^ keen eye of capital and business fastened with steady, interested gaze upon the trade of the West, 
and all our Eastern cities in hot rivalry are reaching out their iron arms to secure our trade : when I see 
the railroads that are centering here in St. Louis: when I see this city, with 60,000 milts of railroad 
communication and 100,000 miles of telegraphic communication; when I see that she stands at the head- 
waters of navigation, extending to the north 3,000 miles, and to the south 2, 000 miles; and when I see 
that she stands in the center of the continent, as it were; when I see the population moving to the West 
in vast numbers; when! see emigration rolling toward the Pacific, and all through these temperate climea 
I hear the tramp of the iron horse, on his way to the Pacific Ocean; when I see towns and villages spring- 
ing up in every direction; when I see States forming into e.xistence until thecity of St. Louis becomes 
the center, as it were, of a hundred States, the center of the population and the commerce of this coun- 
try—when I see all this, sir, I feel convinced that the seat of empire is to come this side of the Alleghanies; 
and why may not St. Louis be the future Capital of the United States of America?— [JEa?/roc</row a Speech 
of Senator Yates . 

If it were asked whose anticipations of what has been done to advance civilization, for the past 
fifty years, have come nearest; the truth— those of the sanguine and hopeful, or those of the cautious and 
fearful — must it not be answered that none of the former class had been sanguine and hopeful enough 
to anticipate the full measure of human progress since the opening of the present century? May it not 
be the most sanguine and hopeful only, who, in anticipation, can attain a due estimation of the measure 
of future change and improvemeuc in the grand march of society and civilization westward over the 
continent ? 

The general mind is faithless of what goes much beyond its own experience. It refuses to receive, or it 
receives with distrust, conclusions, however strongly sustained by facts and fair deductions, which go 
much beyond its srdinai-y range of thought. It is especially skeptical and intolerant toward the avowal 
of opinions, however well founded, which are sanguine of great future changes. It does not conprehend 
them, and therefore refuses to believe; but it sometimes goes further, and, without examination, soorn- 
fnlly rejects. To seek for the truthis the proper object of those who, from the past and present, under- 
take to say what will be the future, and, when the truth is found, to express it with as little reference to 
What will be thought of it as if putting forth the solution of a mathematical problem— [J. W. Scott . 






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St. Louis, the Metropolis of the Mississippi Vallej. 



LETTER FROM JUDGE NATHANIEL HOLMES. 



• L. TJ. Eeavis, Esq. — Dear Sir : — Since yoa do me the honor to suppose that 
my ideas on the subject of your book may have some value, or some interest, I 
venture to lay the following observations before you for what they may be 
worth. 

The great cities of the Avorld were not built in a day. The populous cities 
of the ancient world wei'e indeed situated in the fertile valleys of gTeat rivers, 
and far from the sea; as Thebes and Meiophis on the Nile, Ayodha on the 
Ganges, and Babylon and Nineveh on the plains of Mesopotamia; and some 
others again, like the primeval Sogd and Balkh, upon elevated interior plateaus. 
They were the work of centuries, and some of them survived the vicissitudes 
of several thousand years. The strides of the central marts of European com- 
merce from Alexandria to Venice, to Lisbon, to Amsterdam, to London, are 
measured by periods of centuries. Population and trade move at more rapid 
rates in our time. Imagination easily leaps over a thousand years. It is not 
impossible that our city of St. Louis may be "the future great city of the 
world," but if we are to come to pi-actical facts for our day and generation, and 
take the safe and sure way, I think we may be content to set it down as both 
the present and future great city of the Mississippi Valley. 

The first leading feature that impresses me is this : that St. Louis is a central 
mart, seated on the great southern Avater-line of transport and traffic, by the 
river, the gulf, and the ocean; and that Chicago is another, less central or quite 
eccentric, situated at the end of the great northern line of traffic and travel, by 
the lakes, canals, and rivers to the sea. Both are, and will be, great centres for 
internal distribution ; but St. Louis is, or will be, in all the future, in this, the 
more central and important of the two. For exportation of products, Chie<ao-o 
has been, of recent years, the greater in quantity and value; but St. Louis, in 
this, has of late rapidly approached her, and in the near future may be expected 
even to surpass the City of the Lakes. Both reach out over the vast, fertile 
areas extending fi-om the AUeghanies to the Eoeky Mountains and beyond, and 
from the northern boundary to the Gulf of Mexico, to grasp in the growing 
trade of the valley, both of import and export. Chicago reaches out by rail- 
roads; St. Louis, by both railroads and rivers. And here it may be well to 
mark the changes that have taken place in the last thirty-five years or so. 

Tn 1839 (sa}^), Chicago had vessels on the Lakes (there were no railroads in 
those lays), and had some four or five thousand inhabitants gathered upon a 



li ST. LOUIS, THE METROPOLIS OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY, 

mud flat at the mouth of a deep ditch ; and a traveler oould go by stage to 
La Salle, or Peoria, and thence by steamer to St. Louis; or he cOuld take the 
Stage to Detroit, if he thought the voyage through Lake Huron would b« too 
long, or if the lakes were frozen up. Galena, the chief town of the Upper 
Mississippi, was nearly beyond all practical access from fhat quarter, and her 
rich productions in lead and all her trade had to come down the river to St. 
Louis. St. Louis then had some sixteen thousand inhabitants, spreading over 
beautiful slopes and levels, and rested on solid foundations of building rock and 
brick earth, and commanded the whole navigation and trade of the rivers, from 
New Orleans to the falls of St. Anthony, and from Pittsburgh to where Fort 
Benton now is, and beyond to the region of furs, and up and down the Illinois, 
the Arkansas, the Cumberland and the Tennessee rivers. As to navigation, it 
was all the same thing then, and is now, and always will be, as if all these rivers 
met at one common point of junction, here at St. Louis; for each one, counting 
the Upper and the Lower Mississippi as two, had then, and still has, its own 
distinct trade and class of steamboats. But then, too, the greater part of Illi- 
nois and Michigan, nearly the whole of Wisconsin, Minnesota and Iowa, all 
Nebraska and Kansas, and the entire region westward to the Rocky Mountains 
and to the Pacific Ocean, was a wide, howling wilderness, and a mere hunting- 
ground for the Indians. 

There was, of course, a large internal traffic, and a very considerable import 
and export trade through New Orleans and the sea, and through Pittsburg and 
the Ohio, to the Eastern cities and to Europe, and to Brazil and the Islands 
and shores of the Grulf of Mexico. Emigration swarmed to the West from all 
the States of the Union, and from half the States of Europe. It astonished 
none but the blind that the population of St. Louis grew, in twenty years, 
from sixteen to one hundred and sixty-two thousand. That in ten years more, 
(from 1860 to 1870), during the war period, it grew to 310,000, might well 
arttonish the most sanguine. Nearly all the heavy groceries (salt, sugar, 
molasses, coffee, &c.,) from Louisiana, the West Indies and Brazil, and a large part 
of the heavier kinds of merchandisse from Europe (iron, tin, hardware, crockery 
and liquors, G-erman giracracks included,) were then, as they are now (with the 
addition of many other leading articles), and will continue to be more and more 
in the future, imported, either directly, or more or less indirectly, into St. Louis, 
and distributed from this market; and the bulky products of the surrounding 
country, that could be spared to go abroad, were exported mainly by the same 
channels. Such manufactures as could be made here, and were in demand for 
the western country, rapidly grew up, and the manufacturers (as of stoves, 
castings, saddlery, mill machinery, steamboat machinery, white lead and oil, 
refined sugar, bagging and bale-rope, tobacco, &c., &c.,) grew rich. And St. 
Louis had overtaken Cincinnati before the war. Five years ago, the value of 
the imports, paying duties here, or at New Orleans, was five millions ; this last 
year it was eleven millions. This must be taken as simply the small beginnings. 

The railroad system, in its westward movement, embraced Chicago first ; the 
regions immediately around Chicago first became the moro densely settled and 



ST, LOUIS, THE METROPOLIS OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. UJ 

cultivated; and Eastern capital pushed hex* railroads out in all directions, largely 
taking awaj the trade of the Northwest from the rivers and St. Louis, and they 
had extended theiu even into Northern Missouri, when the war shut up the Mis 
sissippi, and also stopped the progress of our incipient railroads; and then, of 
course, the larger part of the trade went to Chicago, because it could go nowhere 
else. In the earlier days of the railroad era (you may have heard), it was with great 
difficulty that a charter could be obtained from the Illinois Legislature for the 
Ohio & Mississippi Kailroad to terminate at St. Louis. Alton was to be the future 
great city. The Chicago and Alton Railroad had to stop short at Alton, and 
so the Alton and Terre Haute Eailroad ; but at length some shrewd opei*ators 
managed to get a charter for a new road from Alton to Belleville, leaving the 
route so vaguely defined in the bill, that it admitted of being so warped to one 
side in the location as to touch the river opposite to St. Louis, on its way to 
Belleville; and so the terminus was practically established where the exigencies 
of comme-rce required it to be. The result, now, is a second railroad straight 
from St. Louis to Terre Haute, and a great bridge for the accommodation of 
that and all the rest, which now seek a common depot in the heart of the city. 
In like manner, the Illinois Central Railroad was to be of no particular benefit 
to St. Louis. Cairo was to be another great city, and outstrip St. Louis. Now, 
practicall}', St. Louis is a principal terminus of that road, and it runs trains in 
and out to Cairo, Chicago, Dubuque and Sioux City; for such are the laws of 
trade and the exigencies of human affairs. Gradually, also, and more recently, 
the great lines of railroad, running westwardly through Canada and from New 
York, Philadelphia and Baltimore, have been hauling down from the north and 
stretchingdirectly in straight consolidated lines to the common central terminus 
at St. Louis. The Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, by the mouth of the Big 
Sandy River and Louisville, is fast coming, also; and the Southeastern (St. 
Louis and Nashville) reaches into Georgia and South Carolina, practically ter- 
minating at Charleston; — two new spokes of the wheel. The war times built 
the gi'and Central and Union Pacific Railroad, but it had to terminate at Omaha 
or nowhere and go straight on to Chicago and the East. It was probably^ not 
expected to do St. Louis much good ; but St. Louis has tapped it at Omaha, and 
will soon strike it at Fort Kearney, by two or three distinct lines, nearly 
straight, in continuation of the Missouri Pacific, and the St. Louis, Kansas 
and Northern Railroads, the greatwestern and northwestern spokes of the 
wheel, and one hundred and fifty miles at least shorter than from the same 
point to Chicago (^not forgetting the Kansas Pacific Railroad to Denver and 
Cheyenne); and again, it may be anticipated that the exigencies of trade and 
commerce will make that road, also, so far tributary to St. Louis as the great 
central mart maj' require. 

In the meantime, while the incubus of the war is scarcely yet lifted, and 
many people are but half awake to the coming future, still dozing in the penum- 
bra of the depression period (as if it were to last forever), St. Louis, I observe, 
has run out several important spokes of the great railroad wheel whereof she is 
the hub, or they ha-^-e been run into St. Louis, stretching southeast, southwest^ 



IV ST. LOLIS, TUE METROPOLIS OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. 

Sv itb, west, northwest, northeast and north — to nearly all points of the compass — 
anci vhen all are comjjleted that are now in progress or in prospect, at no very 
distant, iay, they will present the wondrous spectacle of long lines of railroad 
radiating ^voiu the centre to the circumference, iiot merely of this valley, but 
of the Avhoi, United States. It is even now made apparent to any one, by a 
glance at your "^lap, showing the direction of the more prominent lines of rail- 
road, that such another railroad centre as St. Louis is now, or is last becoming, 
is not possible on th.a map of the United States, 

So extensive a system of railroads cannot be completed iu a day. The won- 
der is, that so much has been done in the short period since the war. It matters 
little whether it be the work of St. Louis capital or of foreign capital. Com- 
mercially, St. Louis is scarcely one generation old. In the eastern cities are 
the accumulations of one or two centuries. The capital accumulated here, 
however large, is all employed in the immediate business of the cit}*. The 
vast amount required for this rapid construction of long lines of railroad, must 
come chiefly from abroad. Meantime, it is not surprising that the business 
men of St. Louis turn their faces to the south and southwest, where they have 
an almost exclusive monopoly of the tra^e, rather than to the north and north- 
Avest, where they come into more stringe. t competition with Chicago and the 
eastern cities. Ever^-thing cannot be done at once. At present, the people of 
the Xorthwest arc left, mainly, to do what th<}y can for themselves to reach St. 
Louis. They have the rivers and some railn ads already, and the important 
river improvements now in progress will offset ^ some degree the obstructions 
of railroad bridges; and more railroads are soon *o come. 

The Chicago railroads stretch directly westward across the Mississippi to the 
M issouri River, and some of them are bending soutl vard thi'ough Missouri and 
Kansas, towards Texas and New Mexico. The St. j. ")uis railroads cross them 
fl'om north round to west, and in the race of competition it comes to the ques- 
tion here, to Avhat extent, and in what kinds of mere, andise, either central 
mart can command the advantage in traffic. Besides th*. St. Louis, Alton and 
Chicago, the St. Louis, Jacksonville and Peoria, and Louisiana, Quincy and 
Burlington, and the St. Louis, Rock Island and Rockford h xilroads, tAvo other 
great Northern spokes of the wheel, the St. Louis, Hannibal, Keokuk and Bur- 
lington railroad, reaching by Cedar Falls to St. Paul, anc* *y Gralesburg to 
♦Jhicago, and the northern branch of the St. Louis, Kansas anc Northern Rail- 
road, reaching by the Central Railroad^ of Iowa, to St. Paul and ''i)uluth, not to 
mention others, ax'e now nearing completion. The Missouri, Kant'js and Texas 
Railroad has no doubt been built in the interest of the North an f East; but 
the practical result, so far, is a terminus at St. Louis. To the ex'«nt that it 
will pay best, it may be expected to remain there. The Atlantic f nd Pacific 
J^ailroad has been constructed so far, probably, with little or no idea i">f confer- 
ring any special benefit u])on St. Louis, but rather because the company saw 
money in the enterprise, and believed it would be a paying institution, tven for 
capitalists of New York and Boston. The Iron Mountain Railroad is more es- 
pecially a St. Louis road, but it requires the help of foreign ca\)i^ (^vhich can 



ST. LOUIS, THE METROPOLIS OF THK MISSISStPI'I VALLEY. V 

be had on good security and at good rates of interest) to extend it into Texas. 
It reaches now to New Orleans, 'Mobile, Memphis, and Chattanooga, constitut- 
ing the great southern spoke of the wheel. The natural competition of Chi- 
cago, as it sweeps round southwestwardly, gradually diminishes, and here 
comes nearly to zero. 

Consider, now, what is to be the state of things, particulai'l}' with reference 
to the States lying northwest of the Mississippi River (for in other directions 
the matter is too obvious to need special comment), when the system of rail- 
roads is completed. The distances by railroad will he, in general, shorter to 
St. Louis than to Chicago. The radiation of railroads will be somewhat anal- 
ngous to the radiation of rivers, and St. Louis will have both systems in con- 
junction ; for the longer railroads, as naturally as the rivers, and by the same 
exigencies of trade and commerce, tend to concentration into one common cen- 
ter at the great metropolitan city of the West. Here we come upon matters 
that lie peculiarly within the knowledge and experience of mercantile men. 
If I may hazard an opinion, I should say, that there will be in this quarter a 
divided empire, with field enough for both competitors, and that the division 
will be much according to kinds of merchandise and the sources whence it 
comes. Many kinds may reach that region more readily by the great northern 
water-route and the railroads from Chicago ; while many other kinds will be 
obtained to greater advantage from the St. Louis market ; as, for instance, our 
own manufactures and man}^ importations of European manufactures and pro- 
■ducts, the heavy groceries from the West Indies and Brazil, and teas and ailks 
from China and Japan. Various articles that are brought from distant parts of 
the globe in sailing vessels will continue to be imported almost exclusively 
into the AtJantic cities, where the necessarj^ capital is, and where these vessels 
are built and owned, and these articles will reach the interior of the northwest 
more easily by the northern water-route than by railroads across the Allegha- 
nies : they cannot be imported from Europe, I presume, because they cannot 
pay one duty going into Europe and another duty coming into America from 
Europe. But manufactures and products of the States of Europe can be im- 
ported directly into St. Louis as well as into the Atlantic cities, when regular 
lines of steamships are established between European ports and New Orleans. 
The data furnished b}^ experienced men demonstrate that the bulky produce of 
the country tributary to St. Louis can go from here to Liverpool by the great 
southern water-route in bulk cheaper then it can possibly be carried across the 
country by railroad to be exported from the Atlantic cities; and when this 
route is fully inaugurated (as it doubtless will be before long), it stands to rea- 
son that importation to a much larger extent, and of more kinds than has been 
dreamed of heretofore, will comeback the same way to St. Louis, and be dis- 
tributed fi'om this market even into the Northwest, cheaper than it can be 
done via Chicago ; though the war swept American vessels from the ocean. 
Iron barges, elevators, a St. Philip Canal, improved rivers and steamships and 
more railroads, will d© the business ; and St. Louis, to a large and important 
extent, will become the rival so far, not merely of Chicago, but of New York and 



VI ST. LOUIS, THE METROPOLIS OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. 

Boston, as an importing and exporting city; so that it may be said, some day, 
if not now, that St. Louis is the southwestern, and New York the north- 
eastern focus of the whole ellipse. In this fact lies one principal advantage 
of the position of St. Louis (if there be any at all) over Chicago as an 
interior mart for the distribution of general merchandise. Our j)osition 
in the center of the coal fields and mineral regions of the Valley, and our 
facilities for various kinds of manufactures, not only of iron and steel, but 
for quecnsware, stoneware, tinware, plated ware, glass, zinc, silver, white- 
lead and oil, refined sugar, tobacco, furniture, agricultural implements, 
and many other articles, is another great advantage of jiosition. And 
a still greater is the position of St. Louis at the conjunction of the radi- 
ating river and railroad systems, in reference to the bulky agricultural pro- 
ducts of the whole vast circuit of couiitry (especially west of the Mississippi), 
which they penetrate in all directions, comprising within a six hundred-mile 
circle described on this center nearly the entire area of the most fertile soil of 
the Mississippi Valle}', the garden of America, if not of the Avhole earth. The 
importance of St. Louis in this particular lies, first, in its being a central mart 
for the internal distribution of home j^roducts in every direction, and second, 
in its being a receiving mart for exportation of the surplus. The annual sta- 
tistics exhibit the present magnitude of this business. The increase in five 
years in grain, pork and cattle, for instance, is next to fabulous. Within the 
same period, the swell of the daily clearings, at the St. Louis Clearing House, 
from half a million a day to four and five millions a day, may be taken as some 
sure index of the increase in volume of the general commercial operations. 
The annual statement for the last year shows an aggregate of clearings of 
989,000,000, and an increase over the previous year of 133,000,000. 

In tills view, as in the beginning we glanced backward over a period of 
thirty years and more, suppose now we look forward through the next thirty 
yeai's. Considering the rate of progress in that past time (and the rate will 
surely not be less in the future), let any one try to imagine what will then be 
the condition of the vast country lying west of the Mississippi Eiver, and for 
which St. Louis is easily to be the principal commercial mart in this valley. 
Population has, indeed, reached, seatteringly, nearly to the western limit of the 
fertile plains where sufficient rains make crops sufficiently certain. It has 
reached in some places even beyond the limit, where, without railroads or 
river navigation, it will pay to raise more crops than can be consumed on the 
ground. Not a tenth part of the intermediate areas is occupied, and scarcely 
one-half of any one State is under improvement, much less under actual culti- 
vation. These States are much in the condition now, that Illinois, Indiana, 
Michigan and Wisconsin were, thirty years ago. What will be the amount of 
products to be exported, or of merchandise to be imported, or manufactures to 
be supplied, for these States, when they have attained to the present condition 
of Illinois and Indiana, or Ohio? It surely needs no prophet to foresee that 
it will require all the navigation that improved rivers and new arts can fur- 
nish, and all the railroads that time and money can build, to do it all; and yet 



ST. LOUIS, THE METROPOLIS OP THE MISSTSSTPPI VALLEY. vii 

both may have enough to do. There is more now than both can do, and that 
ie the great trouble. The remote Iowa or Nebraska farmer burns corn for 
fuel, because it costs more than it is worth to carry it to any market. When 
the rivers are low or frozen up, the railroads put on killing freights in sheer 
self-defense against the impossible. 

It takes time to settle and people and improve a new country like this. I 
don't know that we should be in any great hurry to get it all done at once. It 
has, in former times, taken centuries to people a new country, or to build a 
great city. I am quite sure it is not wise to undertake to build a city in a 
decade that might very well occupy a century. The growth of St. Louis is 
certainly rapid and extensire enough to answer all reasonable expectations, if 
not quite to amaze the most sanguine and impatient. In respect of population, 
in view of the average rates of increase for each period of ten years from 1840 
to 1870, and particularly for the period between 1860 and 1870, during which, 
the rate was, for the whole period, 15,000 a year, and for the latter half of it, 
at 21,000 a year, the average rate for the period between 1870 and 1880 can not 
be expected to be less, and will in all probability be more than 20,000 a year; 
and this will give a population of more than 500,000 in 1880. Let any one 
look over the past five years, and consider what has been done in that time, 
the additions that have been built up, the water-works constructed, the streets 
and wharves that have been improved, the splendid buildings that have been 
erected, the manufactures that have been initiated, the packet and barge lines 
and the elevators, the grain trade that has been created, the flour, pork and 
cattle trade, the tobacco and cotton trade, the millions invested in iron-works, 
the railroads that have come into existence and are in progress, the great 
bridge and tunnel now near to completion, the new Lindell Hotel, the new 
Post-office, and the new Exchange that are begun, and are to cost millions, and 
then eay if he remembers any period of five years before the war, in which 
anything like an equal advance was made. 

In conclusion and in reference to population in general, I will merely glance 
at a topic that may not be wholly foreign to your purpose, but is too large to 
be handled effectually in this place. It is the remarkable fact that the several 
successive streams of westward migration of the white Aryan race, from the 
primitive Paradise in the neighborhood of the primeval cities of Sogd and 
Balkh, in High Asia, long separated in times of migration and for the most 
part distinct in the European areas finally occupied by them, and which, in the 
course of its grand march of twenty thousand years or more, has created nearly 
the whole of the civilization, arts, sciences and literature of this globe, buildiiig 
seats of fixed habitation and great cities, successively, in the rich valleys of the 
Ganges, the Euphrates, the Nile, the rivers aud isles of Greece, the Tiber and 
the Po, the Danube, the Rhine, the Elbe, and the Seine and Thames, wandering 
children of the same great family, are now in these later times brought togcthei 
again in their descendants and representatives, Semitic, Pelasgic, Celtic. Ten- 



VIU ST. LOUIS, THE METROPOLIS OP THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. 

tonic, and Sclavonic, here in the newly discovered continent and common land 
of promise, and are commingled (especially in this great valley of the Mis- 
sissippi) into one common brotherhood of race, language, law and liberty. 

Yours Respectfully, 
St. Louis, Jan. 6, 1873, N. HOLMES. 






ST. LOUIS, 



THE 



FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



» » »t « 



HISTORICAL REVIEW OF ST. LOUIS. 



» < » » « 



In offering to the public an argument to prove that St. Louis is destined to 
become the great city of the world, it is proper that the discussion of a claim 
80 pretentious be introduced with a brief historical sketch of the foundation, 
growth and elements of civilization of the city in question. 

Such a sketch would enable the interested reader to obtain a limited knowl- 
edge of the whole history of St. Louis, from the time of the rude settlement 
of its founders in the wilderness, among wild beasts and savages, on through 
frontier struggles, financial evolutions and constantly accumulating wealth, to 
the city of civilization that she now is. 

And if it be true — as I hope to establish, by the plainest and most incontro- 
vertible facts and arguments — that St. Louis is des-tined to be the great City 
of the world — the all-directing head and central moving heart, of the accu- 
mulated civilization of the great family of man, the facts of her history will, 
in time, be sought for by citizens and writers, with an eagerness and a zeal 
never before called out by the interests of any other city — not even of Jeru- 
salem nor of Eome. 

The facts and circumstances which foreshadow the destiny of St. Louis — a 
destiny so important, will not only be of vast moment to the people of the 
Mississippi Valley, but of this nation, and even interesting to the world. 

The biography of cities destined to become great, like that of individuals 
born to a life of distinction, are always found to be full of interesting inci- 
dents foreshadowing their fame and greatness. The life of the one is anala- 



10 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

gons to the life of the other. And if the exile or the refugee from one land 
becomes the hero and benefactor of another, the city founded in the wilder- 
ness by the pioneer and the missionary, far away from their native homes, is 
also born to greatness. The eventful experience of the one finds a parallel in 
the history of the other; therefore, if the curiosity of the mind is excited, and 
the understanding delighted by reading the biography of the great man, it 
will, with equal interest, peruse the biography of the great city ; since the 
propriety of narrating the historic career of St. Louis, and especially when 
the evidence, as will hereafter be presented, is so overwhelming in favor of 
her futui'e greatness and power. 

The spirit of modern civilization is different in its operation and character^^ 
from the social forces of by-gone eras. It is more catholic in its objects, more 
active and concentrated in its energy-, and has wonderfully abridged the time 
formerly necessary for historical events to work out their accomplishment. 
Under the singular velocity it has imparted, the scenes and changes of the 
human drama are enacted so swiftly that the prophecy of to-day is either 
authenticated or disproven by the developments of to-morrow. It is this fact 
wnich gives us confidence in proclaiming the destiny of St. Louis as we have 
represented in this book. Already the currents of our civic and political 
progress are shaping towards its development, and it will not require many 
years to make it more clearly evident. There are many who now believe in 
the future of St. Louis as the leading city of the continent and the Capital of 
the United States, who two years ago looked with incredulity upon such 
prognostications, and regarded them as mere dreams of ardent minds. The 
agitation of the question has also spread abroad the fame of our stately and 
expanding city, and a conviction of the glorious future before her is growing 
rapidl}', not only among our own citizens, but among those disconnected in 
every way with our municipal interests. 

Believing earnestly, as we do, in this future, our object is to foster an intel- 
ligent anticipation of it in the public mind ; and if our volume assists to ac- 
complish this object, it will not have been written in vain, and the time and 
labor necessar}^ to group and present the facts and argument it contains will 
be amply repaid. 

We therefore cannot consider our work as complete without some review of 
the history of St. Louis. The Past often interprets the Future, and is always 
interesting in connection with it ; and, as an appropriate appendix, we 
present the following historical review, with which is incorporated some 
valuable and significant statistics illustrating our present social and com- 
mercial condition. 



GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF ST. LOUIS. 

The city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, is situated on the west bank 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTCRE GREAT CITY. 11 

of the Mississippi river, in the county of St. Louis, of which it is the seat of 
government. It is in 

Deg. Min. Sec. 

Latitude 38 37 37.5 

Longitude 6 o 45-29 

" The site of St. I>ouis is both commanding and beautiful j high, without 
being precipitous, and gently undulating, affording easy drainage, and suffi- 
ciently level, without being flat, to extend every advantage for building and 
beautifying purposes. 

The plane of the wharf or Front street, is thirty-two feet above low water 
mark. From thence to Fourth street, the streets rise fifty-nine feet to the lirst 
summit, which is a plane occupied by Fourth, Fifth and in part by Sixth streets. 
From thence in going west and taking the center of the city for observation, 
the ground gently declines to Thirteenth, when we again commence a gradual 
ascent to Seventeenth street, where at the intersection of Olive street, we are 
ninety feet above the wharf. Beyond the city limits the same general char- 
acteristics of country are maintained, except that for a distance of some three 
or four miles beyond, it does not attain to the same elevation as Grand Ave- 
nue ; but the wave-like character is still preserved, and filled as it all is, with 
gardens and orchards, it constitutes such a view as is excelled by few of our 
citizens." 

POLITICAL CONDITION OF NORTH AMERICA PRIOR TO THE FOUNDING OF ST. LOUIS. 

The 15th of February, 1704, may be accepted as the exact date of the first 
settlement on the site of St. Louis, and the name of Pierre Ligueste Laclede 
may justly appear in history as tlie founder of the city.* It is difficult to 
realize that scarce a century has elapsed since the solitude and silence of the 
forest primeval reigned over a scene now covered with the countless build- 
ings of a stately city and pulsating with the life of busy thousands. There 
is, however, no doubt as to the date given, as it is a matter, if not of official 
record, yet so authenticated by collateral circumstances as to eliminate nearly 
uncertainty. At the time of the event the political condition (if we may 
so speak of a vast territory for the most part terra incognita) of the North 
American continent was somewhat confused as to the ownership and boundary. 
England, France and Spain held nominal possession of vast regions, but with 
so little certainty of title or jurisdiction that their rival claims would probably 
have remained an endless source of dispute and conflict had they not been in 
a measure decided by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. This treaty, 
however, embraced no adjustment of boundaries, which was practically im- 
possible at the time, but provided for the restitution of conquests made from 



• Notwitl'Standing the apparently conclusive reasons for believing that the true family name of the 
founder of St. Louis was Ligueste rather than Laclede, we have adopted the latter in this sketch as the 
more popular and familiar to the majority of readers. 



12 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

each other bj the powers named, and it was not many j'ears after followed 
by war between France and England. The leading cause of the conflict was 
the action of the former power in establishing a line of military posts along 
the lakes and the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, for the purpose of connecting 
her Canadian possessions with the country bordering the Mississippi river 
southwardly, over which she also claimed jurisdiction. The bitter and 
sanguinary hostilities which ensued wei-e terminated by the treaty of Paris, 
consummated on the 16th of February, 1763, and which closed the celebrated 
seven years' war on the European continent. The result of this treaty 
practically left England and Spain the possession of North America. The 
former retained the Atlantic seaboard colonies and acquired the Canadas and 
Louisiana, lying east of the Mississippi, except the town of New Orleans and 
its territorj'. She also obtained the Floridas from Spain, by restoring to that 
power Havana and the greater part of the island of Cuba. By a secret treaty 
of the same date France ceded the country west of the Mississippi, and 
known by the general designation of Louisiana, to Spain, but of this 
illimitable territorj' little if anything was then detinitely known. 

When we remember the tardy means of communication, at this period, 
between the Old and New Worlds, it is easy to understand the delay and 
diflSoulty in giving any practical effect to the terms of this treaty. It docs not 
appear that Spain exerci-sed any general jurisdiction over the territory acquired 
until the year 1786, although in the spring of 1761, D'Abadie, the Spanish 
Governor-CTeneral, was instructed to formally promulgate the transfer made 
under t be treaty. The immense territory of Louisiana, the upper portion of 
which bore the name of "The Illinois," consequently remained under French 
law-i and jurisdiction throughout its scant and widely separated settlements 
until 1768. The English were more prompt in claiming actual control of the 
territory ceded by the treaty of 1763, and vigorous measures were taken in 
various directions to obliterate the evidence of French domination. In the 
vicinit}' of St. Louis, east of the Mississippi, Fort de Chartres, one of the 
military posts established by France along the lino of her frontier, was sur- 
rendered to Capt. Sterling, of the English army, in 1665, under the treaty of 
Paris. This fort was situated in the American Bottom, a short distance above 
Kaskakia, and the French commanding at the time of the surrender, St. Ange 
de Bellerive, removed with his troops to the west side of the Mississippi, on 
the 17th of July, 1765, to the settlement of the site of the present city of St. 
Louis, which had been ma^ie about seventeen months before. Without going 
into the details of English and Spanish occupancy, we will pi'oceed to the 
history of St. Louis proper. 

THE LACLEDE EXPEDITION — ITS OBJECT AND CHARACTER. 

Pierre Ligueste Laclede has loft but faint traces in history prior to the time 
when his name becomes identified with the founding of St. Louis. He was 



8T. LOriS, THE FCTLRE CiREAT CITY, IS 

born in one of the French provinces bordering on the Pyrenees, and appears 
to have emigrated to Southern Louipiana with the design of trading with tbe 
Indians, bringing with him (.-redentials from the Court of France that secured 
him the consideration of the authorities. The New World tlien offered an 
exciting field for adventurous minds, and many young men cro&sed the 
Atlantic to its shores, impelled either by that thirst for gold, Avhich at one 
time created the dream of an El Dorado beyo>id the Western Ocean, or 
the desire to explore the vast continent whose mighty natural features 
astonished Europe. It is probable Laclede was in part actuated by both these 
motives, but he was neither a mere gold-hunter, nor a reckless adventurer. 
Although little is known of his history, except during the period embraced 
between the years 1763, the year before the Ibunding of St. Louis, and 1778, 
the year of his death, we can clearly gather the prominent traits of his 
character. He was brave, self-reliant, and resolute, and his idea of fortune- 
making in the New World was based on the sober expectation that there was 
ample opportunity for energy and enterprise in developing the trade in 
peUries and other articles with the native tribes that roamed over the bound- 
less country of forest and prairie. How long he remained in New Orleans 
prior to engaging in his famous expedition northward, is not ascertainable, 
but it appeal's pi'obable that he was there for a considerable time. 

In 1762 D'Abadie, Governor-General, granted to Laclede, in connection with 
other associates, a charter under the name of " The Louisiana Fur Company," 
Avhich conferred the exclusive privilege of trading " with the Indians of the 
Missouri, and those west of the Mississippi above the Missouri, as far north 
as the Eiver St. Peters." Antoine Maxent and others were interested equally 
WMth Laclede in the franchises acquired, but he appears to have been the 
active and leading spirit of the association. Before entering upon some 
account of the first exjDcdition organized under the auspices of this chartered 
company, and which resulted in the founding of St. Leixis, it is necessary to 
glance at the progress made at that time in the settlement and exploration of 
XTpper Louisiana. 

The town or city of New Orleans was the capital of the Louisianas, being 
in fact the only place of any size or importance in the valley of the 
Mississippi. The immense territory on either side of the great river north- 
ward was very imperfectly known, for although partially explored by Mai-- 
quette, Hennepin, La Salle, Cartier and others, but little accurate information 
had been gained as to its topograpliy and inhabitants. The great valley, the 
destiny of which, as the center of our nation's w-ealth and prosjjerity, is now 
so rapidly developing, was then in its primitive condition, Avith the exception 
of a few scattered settlements Avhose people struggled for an existence amid 
the unfriendly influences ot a trying climate and an unsubdued wilderness. 
Above New Orleans there w^as a settlement of some consequences in the 
vicinity of the present cit}' of Natchez, but from that point to Ste. Genevieve 



14 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

thei*e were but few traces of human occupation. On the eastern side of the 
Mississippi a few settlements had been formed at Fort de Chartres and 
vicinity, St. Phillips, Kaskaskia, Cahokia and some other points, but they 
were comparatively insignificant and had sprung up under the fostering in- 
fluences of French military protection. The trade in lead, oils and peltries 
had concentrated at Ste. Genevieve, then a post of some importance, with 
several small settlements in its vicinity, and which bore the name of Le Poste 
de Ste. Genevieve. The settlers at the places named were nearly all of that 
adventurous type of character usually to be found among the pioneers of 
civilization in a wild continent peopled only by barbaric and nomadic tribes. 
They included, however, many persons of refinement and education who had 
come from France or Spain to seek their fortunes in the New World, and 
were as a body of men consequently different from the more reckless and 
uncouth pioneers of a later date who had pushed westward the boundaries of 
the Union against the ineffectual struggles of the Indian tribes. 

The only inducement at this period for any persons to penetrate Occidental 
Louisiana or "The Illinois," was the prospect of trade in furs or minerals, or 
the love of exploration and adventure, and it is only the daring and resolute 
who are willing to embark in such pursuits; but notwithstanding this, those 
pioneers appear to have managed the fierce aborigines with more discretion 
than their successors, who inaugurated an unextinguishable war. 

Such was the condition of the Mississippi Yalley as to settlement, at the 
period indicated. The rule of the red man had been impinged upon, but not 
broken, and the active and aggressive foreigners had as yet wrought little 
change upon the face of nature. Notwithstanding the time that had elapsed 
since De Soto discovered the Mississippi to the South, and Marquette and 
Joliet to the North, the explorations of the river and its tributaries and the 
region through which it flowed had not been of an active or exhaustive char- 
acter, and the development even to the fur trade was insignificant. Beyond 
the mouth of the Missouri the white man had made little or no progress, and 
whatever trade was carried on between New Orleans and the country north 
of the mouth of the Ohio, originated south of the present site of St. Louis. 

THE FOUNDING OF ST. LOUIS. 

In the summer of 1763, an expedition was organized in New Orleans for the 
purpose of carrying into operation the powers conferred in the charter granted 
by Governor D'Abadie to Laclede and his associates. The immediate object in 
view, was the establishing of a permanent trading-post and settlement on some 
advantageous place north of the settlements then existing. Laclede was the 
prominent personage in organizing the expedition, and it left New Orleans 
under his command on the 3d day of August, 1763. It is impossible to 
procure accurate information respecting the size and character of the l)arty 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 15 

participaiing in the expedition, but it was probably not very numerous, and 
was composed mainly of hunters and trapj^ers accustomed to the hardships and 
dangers of such enterprises. The means of transportation were the strong 
heavily-fashioned boats then in use, in which was stored a large quantity of 
such merchandise as was necessary for trade with the Indians. 

The voyage on the Mississijipi was a tedious one, and three months after the 
departure from New Orleans, or on the 3d of October, the expedition reached 
Ste. Genevieve. This town, which was founded about 1775, and is perhaps the 
oldest settlement in Missouri, was then a place of some consequence, and the 
only French post on the west bank of the river. The intention of Laclede was 
to seek a place further north, and after a short stop at Ste. G-enevieve, the party 
continued their course, their destination now being Fort de Chartres, to which 
place Laclede had an invitation fi-om the military commander, and where he 
determined to rest and store his goods while exploring the country for a suit- 
able location for the proposed trading post. At the time of the arrival of the 
expedition the fort was commanded by M. deN"eyon de Villiers, who, although 
of a haughty. disposition, appears to have welcomed the party with kindness 
and hospitality. The energetic spirit of Laclede did not permit him to remain 
inactive for any length of time, while the object of the expedition was unac- 
complished, and a few weeks after his arrival at Fort de Chartres, he started 
with a portion of the party towards the mouth of the Missouri. Among those 
who accompanied him were two brothers, Pierre and Auguste Choteau, whose 
family name is thoroughly identified with the history of St. Louis. The pros- 
pecting party started in the beginning of February, 1764, and they went as far 
as the mouth of the Missouri, but without fixing upon a site for the post. On 
their return along the western shore, Laclede landed at the sweeping curve of 
the river on which now stands the cit}'' of St. Louis, and impressed by its 
pleasant aspect of woodland and prairie swelling westward from the river, he 
determined to establish here the settlement and post he desired. This memo- 
i-able event occurred on the 15th of February, 1764, and Laclede having selected 
the site, immediately proceeded to clear away trees and mark out the lines of 
a town, which he named St. Louis in honor of Louis XV of France, evidently 
ignorant at the time that this monarch had transferred to Spain the whole 
country west of the Mississippi. 

When Laclede and his men selected their trading station, the marvels of its 
future development were undreamed of. Around them lay a limitless and 
untrodden wilderness, peopled only by tribes of savage and unfriendly 
Indians, and in which subsistence could only be obtained by the chase. It is 
only when Ave thus contemplate our ancestors struggling with unconquerable 
energy and daring, amid innumerable dangers and hardships, that we properly 
estimate their worth and character. It is only then that we realize that the 
natural advantages of the location chosen, formed only one element in the 
.colossal result of their work. The others are to be found in those motives 
and heroic qualities which give stability and nobleness to human actions. It 
is pleasant and inspiring to see in the historical perspective of our city samples 



16 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

of frugality, fortitude and self-reliance, for these are the only foundations for 
s community upon which prosperity can be immutably erected. 

SUCCEEDING HISTORICAL EVENTS. 

Laclede's party had been increased somewhat in numbers by volunteers from 
Ste. G-enevieve, Fort de Chartres and Cahokia, then called " Notre Dames des 
Kahokias," but still numerically it was but a small band, and could have made 
no sustained resistance to Indians had they disputed their right to settlement. 
It does not appear, however, that the pioneers encountered any hostility from 
the natives. ]!^ot long after their arrival a large body of Missouri Indians 
visited the vicinity, but without unfriendly intent. They did not belong to the 
more warlike tribes, and being in an impoverished condition all they wanted 
was provisions and other necessaries. The settlers were in no condition to 
sujDjiort their visitors, but as they were equally unprepared to provoke their 
hostility, their arrival caused no small uneasiness, and it is said a few of 
Laclede's party aijprehending trouble, re-crossed the river and returned to Fort 
de Chartres or Cahokia. By judicious management and by announcing the 
anticipated arrival of French troops from the fort^ Laclede finally succeeded 
in inducing the Indians to depart, very much to the satisfaction of his people. 
After some progress had been made in the actual establishment of a settlement, 
Laclede returned to Fort de Chartres to make arrangements for the removal 
to St. Louis of the goods left there, as it was expected that the fort would soon 
be surrendered to the English. During the ensuing year this event took place 
as before stated, and Louis St. Ange de Bellerive, the French commander, 
removed, with his officers and troops, numbering about fifty men, to St. Louis, 
on the 17th of July, 1765; and from this date the new settlement was 
considered the capital of Upper Louisiana. At this time M. Axibrey was 
Commandant-General at ISTew Orleans, M. D'Abadie having died during the 
preceding year, as stated in Marbois' History of Louisiana, from the effects of 
grief at the transfer to Spain of the French possessions. 

St. Ange, on arriving at St. Louis, at once assumed supreme control of 
affairs, contrarj'- to the treaty of Paris. There was indeed no person who could 
have conferred upon him this authority, but there was none to dispute it. 
jS"early all of the settlers of St. Louis and other posts in the valley of the 
Mississippi were of French nationality or accustomed to the rule of France. 
In Lower Louisiana the promulgation of the terms of the treaty was received 
with intense dissatisfiietion, which was also the case at St. Louis when the 
intelligence was subsequently announced there. The authoritj^ of Spain could 
not at this time be practically enforced, and the inhabitants of St. Louis not 
only submitted to the authorit}' of St. Ange, but appear to have welcomed his 
aiTival with satisfaction. He proved a mild and politic Grovernor, fostering 
the growth and development of the new settlement and ingratiating himself 
with the people. He maintained friendly relations with the Indians, and was 
instrumental in inducing Pontiac, the famous chief of the Ottawas, to abandon 
his fierce crusade against the English. Between Laclede and St. Ange the most 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 17 

friendly relations existed. An important act of the latter was the formal 
issuing of land grants to citizens of St. Louis, the recording of wliich in the 
"Livre Terrien" conferred titles to land granted them by the former, and 
formed the basis of a simple land system. 

ST. LOUIS IN EARLY DAYS. 

The extent of the town in its early days, if it did not form some faint 
prophecy of future development, still clearly proves that more than a mere 
trading post was intended by the founders. The principal street (La Eue 
Principale) ran along the line of Main street of to-day, extending from about 
Almond to Morgan street. The next west was about the same length, and 
corresponded to the present Second street, and, after the erection of a churcL 
in the vicinity of the present site of the Catholic Cathedral, received the name 
of Church street (La Eue de I'Eglise.) The next street, now Third, was 
originally known as Barn street, fi'om the number of buildings on it of the 
character indicated. In mentioning these streets, however, we speak of a time 
many years subsequent to the arrival of Laclede. Before the topographical 
features of the present site of our city were altered by the course of improve- 
ments, they were materially different from the present. Most of our citizens 
will find it hard to realize that originally a rocky bluff extended on the river 
front from about Walnut to Vine street, wuth a precipitous descent in many 
places. As building progressed this bluff was cut away, and the appearance 
of a sharp but tolerably even incline to the river from Main street was gained. 
At the corner of Commercial alley and Chestnut street and at several other 
places there are at present palpable evidences of this rocky ridge, portions of 
It yet remaining. At first it is probable the Laclede settlement bore the 
appearance of a rude and scattered hamlet in the wilderness, and it required 
the growth of several years before the semblance of streets was formed by even 
imperfect lines of buildings of the most primitive character. Immediately 
west of the bluff mentioned was a nearly level strip of land protected by 
gentle elevations westward, and here was the site of the Laclede settlement. 
The river front was covered with a growth of timber, in the rear of which 
was a large and gentle rolling prairie with scattered groves of heavy forest 
trees, which received the title of " Le Grande Prairie," and it is not difficult 
to believe that if the selection of the spot was not made because of its adapta- 
bility as the site of a great city, it was because of its natural ^pleasantness and 
beauty. 

THE YEARS OF SPANISH CONTROL. 

In 1766 an effort was made by Spain to assume control of the ten-itory 
ceded to her by the treaty of Paris, and General Don Antonio D'UUoa arrived 
at New Orleans, with Spanish troops, but owing to the hostile feeling of the 
inhabitants he finally departed Avithout attempting to exercise the powers of 
Governor. The rule of France was maintained in Lower Louisiana until the 
arrival of Count O'Eeilly in 1769, who took possesssion of the Territory and 



18 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

New Orleans, obliterating forcibly French supremacy and strengthening hi» 
authority by severe measures towards the more active adherents of France. 

The scattered settlements of Upper Louisiana, although equally opposed to 
Spanish authority, had no adequate means of resistance ; and when Rios, a 
Spanish officer, arrived at St. Loais, with a small body of troops, on the 11th 
of August, 1768, he only encountered a passive hostility. He took possession 
of the country in the name of his Catholic Majesty, but does not appear to 
have exercised any civil authority, as the archives show that St. Ange acted. 
as Governor until the beginning of 1770. On the 17th of July, 1769, Eios 
and his troops departed and returned to New Orleans to co-operate with. 
Count O'Eeilly inCsnforcing Spanish authority in the lower Province. 

During the same year Pontiac, the Ottawa chief, arrived at St. Louis for the 
purpose of visiting his former friend, St. Ange de Bellerive, by whom he was- 
cordially received. The visit was fatal to the Indian warx'ior, for, while on. 
an excursion to the English territory on the other side of the river, he was 
killed by a Kaskaskia Indian. 

In the latter part of 1770, Count O'Reilly having acquired full control of 
Lower Louisiana, determined to bring the upper province into equal 
subjection. He appointed Don Pedro Piernas as Lieutenant-Governor and 
Military Commandant of the province, and dispatched him with troops to St. 
Louis, where he arrived on November 29th of the same year. He did not 
enter on the exercise of executive functions until the beginning of the follow- 
ing year, but the delay was not occasioned by any active hostility on the part 
of the people. From this event we may date the commencement of Spanish 
domination in Upper Louisiana. 

The new Governor, fortunately, proved an excellent administrative officer j 
and as his measures were mild and judicious, he soon conciliated the people. 
He made no abrupt changes in the laws, and improved the tenure of property 
by ordering accurate surveys and determining the lines of the land grants 
previously made. Under the liberal policy of the Spanish Governor, St. Louis 
prospered rapidly, while immigration constantly added to the population. In 
1774 St. Ange de Bellerive, who had accepted military service under Piernas, 
died, and was buried in the Catholic cemetery with every mark of public 
esteem and respect. In his will he commended his soul " to God, the blessed 
Virgin, and the Saints of the Celestial Court," and appointed Laclede his 
executor. 

Emigration from the Canadas and the lower Province increased rapidly 
under the benignant policy of Spain, and settlements sprang up at different 
points along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, some of which, however, date 
from a few years earlier. In 1767 Carondelet was founded by Delor de 
Tregette, and appears at first to have been known as Louisburgh, and at a 
different period as Vide Poche, but finally received its present name in honor 
of the Baron de Carondelet. In 1769 Les Petites Cotes, subsequently St. 
Andrews, and now St. Charles, was founded by Blanehette Chasseur. The 
first settlement at Florissant, afterwards called St. Ferdinand, was made by 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 19 

Beanrosier Dunegant in 1776; and so the career of growth and prosperity was 
inaugurated in this portion of the Mississippi Yalley. 

The successor of Piernas was Don Francisco Cruzat, who assumed office in 
1775, and was succeeded by Don Fernando de Leyba in 1778. It was during 
the administration of the latter that the death of Laclede took place, while on 
his way to New Orleans, at the age of fifty-fom*. He was buried near the 
mouth of the Arkansas river, June 20, 1778, amid the wild solitude of a region 
in which he had acted as the pioneer of civilization. 

The war which was now raging between Great Britain and her America^ 
colonies could hardly be unfelt on the far western shores of the Mississippi. 
Manj^ of the inhabitants of St. Louis, and other places on the same side of the 
river, were persons who had changed their residence from the opposite shore 
when it passed under English rule. They were influenced by a hereditary 
hostility to that power; and although enjoying a mild government under 
Spanish rulers, their independent spirit, apart even from their feeling towards 
England, enlisted their sympathies in behalf of their colonial brethren in the 
East, struggling for freedom. Their great distance did not secure their 
prosperity from the disastrous influences of war. It was known that Spain 
sympathized with the colonies, and this speedily endangered their security ; 
for the ferocity of many of the Indian tribes was directed against them by the 
English. 

In the early part of 1779 Col. Eogers Clark, under the authority of Virginia, 
visited the settlements of Cahokia, Kaskaskia, and other places, for the purpose 
of endeavoring to enlist men for an expedition against St. Vincents, now 
Vincennes, then held by the English under Governor Hamilton. 

THE ATTACK ON ST. LOUIS BY INDIANS. 

About this time an alarming rumor became prevalent that an attack on St. 
Louis was being organized under British influence. Actuated by a spirit of 
generous chivalry, Clark offered the assistance of himself and men to Lieut. 
Gov. Leyba for the protection of the town, but his offer was declined on the 
ground that the danger was not imminent. (There seems to be some uncer- 
tainty as to this incident, but it is supported by the excellent authority of 
Judge Wilson Primm, and is corroborated by Stoddard in his historical sketch 
of Louisiana.) Whatever was the ground of the fancied security, the sequel 
proves either that he was an execrable traitor or shamefully incompetent to 
meet the exigencies of the time. Apprehensions, however, began to disturb 
the people, and the defenseless condition of the town induced them to under- 
take some means of fortification. Although they numbered little more than 
one hundred men, they proceeded to build a wall of logs and earth about five 
or six feet high, inclosing the dwellings of the settlement. It formed a semi- 
circular line, with its ends terminating at the river, and supplied with three 
gates, at each of which a heavy piece of ordnance was placed and kept in 
constant readiness. For some months after this work was completed, nothing 
occurred to indicate an Indian attack. Winter passed away, and the inhabi- 
tants finally began to consider their apprehensions groundless, which conclusion 



20 ST. hOUlS, THE FUTURE GREAT OITY. 

was assisted by the assurances of the Governor that there was no cause for 
anxiety. In reality, however, the long pending attack was now being secretly 
organized. Numerous bands of Indians, composed of Ojibways, Winnebagos, 
Sioux, and other tribes, with some Canadians, numbering in all nearly 1500) 
had gathered on the eastern shore of the river, a little above St. Louis, and 
arrangements were consummated for a general atttack on the settlement on 
the 26th of May. 

The 25th of May, 1780, was the festival of Corpus Christi, which was cele- 
brated by the Catholic inhabitants with religious ceremonies and rejoicing. 
There was no feeling of apprehension abroad just at this time, notwithstanding 
that an event calculated to arouse alarm had occurred but a few days before. 
An old citizen named Quenelle had crossed the river to Cahokia creek on a 
fishing excursion. While watching his lines he was startled to see on the 
opposite shore of the creek a man named Ducharme, who had foi'merly lived 
in St. Louis and who had fled to escape punishment for some crime committed. 
He endeavored to induce Quenelle to come over to him, but the latter thought 
he detected the presence of Indians in the bushes opposite, and refused, 
returning hastily in his canoe to the town, where he reported what had 
occurred. The Commandant ridiculed his story, and it did not create any 
general fear among the inhabitants. Corj)us Christi was celebrated with 
unusual animation, and a large number of the citizens left the inclosure of the 
town and were scattered about the prairie — men, women and children — 
gathering sti'awberries. A portion of the Indians ci'ossed the river on the 
same day, but fortunately did not make the attack, owing, probably, to their 
not knowing how many of the men had remained in the town. Had they done 
so, the result would surelj^ have been fatal to the )"Oung settlement. On the 
following day, the whole body of the attacking force crossed, directing their 
course to the fields over which they had seen the inhabitants scattered the day 
before. It fortunatelj- happened that only a few of them were outside the 
town, and these, seeing the approach of the Indians, hastily retreated towards 
the upper gate, which course led them nearly through a portion of the hostile 
force. Eapid volleys were fired at the fleeing citizens, and the reports speedily 
spread the alarm in the town. Arms were hastily seized, and the men rushed 
bravely towards the wall, opening the gate to their defenseless comrades. 
There was a body of militia in the town from Ste. Genevieve, which had 
been sent up, under the command of Silvia Francisco Cartabona, some time 
before, when apprehensions of an attack prevailed. This comj^any, however, 
behaved shamefully, and did not participate in the defense, many of them 
concealing themselves in the houses while the fight was in progress. The 
Indians approached the line of defense rapidly, and when at a short distance, 
opened an irregular fire, to which the inhabitants responded with light arms 
and discharges of grape-shot from their pieces of artillery. The resistance 
made was energetic and resolute, and the savage assailants seeing the strength 
of the fortifications and dismayed by the artillery, to which they were 
unaccustomed, finally retired, and the fight came to a close. 

Commandant Leyba appeared upon the scene at this juncture, having been 



ST, LOUIS, THE FUTURE (JREAT CITY. 21 

started from a carouse to some idea of the situation bj' the sound of the 
artillery. His conduct was extraordinary; he immediately ordered several 
pieces of ordnance, which had been placed near the (Jovernment house, to be 
spiked, and was then, as it is chronicled, rolled to the immediate scene of action 
"in a icheelbarroip." He ordered the inhabitants to r-case firing and return to 
their houses. Those stationed near the lower gate, not hearing the command, 
paid no attention to it, and he directed a cannon to be fired at them. This 
barbarous order was carried out, and the citizens oh\y escaped the volley of 
grape by throwing themselves on the ground, and the shot struck down a 
portion of the wall. The \inparalled treachery of the Commandant was 
fortunately exhibited too late to be of assistance to the Indiana, who had been 
beaten back by the determined valor of the settlers, and the attack was not 
renewed. When they had left the vicinity, search was made for the bodies of 
the citizens who had been killed on the prairie, and between twenty and 
thirty lives were ascertained to have been lost. Several old men, women and 
children were among the victims, and all the bodies had been horribly 
mutilated by their murderers. 

The traitorous conduct of the Commandant, which so nearly imperiled the 
existence of the town, had been obvious to the people generally; and justly 
indignant at his cruel rascality, means were at once taken to transmit a full 
report of his proceedings to Galvez, then Governor of Lower Louisiana. This 
resulted in the prompt removal of Leyba, and the settlement was again placed 
under the authority of Cruzat. Leyba died the same year from the eifects, it 
is said, of poison administered by his own hand ; universal obloquy and 
reproach having rendered his life unendurable. He was buried in the village 
church, "in front of the right-hand balustrade, having received all the sacra- 
ments of our mother the Holy Church," as is set forth in the burial certificate 
of Father Bernard, a " Catholic Priest, Apostolic Missionany Curate of St. 
Louis, country of Illinois, Province of Louisiana, Bishopric of Cuba." The 
year 1780, rendered so memorable by this Indian attack, was afterwards 
known as " L'anne du grande coup," or "year of the great blow," 

There is no doubt but this assault on St. Louis had for its object the 
destmction of the settlement, and was only frustrated by the gallantry of the 
people, that it was partially instigated by English influence, is almost 
unquestionable. The Indians accepted their defeat and departed without 
attempting any other demonstration. It is said their retreat was occasioned 
by the appearance of Col. George Eogers Clark with four or five hundred 
Americans from Kaskaskia, but this is not substantiated. Pending the arrival 
of Cruzat, Cartabona, before mentioned, exercised the functions of Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, but, however, for only a short period. One of the first works 
undertaken by Cruzat was the strengthening of the fortifications ; he 
established half a dozen or more stone forts, nearly circular in shape, about 
fifty feet in diameter and twenty feet high, connected by a stout stockade 
of posts. The fortifications, as extended and improved by Cruzat, were quite 
pretentious for so small a settlement. On the river bank, near the spot 
formerly occupied by the Floating Docks, was a stone tower, called the " Half 



22 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Moon," from its shape, and westwardly of it, near the present intersection of 
Broadway and Cherry street, was erected a square building called " The 
Bastion;" south of this, on the line of Olive street, a circular stone fort was 
situated. A similar building was built on Walnut street, intended for service 
both as a fort and prison. There was also a foi-t near Mill Ci-eek; and east of 
this another circular fort near the river. The strong stockade of cedar posts 
connecting these forts was pierced with loop-holes for small arms. The well- 
devised line of defenses was not subjected to the test of another Indian attack, 
for although during the continuance of the Eevolutionary war other settle- 
ments on the Mississippi and Missouri rivers had to contend against the savages, 
St. Louis was not again molested. 

From this period the progress of St. Louis was slow but satisfactory under 
the liberal and judicious policy of the Spanish Governors, and it will be suffi- 
cient to note only the more important events. 

EARLY NAVIGATIOM OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

It is difficult to realize in these days the perils and delays incident to the 
early navigation of the Mississippi. It is to us now the unobstructed and 
natural highway of commerce and travel, connecting the West and far North 
with the warm and fruitful South, and bearing to the ocean the various products 
of rich and populous regions. A hundred years ago it was no less majestic in 
its strength and beauty, but its ministrations to the needs of civilized humanity 
had hardly begun ; it rolled its splendid flood through a wild and solitary 
wilderness, and the sounds of the winds in the forest mingled with the mono- 
tone of flowing waters in a murmurous rythm that sunk or swelled only with 
the fluctuations of nature. There were no towns along its banks, no rushing 
steamboats on its surface ; and rarely onl}' Indian canoes formed a transitory 
feature in its landscapes and the shouts of savage voices were heard. With 
the birth of white settlements in the great Valley the solitude of the Father 
of Watei's was gradually invaded. In their rude craft the early voyageurs had 
to struggle hard against the swift current, and a voyage from New Orleans to 
St. Louis was then a thing of months, not of days, and required nearly as 
much preparation as one across the Atlantic. During Cruzat's second 
administration navigation was much impeded and disturbed by piratical bands 
which harbored at certain points on the woody shores and instituted a system 
of depredations on settlers or others passing up and down the river. These 
bands were principally controlled by two men named Culbert and Magilbray, 
who had a permanent rendezvous at a place called Cotton Wood Creek. The 
usual programme of the pirates was to attack the vessels of voyageurs at some 
place where a surprise could be readil}' effected, and having compelled the 
affrighted crews to seek safety' on shore or by surrender, they would plunder 
the boats and the persons of prisoners of all valuables. The vicinit}'" of Grand 
Tower, a lofty rock situated about half way between St. Louis and the mouth 
of the Ohio, became a di-eaded spot also through the deeds of these river 
marauders, and many tales exist in the memories of old citizens of acts of 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 23 

violence perpetrated near these places. Early in the year 1787 an event 
occurred which inaugurated severe measures by the government against the 
pirates, resulting in their dispersion, M. Beausoliel, a New Orleans merchant, 
started from New Orleans for St. Louis with a barge richly freighted with 
merchandise. A strong breeze prevailed as this vessel was approaching Cot- 
ton Wood Creek. The pirates were in waiting to make an attack, but were 
frustrated by the swift progress of the vessel, and they dispatched a body of 
men up the river for the purpose of heading off the expected prize. The point 
chosen for the attack was an island, since called Beausoliel's Island, and was 
reached in about two days. The barge had put ashore and was easily captured 
and the crew disarmed, when the captors turned her course down the river. 
On the way down an unexpected deliverance was effected through the daring 
of a negro named Casotte, who, by pretending joy at the capture of the vessel, 
was left free and employed as a cook. He maintained a secret understanding 
with Beausoliel and some of his men, and at a given signal the party effected 
a sudden i-ising. They defeated the pirates after a brief struggle, who were 
all either killed or captured. Beausoliel deemed it prudent after this alarming 
experience to return to New Orleans, and in passing Cotton Wood Creek kept 
as near the opposite shore as possible. On reaching New Orleans a full repoi't 
of the doings of the pirates and the capture and deliverance of the bai'ge was 
made public, and convinced the authorities and the people that strong measures 
were absolutely necessary to terminate these perils to life and property on the 
river. The G-overnor issued an order that all boats bound for St. Louis the 
following spring should make the voyage together, thus insuring mutual pro- 
tection. This was carried out and a little fleet of ten boats started up the 
river. On approaching Cotton Wood Creek, some of the men in the foremost 
boat perceived some persons on shore near the mouth of the creek. A consul- 
tation was held with the crews and passengers of the other boats, and it was 
determined that while a sufficient number of men should remain to protect the 
boats the remainder would form a party to attack the robbers in their haunt. 
On reaching the place the courageous voyageours found that their enemies had 
disappeared, but four boats were discovered in a bend of the cTcek, laden with 
a miscellaneous assortment of valuable plunder, and in a low hut, situated 
among the trees at a little distance from the bank, a large quantity of provi- 
sions and ammunition was found, with cases of guns and various other 
weapons, indicating the numerous captures which had been make by these 
outlaws. All of this property was removed, together with the boats and con- 
tents and carried to St. Louis, where a large number of the articles were 
identified by the owners. 

The arrival of the fleet of barges created quite a commotion in the settle- 
ment, and was considered so memorable that the year 1788 received the name 
of " L'annee des Dix Bateaux" or " the year of the ten boats." A most 
fortunate result of this descent was that although no blood was shed it practi- 
cally led to the dispersion of the bands, and but few subsequent depredations 
are reported to have occurred. 

Prior to the event just narrated and in the year 1785, the people of St. 



24 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Louis experienced a serious alarm and loss of property, owing to a sudden 
and extraordinary rise in the Mississippi river. The American Bottom was 
covered with water, and Cahokia and Kaskaskia were threatened with being 
swept out of existence. Most of the buildings in St. Louis were situated on 
Main street, and the rise of the waters above the steep banks spread general 
dismay. The flood subsided, however, nearly as rapidly as it had risen, avert- 
ing the necessity of abandoning the houses, which had been commenced. The 
year received the name of " L'annee des Grandes Eaxix" or " the year of the 
great waters. " No rise in the river equal to this has occurred since, except- 
ing in 1844 and 1851, which floods are remembered by most of our citizens. 

CONCLUDING EVENTS UNDER THE SPANISH DOMINATION. 

In the year 1788, the administration of Don Francisco Cruzat terminated^ 
and Manual Perez became Commandant-G-eneral of the West Illinois country 
at the post of St. Louis. At this time the population of this and the neighbor- 
ing settlements numbered nearly 1200 persons, while that of Ste. Genevieve 
was about 800. The administration of Perez was prosperous, and like his 
predecessor he was generally esteemed by the inhabitants. He brought about 
a settlement of friendly Indians iu the vicinity of Cape Girardeau, where he 
gave them a large grant of land. They consisted of Shawneesand Delawares^ 
two of the most powerful tribes east of the Mississippi river, and the object 
was to oppose through them the Osage Indians, a strong Missouri tribe who 
were constantly making incursions on the young settlements. This scheme is 
said to have operated satisfactorily. 

In 1793, Perez was succeeded by Zenon Trudeau, who also became popular, 
and instituted various measures for the encouragement of immigration. In 
the year 1792, the honey-bee is chronicled to have first appeared, following as 
it were, civilization from the East, and its coming was hailed with delight. 
The grave difficulties which had sprung up between the American Colonies 
and Spain, respectLng territorial boundaries and the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi, were adjusted by treaty in October, 1795, but more serious trouble 
subsequently arose from the same cause. 

During the administration of Trudeau, St. Louis and the other settlements 
in that portion of the country expanded rapidly. Under the influence of the 
exceedingly favorable terms offered to settlers, and the fact that the fear of 
Indian attacks was greatly diminished, quite a number of citizens of the United 
States left the country east of the Mississippi, over which English control 
was now practically broken up, and took up their residence in the Spanish 
dominions. St. Louis improved in appearance, and new and neat buildings 
began to supplant, in many places, the rude log huts of earlier years. Trade 
received a new impetus, but the clearing of the country in its vicinity and the 
development of agriculture still made but slow progress. The dealing in 
peltries was the principal business, and in their effort to expand their 
exchanges with Indian tribes, traders become more energetic and daring in 
their excursions and traveled long distances into the interior westward, and 



ST. LOUIS. THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 25 

forced their rude boats up the swift Missouri to many points never before 
visited. 

Trudeau closed his official career in 1798, and was suoceeded by Charles 
Dehault Delassus de Delusiere, a Frenchman by bii-th, but who had been many 
years in the service of Spain. The Avinter of the succeeding year was one of 
extraordinary severity and received the title of " L'annee du Grande-hiver" 
or " year of the hard winter." The same year that Delassus commenced his 
administration was signalized by the arrival of some galleys with Spanish 
troops under Don Carlos Howard, and was called '■'■L'aimee des galeres," or 
" year of the galleys." This Governor caused a census to be taken of Upper 
Louisiana settlements, from which we extract the following, showing the popu- 
lation of the places named in the year 1799 : St. Louis, 925; Carondelet, 184 j 
St. Chai'les, 875; St. Ferdinand, 276; Marius des Liard, 376; Meramec, 115; 
St. Andrew, 393; Ste. Genevieve, 949 ; New Bourbon, 560; Cape Girardeau, 
521; New Madrid, 782; Little Meadows, 72. Total, 6,028. Total number of 
whites, 4,948; free colored, 197; slaves, 883. 

It will be seen from these figures that St. Charles then nearly equalled St. 
Louis in population, while Ste. Genevieve exceeded it; and if any then living 
ever dreamed of one of these settlements becoming the centre and seat of 
Western empire, the prophecy would probably have been in favor of the brisk 
town at the mouth of the Missouri. 

On the 15th of May, 1801, the small pox broke out in St. Louis and vicinity 
with fearful severity. It was a new malady among the healthy settlers, and 
as was usual, when particularly impressed by an event, they commemorated 
the year by a peculiar title, calling it " L'annee de la Ficotte" the " year of the 
small-pox." About this time the increase in immigration created a furore for 
speculation in land, and some immense grants were obtained. 

THE RETROCESSION OF LOUISIANA TO FRANCE AND ITS PURCHASE BY THE UNITED 

STATES. 

On the 1st of October, 1800, the treaty of Ildefonso was consummated, by 
which Spain, under certain conditions, retroceded to France the tei-ritory of 
Louisiana; and in July, 1802, the Spanish authorities were directed to deliver 
possession to the French commissioners. This event, however, did not take 
place until the month of December, 1803, when M. Laussat on behalf of France 
was placed in control. The supremacy of England on the high seas at this 
period practically prevented France from instituting any possessory acts by 
transferring troops of the newly-acquired territorj^, and she wisel}'- resolved to 
accept the otfer of the United States and sell the vast territory to that gevern- 
ment. This famous purchase, accomplished during the administration of 
President Jefferson, was formally concluded on the 30th of April, 1803; and 
in December following, M. Laussat, who had just received control of the 
Province from the Spanish authorities, transferred it to the United States, 
represented at New Orleans for that purpose by Governor Claiborne and 
General Wilkinson, the commissioners appointed. The sum of money paid 



26 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

by the United States for the territory acquired was about $15,000,000. The 
agent of France for receiving possessing of Upper Louisiana from the Spanish 
authorities was Amos Stoddard, a cajjtain of artillery in the sei"vice of the 
United States. He arrived in St. Louis in March, 1804, and on the 9th of 
that month Charles Dehault Delassus, the Spanish Commandant, placed him in 
possession of the territory, and on the following day he transferred it to the 
United States. This memorable event created a wide-spread sensation in St. 
Louis and the other young towns in the vicinity. Most of the people were 
deeply attached to the old government, and although they were in sympathy 
with the vigorous Republic which had sprung into existence in the East, and 
dimly appreciated the promise of its future, yet it was with feelings of regret 
and apprehension that they saw the banner of the new government unfurled in 
place of the well-known flag of Spain. There were, however, man}' among 
St. Louis citizens whe rejoiced at the transfer, and their anticipations of its 
prosperous influence on their town were speedily realized, for business gener- 
ally became more animated, while the population rapidly' increased by an 
energetic and ingenious class of settlers from the East and other points, mostly 
representatives of the Anglo-Saxon race, always the most successful in ui-ging 
forward the prosperity and development of a country. 

The date of this transfer marks an interesting epoch in the growth of St. 
Louis and the Western country. If, as we believe, before the year 1900 St. 
Louis will be the leading city of the North America Continent, her history 
will form a maiwelous chapter in the chronicles of the life and development of 
modern nations. Nearly within the bounds of a century a rude settlement in 
a far inland wilderness will have expanded into a mighty metropolis, the rich 
capital and throbbing heart of the greatest nation in the world, the center of 
modern civilization, knowledge and arts ; a city of vast manufacturing and 
commercial interests, in which every branch of human industry is represented; 
a second Babylon, on the banks of a river beside which the Euphrates was a 
streamlet; with iron roadways for the cars of steam branching out in all direc- 
tions, and whose empire extends from the wild billows of the Atlantic to the 
calmer waters of the Pacific, from the cold lakes of the North to the warm , 
waters of the Mexican Gulf. Here indeed is a historical picture which words 
can scarcely depict, which illustrates the power of human activities far more 
wonderously than the colossal but isolated structures of the people of the olden 
time. 

ST. LOUIS UNDER THE RULE OF THE UNITED STATES. 

A temporary government for St. Louis and Upper Louisiana was promptly 
provided for by Congress, Captain Stoddard being appointed to exercise the 
functions and prerogatives formerly vested in the Spanish Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor. In the excellent historical sketch of Louisiana written by that officer, 
some interesting particulars are given of St. Louis at the time of the transfer 
to the United States. The town consisted of about 180 houses, and the popu- 
lation in the district numbered about 2,280 whites and about 500 blacks. The 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE QEEAT CITY. 27 

total population of Upper Louisiana is stated at 9,020 whites and 1,320 blacks. 
Three-fifths of the population of Upper Louisiana were Anglo-Americans. 
According to the sanne authority, St. Louis then consisted of two long streets 
running parallel to the river, with a number of others intersecting them at 
right angles. There were some houses, however, on the line of the present 
Third street, which was known as '• La rue des Granges," or the street of barns, 
as before mentioned. The church building, from which Second street then 
derived its name, was a structure of hewn logs somewhat rude and primitive 
in appearance. West of Fourth street there was little else but woods and 
commons, and the Planters' House now stands upon a portion of the space then 
used for pasturage purposes. There was no post-office, nor indeed any need 
for one, as there were no official mails. Government boats ran occasionally 
between New Orleans and St. Louis, but there was no regular communication. 
The principal buildings were the Government house on Main street near Wal- 
nut streets. The means of education were of course limited in character, and 
as peltries and lead continued to be the chief articles of export, the cultivation 
of the land in the vicinity of the town progressed but slowly. There is a tra- 
dition that St. Louis received the sobriquet of Plain Court (short bread), owing 
to the scarcity of the staif of life in the town. Indeed there appears reason to 
believe that, in a commercial point of view, Ste. Genevieve at this time was a 
much more important place than St. Louis. 

Captain Stoddard, on assuming control, published a circular address to the 
inhabitants, in which he formally announced that Louisiana had been trans- 
ferred to the possession of the United States, and that the plan of a permanent 
territorial government was under the consideration of Congress. He briefly 
alluded to preceding events as follows : " It will not be necessary to advert to 
the various preliminary arrangements which have conspired to place you in 
your present political situation. With these it is presumed you are already 
acquainted. Suffice it to observe that Spain, in 1800 and 1801, retroceded the 
colony and province of Louisiana to France, and that France, in 1803, con- 
veyed the same territory to the United States, who are now in the legal and 
peaceful possession of it. These transfers were made with honorable views 
and under such forms and sanctions as are usually practiced among civilized 
nations." The remainder of the address is devoted to an eloquent exposition 
of the new political condition of the people and of the privileges and benefits 
of a liberal republican government. 

The fur trade, which had led to the founding of St. Louis, continued for 
many years to be the principal business of the people. Here, as elsewhere, 
the Indian tribes forged the weapons for their own destruction. They eagerly 
sought the opportunity to exchange with the white men the fruits of the chase 
for the articles and commodities of a higher civilization. They were the prin- 
cipal agents in developing the fur trade of the North and West, and by so 
doing hastened the incoming of the indomitable i-ace destined to build, over 
their slaughter and decay, the glorious structure of American liberty. These 
primitive races wasted and faded with the birth of a nation, whose evangel 
was to bless and metamorphose the New World ; and even had there been no 



28 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Revolutionary war to usher in the American Union, there is enough in the 
fate of the aborigines of the country to authenticate the remai'k of Theodore 
Parker that "all the great charters of humanit}^ have been written in blood." 

During the fifteen years ending in 1804 the average annual value of the furs 
collected at St. Louis is stated to have been ^203,750. The number of buifalo 
skins was only 850; deer, 158,000; beaver, 36,900 pounds-; otter, 8,000; bear, 
5,100. Avery different state of things existed twenty or thirty years later, 
when beaver were nearly exhausted and buffalo skins formed the most import- 
ant article of trade. The commerce consisted principally of that portion of 
furs that did not find its way directly to Montreal and Quebec through the 
lakes. 

The supplies of the town, especially of groceries, were brought from New 
Orleans, and the time necessary for a trip was from four to six months. The 
departure of a boat was an important event, and generally, many of the 
inhabitants collected together on the shore to see it off and bid good-bye to 
the friends who might be among the passengers. Wm. C. Carr, who arrived 
about the 1st of April, 1804, states that it took him twenty-five days to make 
the trip from Louisville, Ky., b}^ river. On the same authority it is stated 
that there were only two American families in the place — those of Calvin 
Adams and William Sullivan. Mr. Carr remained in St. Louis about a month, 
and then, attracted by the greater lead trade of Ste. Genevieve, went to that 
place to reside, but returned in about a year, convinced that St. Louis was a 
better location. In the same year. Col. Rufus Easton, John Scott and Edward 
Hempstead came to reside in the country. Mr. Scott settled at Ste. Gene- 
vieve ; Mr. Hempstead went to St. Charles, then called Petite Cote, where he 
remained for several years, and then came to St. Louis; Mr. Easton remained 
in St. Louis. 

In 1802, James Pursley, an American, with two companions, started on a 
hunting expedition from St. Louis to the source of the Osage, but extended 
his course westward. After various dangers and adventures he reached the 
vicinity of Santa Fe, and is said to have been the first American who 
traversed the great plains between the United States and New Mexico. 

In 1804 the United States dispatched Lewis and Clark and Major Pike to 
explore the sources of the Mississijjpi, the Arkansas, the Kansas, and the 
Platte rivers. Hunters from St. Louis and vicinity formed their companions, 
or preceded them, and were to be found on nearly all the rivers east of the 
Rocky Mountains. Mr. Auguste Chouteau, about the same time, had outfitted 
Loisel, who established a considerable fort and trading post on Cedar Island, 
a little above the Big Bend of the Mississippi ; so that about the time that St. 
Louis became a town of the United States, the gi-eat regions west and north 
of her were being gradually opened to settlement. Forty years had elapsed 
since Laclede had founded the settlement, and yet, compared with the develop- 
ment of subsequent times, its groAvth had not been very rapid. It was but a 
straggling river village with few buildings of any consequence, and was cut oft 
from the world of trade and civilization by its great distance from the sea- 
board and the vast unpeopled country surrounding it. The inhabitants were 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITy. 29 

mostly French, and the social intercourse was simple and friendly, with but 
faint traces of class distinctions. There was only one resident physician, Dr. 
Saugrain, who lived on Second street, and ouo baker, Le Clere, who baked 
for the garrison and lived on Main street near Elm. The only American 
tavern was kept by a man named Adams, and this, with two others kept by 
Frenchmen named Yostic and Laudreville, both on Main street near Locust, 
were, we believe, the only establishments of the kind in the town. The names 
of the more prominent merchants and citizens at this time are familiar at pre- 
sent to nearly all of our citizens, owing to many of the families still being 
represented, and the fact that their names, most appropriately, have been 
wrought in with the nomenclature of our streets. Among them we may 
mention Auguste and Pierre Chouteau, Labadie, Sarpy, Gratiot, Pratte, Tayon, 
Lecompt, Papin, Cabanne, Lebaume, Soulard, Hortez, Alvarez, Glamorgan, 
Debreuil and Manuel Lisa. The Chouteaus lived on Main street, and Pierre, 
whose place was near the present intersection of that street with Washington 
avenue, had nearly a whole square encircled by a stone wall, and in which he 
had a fine orchard. Manuel Lisa lived on Second street ; the establishment of 
Labadie & Sarpy was on Main near Chesnut, and the Debreuils had a fine 
place on Second between Pine and Chesnut streets. 

On the 26th of March, 1804, by an act of Congress the Province of Louisiana 
vas divided into two parts, the Territory of Orleans and the District of 
iiouisiana^ the latter including all north of the 33d parallel of latitude. The 
executive power of the G-overnment in the Territory of Indiana was extended 
over that of Louisiana, the Governors and Judges of the former being author- 
ized to enact laws for the new District. Gen. William Henry Harrison, then 
Governor of Indiana, instituted the American authorities here under the 
provisions of this act, his associates being, we believe. Judges Griffin, Vander- 
berg, and Davis. The first courts of justice were held during the ensuing 
winter in the old fort near Fifth and Walnut streets, and were called Courts 
of Common Pleas. On the 3d of Mai-ch, 1805, bj' another act of Congress the 
District was changed to the Territory of Louisiana, and James Wilkinson was 
appointed Governor, and with Judges K. J. Meigs and John B. C. Lucas, of 
the Superior Court, formed the Legislature of the Territory. The executive 
offices were in the old Government building on Main street, near Walnut, just 
south of the Public Square, called La Place d' Amies. Here Gen. Wilkinson 
was visited by Aaron Burr when the latter was planning his daring and ambi- 
tious conspiracy. When Wilkinson was appointed there were in each of the 
Districts of St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, and Cape Girardeau a civil 
and military Commandant, as follows : Col. Meigs for the first. Col. Hammond 
for St. Louis, Maj. Seth Hunt for Ste. Genevieve, and Col. T. B. Scott for the 
last-named jjlace. These officers were superseded by the erganization of 
courts, and the names of the districts subsequently became those of counties. 
This system of legislation was maintained for several years, with occasional 
changes in ofiicers. 

In 1806 Gen. Wilkinson established the fort of Belle Fontaine, on the south 
side of the Missouri, a few miles above its mouth; but it was practically 



30 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

abandoned early the following year, when he was ordered South to assist in 
arresting the Eurr conspiracy. During part of 1806 Joseph Browne was 
Secretary of the Territory and Acting Governor, and J. B. C. Lucas and Otho 
Shrader were Judges. The following year Frederic Bates was Governor, with 
the same Judges in office. Next year Merriweather Lewis, with the same 
Judges, formed the Legislature, and continued to do so until 1811. 

On the 9th of November, 1809, the town of St. Louis was first incor- 
porated, upon the petition of two-thirds of the taxable inhabitants and under 
the authority of an act of the Territory of Louisiana, passed the previous 
year. 

On the 4th of June, 1812, the country received the name of the Territoiy 
of Missouri, and the government was modified and made to consist of a Gov- 
ernor and Legislative Assembly, the upper branch of which, numbering nine 
councilors, were selected out of twice that number, nominated to the 
Governor by the lower branch. At this time the Territory had first conceded 
to it the right of representation in Congress by one delegate. Anterior to 
this change in the government there are some events which deserve particular 
notice. Shortly after the country became part of the United States a post- 
office was permanently created in the town, the first postmaster being Eufus 
Easton. The first newspaper was established July, 1808, by Joseph Charless, 
and received the name of the Missouri Gazette. It was first printed on a sheet 
of writing-paper not much larger than a royal-octavo page. This journal was 
the germ of the present Missouri Republican, one of the largest in circulation 
and most influential journals of the country. The necessity of some means 
of transportation to and fro across the river had led to the establishment of a 
small ferry^ which Avas first kept by Calvin Adams and proved a paying 
enterprise. His ferry consisted of two pirogues tied together with planks 
laid across the top, and his charge for bringing over man and horse was $2. 
In August of this year two Iowa Indians were tried for murder before the 
Court of Oyer and Terminer, Judges Lucas and Shrader presiding. It created 
a good deal of excitement, but owing to some want of jurisdiction in the case 
the prisoners- escaped the sentence of death which was passed upon them. On 
the 16th of September the first execution for murder in the Territory took 
place, the criminal being a young man who had shot his step-father. In the 
autumn of the next year Governor Lewis, while on a journey to Louisville, 
committed suicide by shooting himself while under the influence of aberration 
of mind. 

The Municipal Government, at this time, consisted of a board of Trustees, 
elected under the provisions of the charter mentioned above. The Missouri 
Fur Company was formed in St. Louis in 1808, consisting principally of Pierre 
Chouteau, Manuel Lisa, William Clark, Sylvester Labadie, Pierre Menard, and 
Augusta Pierre Chouteau, the capital being S40,000. An expedition was dis- 
patched under the auspices of this compan}^, in charge of Major A. Henry, and 
succeeded in establishing trading posts upon the Up^er Missouri — one on 
Lewis river, be^'ond the rocky Mountains, and one on the southern branch of 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 31 

the Columbia, the latter being the first post established on the great river of 
Oregon Territory. In 1812 this company was dissolved, most of the members 
establishing independent houses in the trade and for furnishing outfits to 
private adventurers. Among these may be memtioned the houses of Berthold 
& Chouteau, B. Pratte, J. P. Cabanne, and M.Lisa. The hunters and trappers 
at this time formed a considerable part of the population of St. Louis, and 
were principally half-breed Indians and white men so long accustomed 
to such pursuits that they were nearly similar in habits to the natives, 
Notwithstanding the preponderance of this reckless clement, it does not 
appear that the town Avas disorderly, and crime and scenes of violence were of 
rare occurrence. 

The first members of the Territorial Legislature, elected in 1812, sat during 
the ensuing winter in the old house of Joseph Eobidoux, on the northeast corner 
of Myrtle and Main streets. It was in this year that the terrible earthquake 
occurred at New Madrid and vicinit}^, and created wide-spread dismay. The 
waters of the Mississippi were greatly agitated by the subterranean convulsion, 
and several boats with their crews were engulfed. New Madrid, which stood 
upon a bluif fifteen or twenty feet above the summer floods, sank so low that 
the next rise covered the ground to the de2:)th of four or five feet. The chan- 
nel of the river was affected materially, and the bottoms of some small lakes 
in the vicinity were so elevated that they became dry land. 

The first English school was opened in St. Louis in 1808, by Geo. Tomp- 
kins, a young Virginian, who, when he started in the enterprise, was nearly 
without funds and with but few acquaintances. He rented a room on the 
north side of Market street, between Second and Third, for his school, and 
during his leisure houi-s pursued the study of law. The first debating society 
known west of '^.he Mississippi was connected with this school, and the debates 
were generally open to the public and aff'orded interesting and instructive 
entertainment. This energetic young school-teacher studied law to some pur- 
pose, for he ultimately became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Missouri. 
Among the members of the society he organized were Dr. Farrar, Dr. LoAvry, 
Major O'Fallon, Edward Bates, and Joshua Barton — names afterward rendered 
eminent b}^ ability and public service. The population of the town in 1810 
was about 1400. In May, 1812, the chiefs of the Osage, the Shawnees, Dela- 
wares, and other tribes, came here to accompany Gen. Wm. Clark to Wash- 
ington, the purpose being to consummate some negotiations then pending ai;id 
to impress the savages with some true idea of the greatness and power of the 
Government. This Gen. Clark was the brother of Gen. George Eogers Clark, 
so distinguished in the West during the Revolutionary war, and was the com- 
panion of Lewis in the famous expedition to the Upper Missouri, and had 
remarkable experience and judgment in dealing with the Indians. The war 
of 1812 between the United States and England produced but little effect upon 
our city, so far removed inland, but the people took a lively interest in the 
progress of the conflict, and participated in the general rejoicing over its 
honorable close. 



32 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

In August, 1816, the Bank of St. Louis was incorporated, being the first 
institution of the kind in the town. The following gentlemen composed the 
commissioners : Auguste Chouteau, J. B. C. Lucas, Clement B. Penrose, Moses 
Austin, Bernard Pratte, Manuel Lisa, Thos. Brady, Bartholomew Berthold, 
Samuel Hammond, Eufus Easton, Eobert Simpson, Christian Wilt and Eisdon 
H. Price. At an election, hold on the 20th of the following month, Samuel 
Hammond was elected President and John B. X. Smith Cashier. The career 
of this bank was not successful, and continued for something over two years, 
when it came to a disastrous close. On the 1st of February, 1817, the Missouri 
Bank was incorporated, the commissioners appointed by the stockholders to 
receive subscriptions being Charles Gratiot, Wm. Smith, John McKnight, J. 
B. Cabanne, and Mathew Kerr. The fii-st President was Auguste Chouteau, 
and the Cashier Lilburn W. Boggs. 

A census published in the Missouri Gazette, December 9, 1815, and taken by 
John W. Thompson, states that the number of souls in the town was 2,000, 
and the total population of county and town 7,395. 

On the 2d of August an event occurred which marked the commencement 
of a new epoch in the history of St. Louis. Heretofore its growth had been 
dependent upon human energies alone, but now a new agency was to enter 
into its commercial life, and which was to enable her to reap the full benefit 
accruing from the noble river that rolled past her to the sea. The first steam- 
boat arrived on the day named. It was called the " Pike," and was com- 
manded by Capt. Jacob Eeed. The inhabitants were, as might be expected, 
greatly interested and delighted as the novel craft touched the foot of Market 
street, many of them having never seen a vessel of the kind before. Some 
Indians who were in town were so alarmed at the unusual sj^ectacle that they 
receded from the shore as the boat neared, and could not be persuaded to come 
in the vicinity of the monster, for such it seemed to them, although in reality 
but a tiny little vessel. She was propelled by a low-pressure engine, and had 
been built at Louisville. The second boat which arrived here was the " Con- 
stitution," commanded by Capt. E. P. Guyard, and the 2d of October, 1817, 
was the date of her arrival. In May, 1819, the first steamboat stemmed the 
tide of the Missouri ; it was the " Independence," Capt. Nelson commanding, 
and went up as far as " Old Franklin," after a passage of seven running days. 
The first steamboat from New Orleans, the " Harriet," commanded by Capt. 
Armitage, reached here on the 2d of June, 1819, making the voyage in twenty- 
seven days. 

In 1817 the first board of school trustees was formed, which may be regarded 
as the commencement of the present unsurpassed school system. They were : 
Wm. Clark, Wm. C. Carr, Thomas H. Benton, Bernard Pratte, Auguste 
Chouteau, Alexander McNair and John P. Cabanne. During the following 
year, the application of Missouri for admission into the Union gave rise to a 
most exciting political agitation, in which the whole nation participated. The 
Southern members of Congress insisted that the new State should be admitted 
without restriction as to slavery, while the members from the North as bitterly 
opposed any extension of the slave system. It is not our province to more 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 33 

than mention the interesting and important aspect of the discussion that 
ensued, as it is a subject fully treated in the political history of the country. 
The result was the celebrated " Missouri Compromise," which in effect allowed 
the formation of the Missouri constitution without restriction, but declared 
that slavery should not extend in any new-formed State north of 36 degrees 
40 minutes north latitude. The convention which framed the first Constitution 
of the State of Missouri assembled in 1820 in this city. The place of meeting 
was the Mansion House, then a building of considerable importance, on the 
■corner of Third and Vine streets, now known as the City Hotel. 

Mr. John Jacob Astor established a branch of his house in this city in 1819, 
under the charge of Mr. Samuel Abbott, and it was called the Western Depart- 
ment of the American Fur Company. This company entered upon a most 
successful career, embracing in its trade the northern and western parts of the 
United States, east of the Eocky Mountains. About this time the old Missouri 
Fur Company was revived, with new partners, among whom were Maj. John 
Pilcher, M. Lisa, Thomas Hempstead and Capt. Perkins. We may incidentally 
mention that in 1823 a hunting and trapping party of this company, under 
Messrs. Jones and Immel, while on the Yellowstone, were attacked by Black 
Feet Indians. The leaders and several of the party were killed, and those 
who escaped were robbed of whatever property they had with them. This 
company only continued a few years, and was not successful. The important 
expedition of Gen. Wm. H. Ashley took place also in this year, and resulted 
in the discovery of the Southern pass of the Eocky Mountains, and the open- 
ing of commercial intercourse with the countries west of the same. The 
General encountered fierce opposition from the Indians, and lost fourteen men, 
and had ten wounded in a fight at the outset of the expedition. 

A cit}^. directory was published in 1821, which furnishes some interesting 
information resj^ecting the condition of the town at the time, and from which 
we make the following extracts : 

" It is but about forty years since the now flourishing but j'et moi'e promising 
State of Missouri was but a vast wilderness, many of the inhabitants of this 
country yet remembering the time when they met together to kill the buffalo 
at the same place where Mr. Philipson's ox saw and flour mill is now erected, 
and on Mill creek, near to where Mr. Chouteau's mill now stands. What a 
prodigious change has been operated ! St. Louis is now ornamented with a 
great number of brick buildings, and both the scholar and the courtier could 
move in a circle suiting their choice and taste. 

"By the exertions of the Eight Eev. Bishop Louis Wm. Du Bourg, the 
inhabitants have seen a fine cath"di"al rise at the same spot where stood an old 
log church. * * * This elegant building was commenced in 1818, under 
the superintendence of Mr. Gabriel Paul, the architect, and is on!}- in part 
completed. As it now stands it is 40 feet by 135 in depth and 40 feet in height. 
When completed it will have awing on each siilc running its whole length 
22^ feet wide and 25 in height, giving it a front of 85 feet. It will liave a 
steeple the same height as the depth of tlie building, which will l)e ]>rovided 
with several large bells expected from Fi-ance. Tlie lot on which the church, 



84 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

college and other buildings are erected embraces a complete square, a part oi 
which is used as a burial ground. 

* * * * :tc 4e * * 

"It is a truly delightful sight, to an American of taste, to find in one of the 
remotest towns in the Union, a chuix-h decorated with original paintings oi 
Rubens, Raphael, Guido, Paul Veronese and a number of others by the first 
modern masters of the Italian, French and Flemish schools. The ancient and 
precious gold embroideries which tlie St. Louis Cathedral possesses would 
certainly decorate any museum in the world. All this is due to the libei-ality 
of the Catholics of Eurojjc, who presented these rich articles to Bishop Dn 
Rourg, on his last tour through France, Italy, Sicily and the Netherlands. 
Among the liberal benefactors could be named man}' princes and princesses, 
but we will only insert the names of Louis XVIII., the present King of 
France, and that of the Baroness Le Candele de Ghyseghern, a Flemish lady, 
to whose munificence the Cathedi'al is particularly indebted, and who, even 
lately, has sent a fine, large and elegant organ, fit to correspond with the rest 
of the decorations. The Bishop possesses beside, a verj*^ elegant and valuable 
library containing about 8,000 volumes, and which is without doubt, the most 
complete scientific and literary repertory of the Western country, if not of the 
Western world. Though it is not public, there is no doubt but the man of sci- 
ence, the antiquary and the linguist, will obtain a ready access to it, and find 
the Bishop a man at once endowed with the elegance and politeness of the 
courtier, the piety and zeal of the apostle, and the learning of a father of the 
church. Connected with this establishment is the St. Louis College, landerthe 
direction of Bishop Dn Bourg. It is a two-story brick building and has about 
sixty-five students, who are taught the Greek, Latin, French, English, Spanish, 
and Italian languages, mathematics, elementary and transcendent, drawing, &c. 
There are several teachers. Connected with the college is an ecclesiastical 
seminary, at the Barrens, in Ste. Genevieve county, where divinit}^, the 
oriental languages and philosophy are taught. 

" St. Louis likewise contains ten common schools; a brick Baptist church, 

40 feet by 60, built in 1819, and an Episcopal church of wood. The Methodist 

congregation hold their meetings in the old Court House, and the Presbyterians 

in the Circuit Court room." AVe gather the following additional facts fi-om 

the same work : There were three newspapers then in the city, the St. Louis 

Enquirer, Missouri Gazette, and St. Louis Megister. 

******** 

" Eight streets run parallel with the river, and are interserted by twenty- 
three others at right angles; three of the preceding are in the lower part of 
the town, and the five'others in the upper part. The streets in the lower part 
of the town are narrow, being from thirty-two to thirty-eight and a half feet 
in width ; those on ' the Hill' or upper part, are much Avider. ' The Hill' is 
much the most pleasant and salubrious, and will no doubt become the most 
improved. The lower end of Market street is well paved, and the trustees of 
the town have passed an ordinance for paving the sidewalks of Main street, 
being the second from and parallel to the river, and principal one for business. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT OITT. 36 

This is a very wholesome regulation of the trustees, and is the more necessary, 
as this and many other streets are sometimes so extremely muddy as to bo 
rendered almost impassable. It is hoped that the trustees Avill next pave the 
middle of Main street, and that they will proceed gradually to improve the 
other streets, which will contribute to make the town more healthy, add to the- 
value of property, and make it a desii-able place of residence. On the Hill, in 
tiie center of the town, is a public square, two hundred and forty by three 
hundred feet, on which it is intended to build an elegant court-house. The 
various courts are held at present in buildings adjacent to the public square. 
A new stone jail of two stories, seventy feet front by thirty deep, stands west 
of the site of the court-house. Market street is in the middle of the town, and- 
is the line dividing the north part from the south. Those streets running 
north from Market street have the addition of North to their names, and those- 
running in the opposite direction, South. For example : North Main street,. 
South Main street. North A, &c. street. South A street. The houses were first 
numbered by the publisher of this Directory, in May, 1821. The fortifications 
erected in early times for the defense of the place, stand principally on the 
Hill. They consist of several circular stone towers, about fifteen feet in height 
and twenty in diameter, a wooden block-house and a large stone bastion, the 
interior of which is used as a garden by Captain A. Wetmore of the United 
States army. 

" Just above the town are several Indian mounds and remains of antiquity ,1 
which afford an extensive and most charming view of the town and beautiful 
surrounding country, situated in the two States of Missouri and Illinois, which 
are separated by the majestic Mississippi, and which is likewise observed in 
the scene, as he glides along in all his greatness. Adjacent to the large mound, 
nearest the town, is the Mound Garden, belonging to Colonel Elias Rector, and 
kept by Mr. James Gray as a place of entertainment and recreation. The 
proprietor has displayed considerable taste in laying it out in beds and walks, 
and in oiniamenting it with flowei-s and shrubbery. In short, it affords a de- 
lightful and pleasant retreat from the noise, heat and dust of a busy town. 

" There is a Masonic hall in which the grand Lodge of the State of Missouri, 
the Royal Arch, and the Master Masons' Lodges are held. Connected with 
this excellent institution is a burying-ground, where poor Masons are interre<l 
at the expense of the fraternity. The council chamber of Governor Wni. 
Clark, Avhere he gives audience to the chiefs of the various tribes of Indiant* 
who visit St. Louis, contains probably the most complete museum of Tndiajt 
curiosities to be met with anywhere in the United States, and the Governor Im 
so polite as to permit its being visited by any person of respectability at any 
time. 

"Population in 1810, 1,000; in 1818, 3,500, and at this time (1821), about 
5,500. The town and county contain 9,732. The population is much mixed, 
consisting principally of Americans from every part of the Union, the origimil 
and other French, of whom there are one hundred and fifty-five familio. Hfid 
foreigners of various nations; consequently the society is much diversitie<i 



-36 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT crTY. 

^nd lias no fixed character. This, the reader will perceive, arises from the 
•situation of the country, in itself new, flourishing and changing ; still, that 
class who compose the respectable part of the community are hospitable, 
polite and well-informed. And here I must take occasion, in justice to the 
town and country, to protest against the many calumnies circulated abroad, to 
the prejudice of St. Louis, respecting the manners and dispositions of the in- 
habitants. Persons meet here with dissimilar habits produced by a different 
education, and possessing various peculiarities. It is not therefore surprising 
that, in a place composed of such discordant materials, there should be occa- 
sional differences and difiiculties. But the reader may be assured that old-es- 
tablished inhabitants have little participation in transactions which have, sr 
much injured the town. 

" St. Louis has grown very rapidl}'. There is not, however, so much 
improvement going on at this time, owing to the check caused by general and 
universal pressure that pervades the country. This state of things can only 
be temporary here, for it possesses such permanent advantages from its local 
and geographical situation that it must, ere some distant day, become a place 
of great importance, being more central with regard to the whole territory' 
belonging to the United States than any other considerable town, and uniting 
the advantages of the three great rivers, Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois, of 
the trade of which it is the emporium. 

" The Missouri Fur Company was formed by several gentlemen of St. Louis 
in 1819, for the purpose of trading on the Missouri river and its waters. The 
principal establishment of the company is at Council Bluffs, yet they have 
several other of minor consequence several hundred miles above, and it is 
expected that the establishment will be extended shortly up as high as the 
Mandan villages. The actual capital invested in the trade is supposed to 
amount at this time to about 870,000. They have in their employ, exclusive 
of their partners on the river, twenty-five clerks and interpreters and seventy 
laborino- men. 

" It is estimated that the annual value of the Indian trade of the Mississippi 
and Missouri rivers is $600,000. The annual amount of imports to this town 
is stated at upwards of 82,000,000. The commerce by water is carried on by 
a great number of steamboats, barges and keel-boats. These center here, 
after performing the greatest inland voyages known in the world. The prin- 
cipal articles of trade are fur, peltry and lead. The agricultural productions 
are Indian corn, wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, tobacco and other arti- 
cles common to the AVestern country-. Excellent mill-stones are found and 
made in this county. Stone coal is abundant, and saltpetre and common salt 
have been made within a few miles. Within three or four miles are several 
springs of good water, and seven miles south-west is a sulphur spring. In the 
vicinity are two natural caverns, in limestone rocks. Two miles above town, 
at North St. Louis, is a steam saw-mill, and several common mills are on the 
neighboring streams. The roads leading from St. Louis are very good, and it 
is expected that the great national turnpike from Washington will strike this 
place, as the commissioners for the United States have reported in favor of it. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY 37 

" There were two fire engines with organized companies, one of which was 
stationed in the northern, the other in the southern part of the town. Two 
steam ferry-boats, the property of Mr. Samuel Wiggins, were in regular opera- 
tion between the city and the opposite shore, and the river at the ferry was 
one mile and one-eighth in width. " Opposite the upper part of the town and 
above the ferry is an island about one mile and one-half in length and con- 
taining upwards of 1,000 acres, the property also of Mr. Wiggins. A 
considerable sand-bar has been formed in the river adjoining the lower part of 
the town, which extends far out and has thrown the main channel over on the 
Illinois side; when the water is low it is entirely dry and covered with an 
immense quantity oi drift-wood nearly sufficient 1o supply the town with fuel, 
costing only the trouble of cutting and hauling. This is of great consequence 
to the inhabitants, particularly as the growth of wood is small in the imme 
diate neighboi'hood on this side of the river. Wood is likewise brought down 
the river in large quantities for disposal." 

Only about four years had elapsed from the arrival of the first steamboat 
at St. Louis to the time this directory was published, yet it is evident that 
municipal growth had been exceedingly rapid; business of all kinds, particu- 
larly in furs, peltries, lead and agricultural productions, had expanded greatly, 
while numbers of steamboats, barges and other craft were constantly 
engaged in the r'ver commerce. In fact, even at this early period the 
inhabitants appear to have had some idea of the great future before their 
city. The career of St. Louis as an incorporated city may be dated from 
December 9, 1822, when an act was passed by the State Legislature entitled 
"An act to incorporate the inhabitants of the town of St. Louis; and in 
April following, an election took place for Mayor and nine Aldermen, in 
accordance with the provisions of the act. William Carr Lane was elected 
Mayor, with the following Aldermen : Thomas McKnight, James Kennerley, 
Philip Eocheblane, Archibald Gamble, Wm. H. Savage, Eobert Nash, James 
Loper, Henry You Phul and James Lackman. The new city government 
proved a most effective one and immediately set about the improvement of 
the city. An ordinance was passed for the grading of Main street and com- 
pelling citizens to improve streets in front of their lots. The salary of the 
Mayor was only §300 per annum, but he applied himself with as much earnest- 
ness and assiduity to the public service as if he were receiving the present 
salary of 34,000. Before proceeding to sketch the progress of St. Louis as an 
incorporated cit}', the following items may be mentioned as illustrating the 
progress of building up to that time : Chouteau's row in block No. 7 was begun 
in 1818 and finished in 1819. During the same years three other buildings of 
an important character were erected; the first by Gen. Clark, the second by 
Bernard Pratte, at the corner of Market and Water streets, and the third, a 
large warehouse, by A. Chouteau, in block No. 6. The Catholic Church, a 
large brick building on Second street, long since demolished, was constructed 
in 1818, and on Christmas day, 1819, divine service was performed there for 
the first time. The first paving which was laid in St. Louis was executed by 
Wm. Deckers, with stone on edge, on Market street, between Main and Water. 



38 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY 

In 1821 tho first brick pavement was laid on Second street, and finally it may 
bo mentioned that the first brick dwelling was built in 1813 by Wm. C. Carr. 
There was, at the time we now speak of, but little indications of settlement on 
the eastern bank of the river opposite St. Louis, but the long strip of land 
near the Illinois shore had already earned the right to the title of Bloody 
Island, as more than one fatal duel had taken place there. The first was that 
between Thos. H. Benton, subsequently so distinguished a citizen, and Charles 
Lucas. The difficulty between the parties originated during a trial in which 
both were engaged as counsel. *Col. Benton, believing himself insulted, ehal 
leoged Mr. Lucas, who declined on the ground that statements made to a jury 
could not properly be considered a cause for such a meeting. The ill feeling 
thus created was aggravated by a subsequent political conirovers}^, and Mr. 
Lucas challenged Mr. Benton, who accepted. The meeting took place on 
Bloody Island on the morning of August 12, 1817, pistols being the weapons 
used. Mr. Lucas was severely wounded in the neck, and owing to the effusion 
of blood, was withdiawn from the field. A temporary reconciliation followed 
this duel, but the feud between the parties bi'oke out afresh shortly afterwards, 
and another duel took place on Bloody Island, resulting in the killing of young 
Lucas at the age of twentj'-five. This deplorable re-encounter occurred on the 
27th of September, 1817. During the following year another duel occurred on 
Bloody Island, which also resulted fatally, the combatants being Captains 
Martin and Ramsey, of the U. S. army, who were stationed at the Fort Belle 
Fountaine, on the Missouri river. Ramsey was wounded and died a few days 
afterwards, and was buried with Masonic and military honors. On the 30th 
of June, 1818, a hostile meeting took place at the same locality between 
Joshua Barton, District Attorney of the United States, resident in St. Louis, 
and Thos. C. Rector. The parties met in the evening, and Mr. Barton fell 
mortally wounded. An article which appeared in the Missouri Republican^ 
charging Gen. Wm. Rector, then United States Serveyor, with corruption in 
office, was the cause of the duel. The General was in Washington at the time, 
and his brother Thos. C. Rector, warmly espoused his cause, and learning that 
Mr. Barton was the author of the charge, sent him the challenge which 
resulted so satally. Various other rencounters between the adherents to the 
" code of honor" took place at later dates on Bloody Island, so that the reader 
will see that its sanguinary appellation had a reasonable and appropriate 
origin. The more prominent of the other duels which occurred there will be 

mentioned when we reach their appropriate dates. 

Notwithstanding the disastrous conflicts between the Indians and the fol- 
lowers of the Rocky Mountains and Missouri Fur Companies, which occurred 
iu 1823, the progress of trade and exploration, under the daring leadership of 
Gen. Wm. H. Ashley and others, was not seriously retarded. Benj. O'Fallon, 
W. S. agent for Indian affairs, writes to Gen. Wm. Clark, superintendent of 
I«dian affairs, given an account of the misfortunes to Gen. Ashley's command, 
and adds : " Many circumstances have transpired to induce the belief that the 



•Charles Lucas challenged Th 03. H. Benton's votf, ami Benton called Lucas an "insolent puppy," 
which waa the cauae of the duel. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 39 

British ti'adcrs (Hudson's Bay Company) are exciting the Indians against us. 
cither to drive us from that quarter, or reap with the Indians the fruits of our 
labors." It is evident from all the records of that time, that trade and explo- 
ration in the Upper Missouri and Rocky Mountain region were environed with 
extraordinary hardships and perils, and nothing but the greatest courage, 
energy and endurance could have accomplished their advancement. In 1824 
<xen. Ashley made another expedition, penetrating as fur as the great Utah 
Lake, near which he discovered another and a smaller, to which he gave his 
own name. In this vicinity he established a fort, and two yeai-s afterwards a 
six-pound cannon was drawn from Missouri to this fort, 1200 miles, and in 
1828 many loaded wagons performed the same journey. Between the years 
1824 and 1827 Gen. Ashley's men sent furs to this city to the value of over 
$200,000. The General, having achieved a handsome competence during his 
perilous career, sold out all his interests and establishments to the Rocky 
Mountain Fur Company, in which Messrs. J. S. Smith, David E. Jackson, and 
Wm. L. Sublette were principals, Mr. Robert Campbell then holding the posi- 
tion of clerk. The followers of this company penetrated the far West in every 
■direction and had many conflicts with the Indians, and " traversed every j^art 
of the country about the southern branches of the Columbia, and ransacked 
nearly the whole of California." It is stated on good authority that during 
the five years from 1825 to 1830, of the number of our men engaged in the fur 
trade two-fifths were killed by the Indians or died victims to the dangers of 
exploring a wilderness. 

In 1824 Frederic Bates was elected Governor, defeating Gen. "Wm. Ashley 
after an exciting political contest; but he did not long enjoy the honors of the 
position, for he was attacked by ])leurisy and died in August of the following 
year. 

We now reach the date of an interesting event in the history of St. Louis, 
namely, the visit of Lafayette, who reached Carondelet on the 28th of April, 
1825, and the next morning came up to the city. He was tendered a most 
•enthusiastic reception, as many of the citizens were not only of the same 
nationality but all were familiar with his name and fame. He landed opposite 
the old Market House, whei'e half the town were assemV)led awaiting his ar- 
rival and received him with cheers, took his seat in a carriage, accompanied 
t)y Wm. Carr Lane, Mayor, Stephen Hempstead, an officer of the Revolution, 
-and Col. Auguste Chouteau, one of the comj^anions of Laclede. Apai't from 
private hospitalities, a splendid banquet and ball were given the distinguished 
visitor at the Mansion House, then the prominent hotel and situated on the 
northeast corner of Third and Market streets. Lafayette was at this time 
sixty-eight years of age but still active and strong; he was accompanied by 
his son, George Washington Lafayette, and some distinguished gentlemen from 
the South. The next morning he left for Kaskaskia, being escorted to the 
boat by crowds of citizens who in every vvay manifested their esteem and 
respect, and his visit has always been regarded as a memorable local incident. 

During this year measures were taken to locate a permatient route across 
the plains. Major Sibley, one of the commissionei's appointed by government, 



40 ST. LOUIS, THE PUTDRE GREAT CITY. 

set out from St. Louis in June, accompained by Joseph C. Brown and Captain 
Gamble, with seven wagons containing various goods for trading with the 
Indians on the road. The party selected a route to Sante Fe, which after- 
wards was adopted as the general highway for intercourse and trade. 

The first Episcopal church of any architectural importance was erected in 
this year at the corner of Third and Chestnut streets. It afterwards passed 
into the hands of the Baptists, and finally disappeared as business houses mul- 
tiplied in the vicinity. The first Presbyterian church Avas erected in 1825, near 
the corner of Fourth and St. Charles streets, and was consecrated by the Eev. 
Samuel Giddings, but also disappeared as business limits expanded. The first 
steps towards building a Court House were taken in 1826, and the building, a 
large one of brick, was erected in the following year, and which was destined 
to be succeeded by the present superb structure of stone. Antonie Chenie 
built the first three-story house on Main street in 1825, and it was occupied by^ 
Tracy & Wahrendoff and James Clemens, Jr.j Jefferson Barracks was com- 
menced in July, 1826, and Centre Market in 1827. The XJ. S. Arsenal Avas 
authorized by Congress in 1826, and was commenced during the next year on 
the block where it is now situated, but it was many years before it was com- 
pleted. An ordinance was passed in 1826 changing the names of the streets 
with the exception of Market street. From 1809 those running west from the- 
river, excepting Market, had been designated by letters, and they now received 
in most instances the names by which the}' are at present known. From the 
last date to 1830 no events of prominent interest mark the history of St. Louis. 
Different ordinances were passed for the grading, jiaving and general improve- 
ment of streets; and the growth of the city, if not rapid, was steady and satis- 
factory. Daniel D. Page was elected Mayor in 1829 and proved an energetic 
and valuable executive. Dr. Pobert Simpson was elected Sheriff by a large 
majority over Frederic Hyat, his opponent. The branch Bank of the United 
States was established here during this year. Col. John O'Fallon was 
appointed president and Henry S. Coxe cashier, and during the years it 
continued in existence, possessed the public confidence and closed its career 
without disaster. 

In 1830 the number of brick buildings in the city increased considerably, as- 
the multiplication of brick-yards brought that material more into general use ; 
a bridge was erected across Mill creek on lower Fourth street; and, architect- 
urally and commercially, there were evidences of solid advancement. The 
large yards and gardens, which surrounded so many of the dwellings and 
stores of earlier times, gradually disappeared with the growth of improve- 
ments. Some excitement was caused this year by the decisions rendered by~ 
Judge James H. Peck, of the United States District Court, in regard to land 
claims, which were of a stringent character. Judge Lawless, who was interested 
as counsel in some cases in which Auguste Chouteau and others, and the heirs 
of Mackey AVherry, were plaintiffs vs. the United States, having avowed the 
authorship of a rather severe criticism which appeared in one of the news- 
papers on some decisions of Judge Peck, was committed to prison for contempt 
of court. He was released after a few hours, on a writ of habeas corpus, and 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 41 

subsequently preferred charges against Judge Peck before the House of Eepre- 
sentatives, which, however, were dismissed after some examination. On the 
first day of August, in this j'ear, the corner-stone of the Cathedral on "Walnut 
street, between Second and Third, was laid with religious ceremonies, and this 
building is now the oldest place of worship in the city, as all those erected 
previously have given place to other edifices. 

The population of the city in 1831 was 5,963. Various measures were 
adopted this year for public improvement, and an ordinance was passed for 
building the Broadway Market. The Missouri Insurance Companj' was incor- 
porated with a capital of §100,000, and George Collier was elected president. 
In August a most shocking and fatal duel occurred on Bhjody Island. Spencer 
Pettis, a young lawyer of promise, was a candidate for Congress, his opponent 
being David Barton. Major Biddle made some severe criticisms on Mr. Pettis 
through the newspapers, and a challenge passed and was accepted. They 
fought at five paces distant, and at the first fire both fell mortally wounded. 
Mr. Pettis died in about twenty-four hours, while Major Biddle survived only 
a few days. The former had just gained his election, and Gen. Wm. H.Ashley 
was elected to fill the vacancy caused by his death. 

In 1832 the famous expedition of Capt. Bonneville took place, and impor- 
tant steps were made in the opening of the great country to the West. Fort 
William was established on the Arkansas by the Messrs. Bent, of this city. 
Messrs. Sublette and Campbell went to the mountains. Mr. Wyeth established 
Fort Hall on the Lewis river, and the American Fur Company sent the first 
steamboat to the Yellow Stone. The Asiatic cholora visited the city this 
summer, having first invaded Eastern and Southern cities. It first broke out 
at Jefferson Barracks, and, notwithstanding the most energetic sanitarj'- meas- 
ures, soon spread through the town with alarming severity. The population 
was then 6,918, and the deaths averaged, for some time, more than thirty a 
day. The disease prevailed for little over a month, then abated and disap- 
peared. In this fall Daniel Dunklin, the Jackson candidate, was elected 
Governor, and L. A. Boggs Lieutenant-Governor. During the next year an 
effort was made to impeach Wm. C. Carr, one of the Circuit Judges, and one 
of the oldest citizens, the charge being thai he was wholly unqualified for 
judicial station. On examination of the case before both Houses of the Legis- 
lature he was acquitted. Dr. Samuel Merry was elected Mayor, but was 
declared ineligible on the ground of being a receiver of public moneys, which 
office he held under the appointment of the President, and the next autumn 
Col. John W. Johnson was elected in his place. The taxable property was 
valued, in 1833, at only §2,000,000, and the whole tax of the year on real and 
personal property amounted only to $2,745.84. The tonnage of boats belong- 
ing to the port was hardly 2,000, and the fees for wharfage not more than 
$600. 

In 1834 Mr. Astor retired from business and sold his Western department to 
Messrs. B. Pratte, P. Chouteau, Jr., and Mr. Cabanne, who conducted the 
business until 1839. A few years after this latter date nearly the entire fur 



42 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

trade of the West was controlled hy the house of Pierre Chouteau, Jr., & Co., 
and the firm of Messrs. Bent & St. Vrain. 

The, business of the city was now developing rapidly, although the lack of 
proper banking facilities made itself felt somewhat injuriously; and while tlie 
unfortunate careers of the Bank of St. Louis and the Bank of Missouri had 
tended to make the people distrustful of such institutions, the want of them 
was generally recognized. During 1835-6 applications were made to the Leg- 
islature, to supply this deficiency, but without success, and finally the banks of 
the other States were invited to establish branches in this city. Immisratiou 
at this period was unusually large, and a vigorous activity prevaded every 
department of business. As an illustration of this we quote from one of the 
newspapers : " The prosperity of our city is laid deep and broad. ***** 
Whether wo turn to the right or to the left, we see workmen busy in laying 
the foundation or finishing some costly edifice. The dilapidated and antique 
structure of the original settler is fast giving way to the spacious and lofty 
blocks of brick and stone. But comparatively a few years ago, even within 
the remembrance of our young men, our town was confined to one or two 
streets running parallel with the river. The ' half-moon' fortifications, the 
'bastion,' the tower, the rampart, were then known as the utmost limits. 
What was then termed * The Hill,' now forming the most beautiful part of the 
town, covered with elegant mansions, but a few years ago was covered with 
shrubbery. A tract of land was purchased by a gentleman now living, as we 
have understood, for two barrels of whisk}', which is now worth half a million 
of dollars. ****** Intimately connected with the prosperity of 
the city is the fate of the petition pending in Congress for the removal of the 
sandbar now forming in front of our steamboat landing." 

The number of boats in 1835, exclusive of barges was, 121 ; aggregate ton- 
nage 15,470 tons, and total wharfage collected $4,573. In March of this year 
the sale of the town commons was ordered by the City Council, and in accor- 
dance with the act of the Legislature nine-tenths of the proceeds was 
appropriated to the improvement of streets and one-tenth to the support of 
public schools. The sum realized for the latter was small, but it assisted 
materially in laying the foundation of the present system, so extensive and 
beneficent in its operation. John F. Darby was elected Mayor in 1835, and 
during that year a meeting of citizens was called for the purpose of memorial- 
izing Congress to direct the great national road, then building, to cross the 
Mississippi at St. Louis, in its extension to Jefferson City. Mr, Darby pre- 
sided at the meeting and George K. McGunnegle acted as secretary. The 
popular interest in railroad enterprises which at this time prevailed in the 
East soon reached as far as St. Louis, and on the 20th of April, 1835, an Inter- 
nal Improvement Convention was held in this city. Delegations from the 
counties in the State interested in the movement were invited to attend. Dr. 
Samuel Merry acted as chairman and Mr. McGunneg'e as secretary. The two 
railroad lines particularly advocated were from St. Louis to Fayette, and from 
the same point to the iron and lead mines in the southern portion of the State. 
A banquet at the National Hotel followed the convention, and the event had 



ST. LOmS, THE FUTURE GREAT OITY. 43 

doubtless an important influence in fostering railroad interests, always so im- 
portant in the life of a community. 

A most exciting local incident occurred shortly after the sitting of the con- 
vention. A negro named Fi'ancis L. Mcintosh had been arrested for assisting 
a steamboat hand to escape who was in custody for some otfense. He was 
taken to a justice's office, where the case was examined, and the prisoner, 
unable to furnish the i-equisite bail, was delivered to Mr. Wm. Mull, deputy 
constable, to be taken to jail. While on the way there, Mr. George 5^ammond, 
the Sheriff's deputy, met Mr. Mull and volunteered to assist him in conducting 
his charge to the jail. The three men walked on together, and when near the 
northeast corner of the Court House block, the negro asked Mr. Haniinond 
what would be done to him for the offense committed. He replied, in jest, 
" perhaps you will be hanged." The prisoner in a moment jerked himself free 
from the grasp of Mull, and struck at him with a boatman's knife; the first 
stroke missed, but another followed inflicting a severe wound in the leftside of 
the constable. Mr. Hammond then seized the negro by the collar and pulled 
him back, when the latter struck him in the neck with the knife, severing the 
important arteries. The w^ounded man ran some steps towards his own home, 
when he fell from loss of blood and expired in a few moments. The negro 
fled after this bloody work, pursued by Mull, who raised the alarm by shout- 
ing until he fainted from loss of blood. A number of citizens joined in the 
pursuit, and the murderer was finally captured and lodged in jail. An intense 
public excitement was created, and an angiy multitude of people gathered 
round the jail. The prisoner was given up to them when demanded, by the 
affrighted jailor, and he was seized and dragged to a point near the corner of 
Seventh and Chestnut streets, where the cries of the mob — " bui*n him ! burn 
him !" — were literally carried into effect. The wretched culprit was bound to 
a small locust tree, some brush and other dry wood piled around him and set 
on fire. Mr. Joseph Charless, son of the founder of the Republican, made an 
ineffectual effort to dissuade the crowd from their awful purpose, but he was 
not listened to, and in sullen and unpitying silence they stood round the fire 
and watched the agonies of their victim. In 1836, the corner stone of the St. 
Louis Theatre was laid at the corner of Third and Olive streets, on the site 
now occupied by the Custom House and Post Ofiice, the parties principally 
interested in the enterprise being N. M. Ludlow, E. H. Bebee, H. S. Coxe, J. 
C. Lavielle, L. M. Clark and C. Keemle. The building erected was quite a 
handsome one, and the theatre was carried on for a number of years until the 
property was purchased by the United States and the present government 
buildings erected. The Central Fire Company of the city of St. Louis was 
also incorporated this year. The first steam flour mill erected in St. Louis by 
Captain Martin Thomas, was burned down on the night of the 10th of July 
this year. On the 20th of September the daily issue of the Missouri Republi- 
can commenced. 

On the 1st of February, 1837, the Bank of the State of Missouri' was incor- 
porated by the Legislature with a capital of $5,000,000. The first officers 
elected were John Smith, president of the parent bank, with the following 



44 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

directors: Hugh O'Neal, Samuel S. Eayburn, Edward Walsh, Edward Dobyns, 
Wm. L. Sublette and John O'Fallon, all of St. Louis. A branch was also 
established at Lafayette, and J. J. Lowry was appointed president. Not 
long after the passage of the act incorporating the State Bank, another was 
passed excluding all other banking agencies from the State. The new bank 
with its great privileges and brilliant prospects opened business in a house 
owned bj' Pierre Chouteau on Main street near Vine. The total tonnage of 
the port in 1836 was 19,447 tons, and the amount of wharfage collected between 
$7,000 and $8,000. In 1837 the Planters' House was commenced, but owingto 
the financial embarrassments of the j'ear, the progress of the building was 
slow. Early this summer Daniel Webster visited the city and was received 
with the utmost cordiality and enthusiasm. It was expected that Heniy Clay 
would accompany him, but he was prevented by business engagements. The 
distinguished guest and his family stopped at the National Hotel and remained 
for several days. A public festival or barbecue was given them in a grove on 
the land of Judge Lucas, west of Ninth street, and the occasion became 
peculiarly memorable from the fact that Mr. Webster delivered an eloquent 
speech. 

The general financial disasters of 1837 were felt to a serious extent in St. 
Louis, and the Bank of the State of Missouri suspended temporarily. On 
September 26th, David Barton, a colleague of Col. Thos. H. Benton, in the 
U. S. Senate, and one of the most distinguished citizens of the State, died in 
Cooper county, at the residence of Mr. Gibson. In the summer of the next 
year Thos. M. Doherty, one of the Judges of St. Louis county, was mysteri- 
ously murdered on the road between this city and Carondelet, and the 
murderers were never discovered. In the fall Gen. Wm. Clark died. He was 
the oldest American resident in St. Louis, was the first Governor of the Terri- 
tory of Missouri, and as superintendent of Indian affairs rendered important 
public services. During this 3'ear Kemper College, which was built princij)ally 
through the exertions of Bishop Kemper, was open. The medical depart- 
ment was formed shortly after, and owed its origin to Drs. Joseph N. McDowell 
and J. W. Hall. On the 20th of November the Legislature met at Jefferson 
City, and during its session, which lasted until February, 1839, some important 
acts were passed in connection with St. Louis. The Criminal Court was 
established, over which the Hon. James B. Bowlin presided as Judge for 
several years. A bill was passed to incorporate the St. Loiiis Hotel Company, 
under the auspices of which the Planters' House was completed. A Maj'or's 
Court was also established for the jjurpose of disposing of trials for breach of 
city ordinances. A charter was granted to the St. Louis Gaslight Company, 
but the streets were not lighted with gas by this corporation for many years 
afterwards. The present gas company holds its exclusive privileges under 
this charter; and although the original intention of the Legislature was that 
the city should have the authorit}- to purchase the works at a certain specified 
period, this has not been done and probabl}' never will be. The charter ex- 
pires by limitation in 1889. Christ Church was erected during this year, on 
the southwest corner of Chesnut and Fifth streets, but after a few years yielded 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 45 

up its site to business edifices. Considerable agitation was current about this 
time, owing to the action of the ofllicers of the Bank of the State of Missouri 
in refusing to receive the notes of any susjiended banks on deposit or in pay- 
ment at their counter. This resolution was caused by the financial disturbance 
that pervaded the country and the fact that a number of banks in different 
States of the Union had again suspended specie payments. A strong effort 
was made by the merchants of the city to procure a rescinding of the resolu- 
tion, and ten gentlemen, among the most prominent and wealthy in the city, 
offered to legally bind themselves to indemnify the bank against any loss 
that might be sustained by the depreciation of the notes of any of the sus- 
pended banks. The directors, however, after a consultation, refused the 
proposition and adhered to their cautious policy, notwithstanding that some of 
their best patrons withdrew their deposits in irritation at this course. The 
result, however, showed that the bank acted wisely, and the public confidence 
in it was rather increased than imj^aired. The County Court ordered the 
commencement of an important addition to the Court House, commenced in 
1825-6, and the corner-stone was laid with the usual ceremonies in the presence 
of a large concourse of citizens. 

The total arrivals of steamboats at this port during the year 1839 was 2,095; 
departures 1,645. In the spring of 1840 the corner-stone of the Catholic church 
attached to the St. Louis University was laid and a number of other buildings 
erected. During this year, the unfortunate affray between Mr. Andrew J. 
Davis, proprietor of the Argus, and Mr. Wm. P. Darnes, occurred, arising from 
some severe remarks published in the journal named reflecting on the latter. 
The parties chanced to meet on Third street near the National Hotel, and Mr. 
Davis received several blows on the head from an iron cane in the hands of 
Mr. Darnes, and subsequently died from the effects. The trial of Darnes took 
place in November, and he was found guilty of manslaughter in the fourth 
degree and fined $500. The steamer Meteor made the trip from New Orleans 
to this city in five days and five hours, during the early part of this season, 
being the quickest trip ever made up to that time. The Hon. John F. Darby, 
the Whig candidate, was elected Mayor in April, and at the election for county 
officers in August the same party was successful. There were ten insurance, 
companies in existence in St. Louis in the year 1841, many of which carried 
on a semi-banking business. 

In April, two young men, Jacob Weaver and Jesse Baker, met a shocking 
and violent death. They slept in a room in a large stone building on the corner 
of Pine and Water streets, occupied in front by Messrs. Simonds & Morrison, 
and in the rear by Mr. Wm. G. Pettus, banker and broker. An alarm of fire 
came from this building early on Sunday morning, April 18th, and one of the 
fireman, in forcing open the rear door, discovered the body of Jacob Weaver, 
lying in a pool of blood and evidently the victim of a cruel murder. The 
remains of Jesse Baker were discovered the next day in the ruins of the build- 
ing, which was nearly destroyed, and hardly a doubt remained that he had also 
been murdered. It may be mentioned, that A. S. Kemball, first engineer of the 
Union Fire Company, was killed during the progress of the fire, by a portion 



46 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT ClTy. 

of the wall falling on him. Subsequent investigations into the crimes, led to 
the arrest of four negroes named Madison, Bi-own, Seward and Warrick, who, 
it was shown, had been influenced to enter the building by the hope of robbery. 
They were all convicted of murder in the fii-st degree, and were executed upon 
the island opposite the lower part of the city, and the four-fold execution be 
came so memoi-able an event, that the time was often alluded to as that " whei» 
the negroes were hung." 

The Legislature extended the city limits considerably this year, and the 
Mayor and Aldermen were authorized to divide the city into five wards. At 
the municipal election, in April, John D. Daggett was elected Mayor, and in 
the same month the Planters' House was opened by Messrs. Stickncy & 
Knight as proprietors. 

Ther€ were now in the city two colleges, the St. Louis University and 
Kemper College, with a medical school attached to each. The churches were 
as follows : two Catholic, two Presbyterian, two Episcopal, two Methodist, 
one Baptist, one Associate Reform Presbyterian, one Unitarian, one German 
Luthei-an and two for colored congregations. There were two Orphan 
Asylums, one under the charge of the Sisters of Charity, and one under the 
control of Protestant ladies. The Sisters' Hospital was in opei'ation, and 
there were sevei-al hotels, tlie principal of which was the Planters' House; six 
grist-mills, six breweries, two foundries, and a number of other manufactories 
of different characters. Steamboat building had also been established as a 
permanent business, the originators being, it is stated, Messrs. Case & Xelson, 
and on all sides there were indications that the city was fairly launched on a 
pr')sperous career. 

Among the prominent events of 1842, were the election of Hon. Geo. 
Maguire, as Mayor, in April, and the laying of the corner-stone of the Centenary 
Church, at the corner of Fifth and Pine streets, on the 10th of May. This 
editice long remained a prominent place of worship, but finally, in 1870, was 
changed into a business establishment. In the autumn of the year, the Hon. 
JohnB. C. Lucas died, one of the earliest citizens of St. Louis, and who had 
received from President Jetferson the appointment of Judge of the highest 
court in Missouri when it was the District of Louisiana. He Avas a man 
generally esteemed and respected, and his name is prominently and forever 
identified with the earlier 3'ears of our city. Li the spring of the year, the 
" St. Louis Oak" was turned out from the boat-yard of Captain Irwine, ready 
i<> enter into the Galena trade, for which she had been built, and is stated to 
have been the first steamboat entirely built here, including machinery, engines, 
etc. In the May term of the St. Louis Criminal Court, the Hon. Bryan Mul- 
lariphy, Judge of the Circuit Court, was arraigned foralleged oppression in the 
discharge of his judicial duties. The matter originated from the Judge having 
imposed three fines, of S50 each, on Ferdinand W. Risque, a lawyer. Mr. R. 
feeling some indignation while in the court room at a certain ruling which was 
eontrar}'^ to that he had expected, made some contemptuous gesture or expres- 
sion of countenance, and the Judge ordered him to be seated, and for each 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT OITY. 47 

refusal imposed a fine, and finally ordered him to be removed from the court 
room by the sheriff. Judge Mullanphy was acquitted. 

There were now two public schools in St. Louis, one on Fourth, the other 
on Sixth street, and they were numerously attended, indicating that the peo- 
ple fully appreciated a general system of public instruction. On the third of 
July, the steamer Edna, a Missouri river boat, which had left St. Louis the 
night before with a large number of emigrants on board, exploded her boiler 
with terrible results. Fifty-five persons lost their lives by this catastrophe, 
and there was a large list of injured. Gen. Henry Atkinson died this 3-ear at 
Jefferson Bari*acks, where his remains were interred. The only other incident 
we will mention was the murder of Major Floyd, athisresidencenear the Fair 
Grounds, on the night of the 10th of August. The crime was perpetrated by 
a party of five men, who robbed the house and escaped. A young man named 
Henry Johnson was convicted and executed for the crime, although he solemnly 
protested his innocence to the last moment. 

In March, 1843, Audubon, the French naturalist, visited the city on his way 
to the Yellowstone, in the interest of his favorite science. The business of 
the city improved genei-ally this year, and there was no small activity in com- 
merce and in building. The State Tobacco Warehouse was in course of erec- 
tion, as well as some sixty stores on Fi-ont, Main and Second streets, and some 
three to four hundred other buildings. 

In June, 1844, Mac-ready visited the place, and being then at the highest 
point of his fame and abilities, he created quite a genei'al local sensation. He 
was succeeded by Forrest, who divided with him popular admiration. Judge 
P. Hill Engle died in the early part of the year. A Catholic church of some 
importance was commenced in Sonlard's addition. A most memorable and 
disastrous rise in the Mississippi took place this year. About the 8th or 10th 
of June, the river commenced to rise rapidly, while intelligence was received 
of the rising of the Illinois and Missouri rivers. The levee was soon Cjovered, 
and by the 16th the curb-stones of Front street were under water, and the 
danger to property and business became quite alarming. At first it Avas 
regarded as merely the usual "June rise," but the continued expansion of the 
flood soon convinced the inhabitants of its unprecedented and alarming char- 
acter. Illinoistown and Brooklj'n were nearly submerged, the occupants of 
the houses being driven to the upper stories. The American Bottom was a 
turbid sea. The town of Naples was inundated, boats plying in the streets; 
and from all places on the rivers came intelligence of heavy losses to stock 
and property, and the surface of the Mississippi Avas nearly covered with im- 
mense masses of drift ti'ees and other substances torn from the shores. As the 
reports reached St. Louis that the inhabitants of the tOAvnsand villages on the 
Illinois shore, and other ])laces on the river, were in danger, active measures 
were taken for their relief. Captain Saltmarsh, of the steamer Monona, par- 
ticularly distinguished himself by offering the use of his boat gratis. Betvveen 
four and five hundred persons in St. Louis and vicinity were driven from their 
homes, and great distress prevailed. To i:)rocure means to alleviate this, a 



48 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

meeting of citizens was held in front of the Court House, and a list of com- 
mittees appointed to obtain subscriptions, and quite a large amount was 
collected. The river reached its greatest height here on the 24th of June, 
when it was seven feet seven inches about the city directrix. A few days 
before this, the glad intelligence was received that the Upper Missouri and 
Illinois were falling, but the effect was not immediately evident here, and the 
water did not reach the city directrix in its abatement until the 14th of July. 
The rise of 1844 obtained a greater elevation than any previous similar event. 
The great flood of 1785, known as L'annee des Grandes Eaux, was surpassed, 
as were also the floods of 1811 and 1826. The number of buildings erected in 
1844 was 1,146, and notwithstanding the misfortune of the great flood, the jQax 
was one of general prosperity. 

St. George's Episcopal Church was organized in 1845, the Eev. E. C. 
Hutchinson being pastor. During the summer of this j'ear Col. Wm. Sublette 
died in Pittsburgh, on his way East for the benefit of his health. He belonged 
to one of the old families of St. Louis, and his name has been alluded to more 
than once before in this sketch. In August an election was held for members 
to the Convention to revise the Constitution, and was attended with much 
public interest. The G'liy Hospital was commenced, but was not finished in 
its present form for several years afterward. The erection of Lucas Market 
was also commenced. 

The Mercantile Library Association was formed in 1846, and ultimately led 
to the erection of the fine building now occupied by them on Fifth street. 
The originators of the library were John C. Tevis and Robert K. Woods, and 
the first meeting of citizens in connection with the project was held at the 
counting room of Mr. Tevis on the evening of December 30, 1846. There 
were eight gentlemen present, namely : Col. A. B. Chambers, Peter Powell, 
Robert K. Woods, John F. Franklin, R. P. Perrj-, Wm. P. Scott, John Halsall 
and John C. Tevis,- all merchants, except Col. Chambers. On the 13th of 
January following, a meeting was held in accordance with a public call, at 
Concert Hall, and the Association was organized by the adoption of a consti- 
tution. On the 16th of February rooms were rented at the corner of Pine 
and Main streets, and in April it was open to the members. At the end of 
the first year the cash receipts amounted to $2,689, the members numbering 
283, with 1,680 volumes in thelibrar}'. The association prospered rapidly and 
finally a joint stock company, designated the Mercantile Library Hall Associ- 
ation, was formed, the main object being the erection of a suitable building 
for the librar}'. The first president was Alfred Vinton. On the 10th of June, 
1851, it was determined to purchase a lot on the corner of Fifth and Locust 
streets, at a cost of 825,500. A design for the building by Robert S. Mitchell 
was adopted and the present edifice erected. The estimated cost was S70,000, 
which, with the price of the lot, made the total expenditure $95,500. To 
illustrate the growth of this noble institution we may add that the present 
building is now insufficient for its accommodation, and the question of erecting 
another, fire-proof in character, at a cost of $350,000 is being seriously con- 
sidered. 




BUILDING OF THE ST. LOUTS MUTUAL LIFE 
INSURANCE OOMPA X Y. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 49 

On the 10th of January, of this year, Mrs. Ann Biddle died. She was the 
daughter of John Mullanphy, who was the possessor of great wealth, and had 
established the male department of the Mullanphy Orphan Asylum, besides 
being identified with other enterprises of a noble and charitable character. 
Mrs. Biddle was the widow of Major Biddle, who was killed in the duel with 
Mr. Pettus on Bloody Island, and shortly after her husband's death established 
a Female Orphan Asylum, and even surrendered her fine residence on Broad- 
way for religious and charitable purposes. In her will she left an appropria- 
tion for a Widows' and Infants' Asylum, whilst her private charities, of 
which there is no earthly record, are believed to have been very large. The 
inclosed monument near Tenth and Biddle streets, with its inscription, " Pray 
for the souls of Thomas and Ann Biddle," is familiar to many of our readers. 
The spot for the monument was designated by Mrs. Biddle, who bequeathed a- 
sum of money for the purpose of its erection. It is appropriately placed in 
close contiguity with the noble institutions with which the names of the 
deceased are identified. The harbor of St. Louis again attracted public atten- 
tion this year, owing to a sand-bar forming in the river nearly in front of the 
landing, extending from Duncan's Island nearly to Cherry street, and inter- 
ruption of commerce became so evident, that the municipal and general gov- 
ernments were compelled to take some active measures, which resulted in the 
removal of the obstructions. An idea of the proportions now assumed by the 
commerce of the city may be gathered from the fact that in 1845 there were 
nearly 2,100 steamboats connected with the port, the aggregate tonnage being 
358,045, and the number of keel and flat boats was 346. 

The war declared between the United States and Mexico created, this year, 
an unusual excitement in St. Louis. Numerous volunteers came forward, and 
the St. Louis Legion, a military organization, prepared for the field. A 
meeting of citizens was held with the view of raising supplies for the volun- 
teers, and Col. J. B. Brant started a subscription with $1,000, and Lucas, 
Mullanphy, Robert Campbell, Alfred Vinton, Benjamin Stickney and others 
subscribed liberally, and a few days afterwards the Legion departed for the 
South, under command of Col. Easton, with a grand public farewell demon- 
stration in their honor. The corner-stone of the Odd Fellows' Hall had been 
laid April 26th, 1845, and on the 26th of October of this year the building was 
dedicated. 

In the early part of 1847 the Boatmen's Savings Institution was incorpo- 
rated, and it commenced a career which has proven not only successful, but 
most beneficial to the public. The most prominent event of this year was the 
public anniversary celebration, on the 15th of February, of the founding of 
St. Louis. The grand features of the day were an imposing public pageant 
^nd a banquet. At an early hour the various societies and other bodies par- 
ticipating, marched to the place of rendezvous, and at ten o'clock the proces- 
sion moved in the following order : Chief Marshal Col. Thornton Grimsley and 
his aids, followed by the military companies, and the Apprentices' Library 
Association bearing banners. Then came the Committee of Arrangements, 
and next the invited guests, the latter being the most interesting portion of the 



60 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

procession. In an open carriage was seated Mr. Pierre Chouteau, president 
of the day, and the only survivor of those who accompanied Laclede when he 
founded the city on the 15th day of February, 1764, The other occupants of 
this carriage were Pierre Chouteau, Jr., and P. Ligueste Chouteau, his sons, 
and Gabriel S. Chouteau. In the next carriage were the Hon. \Vm. C. Carr, 
Col. John O'Fallon and Gen. Wm. Milburn, and in other carriages were many 
others of the old inhabitants of the city. Without further specifying the 
features of this procession, some of which were highly interesting and unique, 
illustrating all the industries and trades, we will state that after carrying out 
the line of march the pageant ceased, and the Hon. Wilson Primm, orator of 
the day, addressed the multitude from a stand on the east side of Fourth street, 
fronting the Court-House, eloquently reviewing the history of St. Louis from 
its founding to the date of the celebration. The address was carefully pre- 
pared and contained a quantity of valuable historical data not previously, we 
believe, presented in literary form. The banquet took place in the State 
Tobacco Warehouse and proved an exceedingly brilliant affair. Among the 
speakers we may mention Col. L. Y. Bogy, Col. Campbell, Hon. Wm. C. Carr, 
Mr. Thos. Allen, Mr. Crockett, Col. Kennett, Dr. Linton, Mr. Darby, Mr. Treat, 
George E. Taylor and others. A ball at the Planters' House closed the pro- 
ceedings of the memorable day. On December 20th of this year the telegraph 
lines connecting with the East, reached East St. Louis, and our city was placed 
in telegraphic communication with the leading cities of the country. On the 
28th of the same month an important meeting of citizens took place, to con- 
sider the advisability of the city subscribing 3500,000 towards the construction 
of the Ohio and Mississippi railroad, the route of which from Cincinnati 
through Yincennes had been established. A committee of seven, comprising 
Messrs. Hudson, Gamble, Kennett, Darby, Kayser, Yeatman and Collier, were 
appointed for the purpose of petitioning the Legislature to authorize the sub- 
scription. The measure being supported by a general vote of the people, the 
subscription was finally made. The two most important agents in the devel- 
opement of commerce — the telegraph and the railroad — were now identified 
with the growth of St. Louis, and her advancement became accelerated great- 
ly through their influence. 

No public events of a very important character mark the year of 1848, but 
the career of the city, commercially and in reference to general improvements, 
was satisfactory. On the 22d day of June Edward Gharless died in his fiftieth 
year. His death excited no small amount of public attention and regret, as 
he was very generally known, having come to this country at a very early 
period, with his father Joseph Charless. Several public meetings were held 
in connection with the intelligence of the victorious operations of our arms in 
Mexico, and the exciting reports of the revolutions in France and Germany. 
Towards the close of the year rumors prevailed of the approach of the cholera, 
which for more than a year previous had appeared in Europe and subsequently 
at different points in the United States. A few cases occurred here, and the 
authorities were stirred up to active sanitary precautio^is, but the dreaded 
disease did not develop itself until the ensuing spring. In April, 1849, the 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 61 

Bellefontaine Cemetery was established, the ground being previously known 
as the " Hempstead Farm," and was purchased from Luther M. Kennett. The 
names of the trustees mentioned in the act of incorporation are : John F. 
Darby, Henry Kayser, Wayman Crow, James E. Yeatman, James Hari'ison, 
Charles S. Eannells, Gerard B. Allen, Philander Salisbury, Wm. Bennett, 
Augustus Brewster and AVm. M. McPherson. The cemetery is now one of the 
most beautiful in the countrj^. This year was one of the most disastrous in 
the history of St. Louis, owing to the outbreak of the cholera and the occur- 
rence of a terrible conflagration. About ten o'clock on Thursday night, May 
19, a fire broke out on the steamer White Cloud, lying at the wharf between 
Vine and Cherry streets, and the steamboat and fire-bells soon spread the 
alarm throughout the cit}'. The flames rapidly enveloped the steamer, and, 
notwithstanding vigorous efforts to check their course, communicated to three 
or four other boats in the vicinity. The White Cloud became loosened from 
the wharf and drifted down the river with the current, the blazing wreck 
came in collision with a number of other steamers, and in a short time twenty- 
three or four boats were in flames. The dreadful disaster did not, however, 
stop here. A stiff breeze prevailed from the northeast, and an avalanche of 
fiery embers was whirled over the buildings on the levee, and soon a number 
of them were in flames. The first which caught fire were near the corner of 
Locust street, and the conflagration, rapidly extending south and westward, 
assumed the most stupendous proportions, and the utmost excitement and dis- 
may prevailed over the city. Without sketching in detail the devastation of 
the terrible calamity, we may say that it was by far the most serious of the 
kind that has ever visited St. Louis. All the buildings^ with only a few ex- 
ceptions, from Locust to Market, and between Second and the river, were 
destroyed or badly injured, and the progress of the fire was only arrested by 
blowing up buildings with gunpowder. In one of these explosions, Mr. T. B. 
Targee, the well-known auctioneer, was killed, and several others injured. 
Twenty-three steamboats, three barges and one canal boat were destroyed, 
the total value being estimated at about $440,000. The whole value of 
property destroyed reached over $3,000,000. The occurrence of the fire was 
a serious blow to our city, but the energy of its citizens was displayed in the 
manner with which they labored to repair its ravages, and the evidences of 
desolation and ruin soon disappeared, and new buildings were erected of a 
more substantial character than the old, and Main street was considerably 
widened. 

We turn from the fire to the second great calamity of the year. As before 
stated, the coming of the cholera was heralded during the fall of '48, and es,rly 
in the ensuing spring it reappeared, the number of deaths increasing dai'y as 
the summer approached, and in June it assumed a virulent epidemic form and 
spread dismay throughout the community. At the time of the outbres^k of 
the disease the sanitary condition of the city was exceedingly bad, the present 
sewer system having hardly been commenced, and moat of the alleys w«re 
unpaved and in a shockingly dirty condition. When the cholera declared 
itself the authorities adopted energetic sanitary measures, but witliout avail. 



52 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

and the mortality increased steadily. As is generally the case, there was a 
conflict of opinion respecting the disease among the physicians, and at first the 
medical board pronounced the use of vegetables injurious, and the City Coun- 
cil passed an ordinance prohibiting their sale within the city limits, but this 
was shortly afterwards revoked. The Council finally, on recommendation of 
the Committee of Public Health, adopted quarantine regulations, and a site 
for quarantine was adopted on Arsenal Island. ISTotwithstanding all the 
efforts made, the number of deaths increased to over 160 per diem, which in a 
city with a population of less than 64,000 indicates the truly alarming extent 
of the epidemic. The second day of July was observed as a day of humilia- 
tion and prayer, but it was not until late in the month that there was any 
sensible abatement in the epidemic, and about the middle of August it had 
nearly disappeared. Between June 25th and July 16th the gi-eatest mortality 
occurred, and from April 30th to August 6th the total number of deaths from 
all causes was 5,989, of which 4,060 wex-e from cholera, and among the host of 
victims were many well-known citizens and several prominent physicians. 
The disasters of this year seriously interrupted the progress of our city, but 
their effects were soon repaired, a bountiful harvest was gathered, and with 
the general improvement of the locality devastated hj the fire, business revived 
and commercial facilities were extended. During the year the immense emi- 
gration to California, owing to the discovery of the gold fields and the general 
impression of the vast wealth and resources of the Far West, brought the 
pi'oject of a gi-eat railroad route across the continent prominently before the 
minds of our people. It was determined to call together a Mass Convention 
in St. Louis, for the purpose of considering the enterprise, and invitations were 
sent to the prominent citizens of nearly every State in the Union. The con- 
vention assembled on the 15th of October, in the Court House, and was called 
to order by Judge A. T. Ellis of Indiana. The result of the deliberations was 
a general conviction of the necessity of the road, and an influential committee 
was appointed to jjrepare an address to the people of the Union, soliciting 
their co-operation in inducing Congress to take the requisite action towards 
the end desired. It is thus evident that St. Louis citizens were the first to 
move in the great enterprise of a continental railroad, and there are many 
living to-day who participated in these preliminary measures, who now wit- 
ness the practical fulfillment of the stupendous achievement which they 
inaugurated. The fine building on the corner of Seventh and Myrtle streets, 
then connected with the medical department of the St. Louis University, was 
built during this year, and owes its origin to the munificence of Col. John 
O'Fallon. Louis A. Labeaume was this year elected Assistant Treasurer of 
the United States, and his bondsmen were all St. Louis citizens, representing 
an aj^o-reo-ate wealth of over S6.000.000. 

An exciting and bloody affair occurred at the City Hotel on the night ot 
the 29th of October. A day or so before, two unknown gentlemen arrived at 
the hotel on the corner of Third and Vine streets, then kept by Theron Bar- 
num, and some trouble in reference to accommodations arose between them 
and Mr. Kirby Barnura, nephew of the proprietor, but it was settled without 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 53 

anything serious having occurred. On the night mentioned, Mr. Kirby Bar- 
num retired to his room, and shortly after a shot was fired through the window, 
which fatally wounded him, and in attempting to leave the room he fell in the 
hall. Wm. Albert Jones, who occupied a room on the same floor, on opening 
his door to ascertain the cause of the firing, was shot dead, and H. M. Hender- 
son and Captain W. D. Hubbell, who were rooming with him, were both 
wounded. The aifair produced intense excitement, and the two strangers, who 
were Frenchmen named Gonsalve and Raymond Montesquc, were accused of 
the crime. On the first trial the jury did not agree and at the second, Gon- 
salve. who had confessed his guilt and alleged " God made him do it," was 
acquitted on the ground of insanity, and Raymond was shown to be innocent. 
The only other incident we will mention in connection with the year is the 
■extraordinary robbery at the bank of the State of Missouri, the sum of $120, 
000 having disaj^peared from the vaults, but the perpetrators were never dis- 
covered. 

ST. LOUIS FROM 1850 TO 1870. 

The twenty years embraced between 1850 and 1870 were those of the 
greatest development of the city as well as of the commercial energies of the 
-entire nation. Before that period the growth of St. Louis had been compara- 
tively slow, and although within less than a century an astonishing superstruc- 
ture had been reared upon the rude foundation laid by Laclede, the real 
wonders of our city's history were things yet to be achieved. In 1850 the 
population of the city was about 74,000, less than one-fourth of that of the 
present. Our railroad sj'stem, our iron manufactures, our public institutions 
in a great measure, our hotels and business palaces, our parks, sewerage sys- 
tem, broad avenues, beautiful private residences, and the other innumerable 
features and elements which go to make up a great city, were either not in 
(existence or barely commenced. Within two decades, what a magnificent ex- 
pansion has been wrought ! and yet there is no question but it will be greatly 
exceeded by that of the next twenty years. 

In the preceding sketch we have glanced somewhat in detail at the rise and 
progress of our city from its foundation up to a time within the memory of 
most of our citizens, but its character will not permit us to continue further 
the narration of events in chronological order. Our object has been to connect 
with this book, devoted mainly to the delineation of the destiny of St. Louis, 
some faint portraiture of her historic past, and it is not our province to pursue 
the work over later years, with the events of which nearly all are familiar. 
It is a curious fact that fi'om the year 1849, during which occurred such terri- 
ble disasters, may be dated the more rapid development of our city. Forth 
from the ruins of conflagration and the gloom of the shadow of death, she 
emerged on a bright and broad career with pulses bounding in exuberant life. 
It is indeed astonishing to review the mighty steps in civic progress which 
mark every year in the decades above mentioned. The Railroad Convention 
held in 1849 was followed quickly by substantial fruits, atid on the 4th of July, 



54 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

1851, ground was broken in the practical coiamencement of the Pacific Rail 
road, the company having been organized some time previously through the 
exertions of such citizens as Thos. Allen, James H. Lucas, Daniel D. Page^ 
John O'Fallon and other public-spirited gentlemen. The following year wit- 
nessed the commencement of the Ohio and Mississippi Eailroad, also the Terre 
Haute and Alton ; and in 1852 the Chicago and St. Louis Railroad, then called 
the Alton and Sangamon line, was opened to Carlinville by a public excursion. 
On the 30th of June, 1855, the Ohio and Mississippi was opened to Yincennes, 
and on the 4th of July of that year an excursion of citizens took place to the 
last named place. Thus our now splendid railroad system was inaugurated, 
and the rapidity of its development is significantly illustrated when we refer 
to the list given in another part of this work, by which it is seen we have 
twenty-four trunk lines converging at St. Louis, nearly all in practical opera- 
tion, connecting our city with every portion of the country, and sending our 
daily trains to the Atlantic and Pacific, the great Lakes of the Xorth, and the 
waters of tropical seas. In every other department of business enterprise our 
progress was equally rapid and steady. Massive business structures sprung 
up as if by magic along the lines of our leading streets, and with the multipli- 
cation of residences the territory of the city increased every day. The splen- 
did Lindell Hotel, commenced in 1857, gave us one of the most important 
structures of the kind to be found in the country, and until its lamentable 
destruction by fire in 1867 it formed one of the grand adornments of our city. 
The beautiful garden at Tower Grove, commenced in 1850, assisted materially 
the growth of the western part of the city. Other parks and public squares 
were speedily formed, and the work of street opening and other public im- 
provements were carried on uninterruptedly by the city authorities. Our 
sewer system was energetically elaborated, and the old method of supplj'ing 

our citizens with water was supplanted by well-constructed water-works, 
which have now again given place to a new system, with settling reservoirs at 
Bissell's Point and storage reservoir at Compton Hill, constructed at a cost of 
nearly S4,000,000. The other improvements effected during the period indi- 
cated are too numerous to be specifically mentioned. Manufactories of all 
kinds came into existence in different portions of the city, and the wharf north 
and south was improved and the elevator was constructed, together with a 
number of storehouses and warehouse. The public school system^ from its 
small beginnings before mentioned, has expanded to unequaled proportions, 
and now the enrollment of scholars is nearly 32,000, total number of districts 
schools 41, number of colored schools 6 ; and besides there are the Normal and 
High Schools and the departments in connection with the Polytechnic. All 
of our public school buildings, with perhaps a few exceptions, which will soon 
be abolished, are handsome, substantial structures, and form a prominent 
architectural feature in our city. In order, however, to fully appreciate the 
educational system of St. Louis, we must include also the universities and pri- 
vate schools and public libraries, which perform so important a work for the 
public. The aggregate, we think, fairly establishes the statement that our 



ST, LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 55 

facilities for public instruction and the distribution of knowledge are unequaled 
in proportion by any city of the world. 

In December, 1855, a charter was obtained for the St. Louis Agricultural 
and Mechanical Association, and oflScers were appointed May 5th, 1856, as fol- 
lows: J. Richard Barret, President j T. Grimsley, A. Harper and H. C. Hart, 
Yice Presidents; H. S. Turner, Treasurer; G. O. I^alb, Agent and Recording 
Secretary, and Oscar TV. Collett, Corresponding Secretar}'. The present site 
of the Fair Grounds was purchased from Col. John O'Pallon, suitable buildings 
were erected, and in the fall of 1856 the first fair was held. It proved a most 
satisfactory success, and so the career of the association was fully inaugurated, 
and it has resulted in substantial and important benefits to St. Louis. The 
fairs w^ere interrupted during the exciting and troublous 3'ears of the war, but 
recommenced in 1866,. and each year since have increased in interest and at- 
tendance, and now transcend any event of the kind in the country. In fact 
they have ceased to be representative merely of the arts and industries, stock 
and agricultural products of one State : they are National exhibitions, with a 
premium list of great liberality ; and if their future growth correspond with 
their past, their fame will extend beyond the boundaries of our country, and 
they will become international in character. 

The formation of our system of street railroads corresponds in vigor and 
rapidity with the general growth of the city during this period. It was not 
until 1859 that the old omnibus lines began to give place to this improved 
method of local transportation, and we have now nine or ten separate and dis- 
tinct lines in full operation, running between 160 and 170 cars and carrying a 
total of between seven and eight thousand passengers each day. 

Among the impoi'tant public structures erected we may mention the Custom 
House and Post Office in 1859, John Hogan being the first Post-master. This 
building is now inadequate to the wants of the city, and will soon doubtless 
be replaced by a magnificent structure in a different locality at a probable cost 
of between two and three millions of dollars. 

In 1857 the site was pui-chased for the Southern Hotel, and the work of 
excavating Avas commenced in the following spring. The laying of masonry 
progressed steadily until December 4th, 1858, when it ceased temporarily, and 
having been covered to ])rotect it from frost and rain it remained in this con- 
dition until April 14th, 1860, when work was resumed and continued until 
August 15th, 1861, when it was again suspended until June 17th, 1862. The 
splendid hotel was finally opened to the public September 6th, 1865, the lessees 
being Messrs. Laveille, Warner & Co., and the establishment representing in 
federal currenc}^ nearly one million and a half of dollars. The scale of the 
house is indicated by the following items : 17,000 yards of carpeting were 
required to carpet it, and 1,400 gas-burners to give it light; it has about 350 
rooms with over 3,000 feet of corridor; the main one on each story is 257 feet 
long, with three others crossing it at right angles in length from about 80 to 
200 feet. Other fine hotels came into being during the period of which we are 
speaking, and notwithstanding the destruction of the Lindell the hotel facili- 
ties of St. Louis correspond with the wants of the city, and alread}' measures 



56 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

are being discussed for largely increasing them. The Exchange, finished in 
1859, is a handsome and imposing building, but will soon be supplanted by one 
more commensurate with our expanding commerce. The Polytechnic, finished 
in 1867, is now the stately headquarters of the public school department, while 
the handsome building of the Masonic Temi^le, of more recent construction, 
adds materially to the adornmnnt of the same localit}-. The County Insane 
Asylum was commenced in 1865 and finished in April, 1869. It is situated 
about two miles west of Tower Grove, the justl}' celebrated place of Mr. Shaw, 
and the total cost w'as about §900,000, including the furniture and the expense 
of boring the artesian well. The capacity of the institution is about 300 
patients. The beautiful building of the new jail, now nearly completed, was 
commenced in 1869, and forms architecturally one of the most attractive pub- 
lic buildings in the city, arid reflects great credit on the architect, Mr. Thomas 
Walsh. The total cost will be about $550,000. The Court House was com- 
pleted in 1862, and some particulars of its history and cost will be found else- 
where. In mentioning these buildings we have only selected a few instances 
illustrating the development of the city. Had we space to present a full state- 
ment of the various important edifices erected during the last twenty years 
the list would be lengthened almost indefinite!}-. Eangesof magnificent stores 
have been built along our principal streets, almost innumerable church edifices 
and hospitals, asylums, and other eleemosynary institutions, have arisen in 
various directions, and there are very few cities on the continent with a greater 
number of elegant private residences. 

In this brief summary of the progress of St. Louis during the last two 
decades our object has been merely to indicate rather than describe, and we 
have passed over in silence the scenes and events of the war. Fi-om a thriv- 
ing inland city she has advanced to the proud position of the metropolis of the 
"West, whose architectual and commei-cial standing is a visible prophecy of 
her destiny as the future Babylon of the Old and New Worlds. Her past may 
well be a riiatter of pride to the people identified with her career, and whose 
intellectual and nervine force has made her what she is; but more so should be 
the glorious aggregate that now foreshadows the grander developments to 
come. Everything speaks of greatness. The mighty arches of steel soon to 
span our glorious river will form the greatest bridge ever built by man, and 
over which wall pass the trade of more than half the world j our population 
steadily expands, and the human tide that flows in upon us under the magnetic 
influence of increasing prosperity seems to know no ebb, the mineral resources 
of our State have only inaugurated their development, and the smoke of the 
Carondelet iron furnaces by day and their lurid illumination by night, like 
the symbol of Divine protection in the olden time to the chosen people, 
guarantee blessings different but not less real in character, while the vast 
country westward is filling yearly with busy millions and all tributary to our 
city. Thus on all hands are promises for the future, and the energies of our 
people grow more active and concentrated. Is it strange, therefore, that with 
this unequaled spectacle of human growth before us, these thundering pro- 
phetic voices sounding round us, we should believe devoutly that our city is 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 57 

destined to be the Capital of this Nation and the Future Great City of the 
Globe? It is not an ardent enthusiast that conceives the idea, but a phalanx 
of solid realities that enunciate it as the sure consummation of their combined 
power. 

ST. LOUIS AND ITS CHARTERS. 

The town of St. Louis was first incorporated on the 9th day of November, 1809, 
by the Court of Common Pleas for the District of St. Louis, upon the petition 
of two-thirds of the taxable inhabitants, under authority of an act of the Leg- 
islature of the Territory of Louisiana, passed June 18th, 1808, entitled " An 
act concerning towns in this Territory." The Judges constituting the Court 
were Silas Bent, President, and Bernard Pratte and Louis Livbeaume, Asso- 
ciates. The charter granted by the Court was the only one under which the 
town existed until 1822, when it was incorporated as a city. It is to be found 
in the records of the Court in Book A, page 334, in the following words : 

" On petition of sundry inhabitants of the town of St. Louis, praying so 
much of said town as is included in the following limits to be incorporated, 
to-wit : Beginning at Antoine Roy's mill on the banks of the Mississippi river, 
thence running sixty arpents west, thence south on said line of sixty arpents 
in the rear until the same comes to the Barriere Denoyer, thence due south 
until it comes to the Sugar Loaf, thence due east to the Mississippi, from thence 
by the Mississippi to the place first mentioned. The court having examined 
the said petition and findiiig that the same is signed by two-thirds of the taxa- 
ble inhabitants residing in said town, order the same to be incorporated and 
the metes and bounds to-be surveyed and marked and a plat thereof filed of 
recoi'd in the Clerk's office." David Delawnay and Wm. C. Carr were appoint- 
ed Commissioners to superintend the first election of five trustees in accordance 
with the law. 

The next act in reference to incorporation is entitled " An act to incorporate 
the inhabitants of the town of St. Louis, approved December 9th, 1822." The 
limits stated in this act are as follows: Beginningat a point in the middle of the 
main channel of the Mississippi river, due east of the southern end of a bridge 
across Mill creek, at the lower end of the town of St. Louis : thence due west 
to a point at which the line of Seventh street extending southwardly will in- 
tersect the same ; thence northwardly along the western side of Seventh street, 
and continuing in that course to a point due west of the northern side of Eoy's 
tower; thence due east to the middle of the main channel of the river Missis- 
sippi ; thence with the middle of the main channel of the said river to the 
beginning. By this act the town, bounded as above given, was "erected into 
a city" by the name of the city of St. Louis, and the inhabitants constituted a, 
body politic and corporate under the name and style of the Mayor, Aldermeu 
and Citizens of the City of St. Louis. 

An act supplementary to that last mentioned was passed January 15, 1831, 
but without any alteration of the boundaries. On the 16th of January, 1833, 
an additional act was passed dividing the city into four wards. On the 26th of 



68 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

February a new charter was passed by the Legislature, whieh reiterated the 
boundaries of the act of 1822, but contained new and more specific provisions 
for municipal government. On February 8, 1839, a new charter was again 
promulgated by the Legislature, which was much more elaborate than any of 
the preceding, being divided into articles, a formality not previously observed. 
This established the boundaries as follows : Beginning at a point in the middle 
of the main channel of the Mississippi river due east of the mouth of Mill creek 
(so called); thence due west to the mouth of said creek; thence up the center 
of the main channel of said creek to a point where the southern side of Eutgers 
street, produced, shall intersect the same ; thence westwardly along the south- 
ern side of said street to the intersection of thesame with the western line of 
Seventh street, produced; thence northwardly along the western line of 
Seventh street to the northern line of Biddle street ; thence castwardl}' with 
the northern line of Biddle street to the western line of Broadway, to a point 
vhere the southern boundary of survey number six hundred and seventy-one- 
^roduced, shall intersect the same; thence eastwardly along the southern 
boundary of said survey to the Mississippi river; thence due east to the middle 
of the main channel of the Mississippi river; thence down with the middle of 
the main channel of said river to the place of beginning. 

Oi> the 15th of February, 1841, an act amendatory to the loregoing again 
cha ^'ed the boundaries as follows : Beginning at a point in the middle of the 
mai < channel of the river due east of the southeast corner of St. George, in St. 
Loui^ county; thence due west to the west line of Second Carondelet avenue j 
thenee north with the west line of said avenue to the north line of Chouteau 
avenue ; thence northwardly in a direct line to the mouth of Stony creek, above 
the then existing north line of the city ; thence due east to the middle of the 
main channel of the Mississippi river, and thence south to the place of begin- 
ning. 

On Febriiary 8, 1843, an act was approved entitled " An act to reduce the 
law incorporating the city of St. Louis and the several acts amendatory thereof, 
into one act, and to amend the same." This act did not change the city limits. 
Another act similar in title to that just mentioned was approved March 8, 1851, 
hut it left the limits as last quoted. 

Various supplementary and amendatory acts besides these mentioned were 
passed in reference to the city, but the next extension of the limits was made 
by an act specifically for that purpose, which was approved December 5, 1855. 
This act made the line of Keokuk street the southern boundary of the city, to 
a point six hundred and sixty feet west of Grand avenue; thence northwardly 
and parallel to the line of Grand or Lindell avenue at a distance of six hundred 
and sixty feet therefrom, xintil the line intersects the Bellefontaine road ; thence 
northeast to the line dividing townships 45 and 46 north, range seven east; 
'hence eastAvardly with said line and in the same direction to the middle of the 
main channel of the Mississippi river; thence southwardly with the meander- 
ings of said channel to place of beginning. 

In 1866 the Legislature granted another charter for the city of St. Louis, 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 59 

which divided the city intt) ten wards but left the boundaries luichanged. The 
act was approved March 19, 1866. 

In 1867 another charter was obtained which added Carondelet to the city by 
extending the southern limits, but this extension did not go into effect until the 
first Tuesday in April, 1870. The city proper remained unchanged as to 
boundaries, and the extension authorized received the designation of the "New 
Limits." This charter divided the city into twelve wards. It remained un- 
changed until 1870, when an act was passed bj' the Legislature entitled "An 
act to revise the charter of the city of St. Louis and to extend the limits thereof." 
There was no actual extension of the limits made by this act, but the provi- 
sions of the previous charter in reference to the incorporation of Carondelet as 
part of the city were again enacted, it being provided that for the first five years 
not more than one-half of the rates of taxes authorized for the old limits should 
be levied on the property in the "new limits." 

This is the existing charter of the city, but whether it will be so or not after 
the next session of the Legislature is qiiite problematical. Last winter an im- 
portant bill was introduced in the House by Mr. W. H. Stone,"of the St. Louis 
delegation, consolidating the governments of St. Louis city and county and 
extending the limits of the city to include the entire territory of St. Louis 
county. This bill elicited much attention and comment, but was not acted upon 
by the Legislature, and will probably come up again for consideration at the 
session next winter. In some of its details it may be imperfect, but the gen- 
eral extension of limits proposed is advisable and necessary in anticipation of 
the destined development of the city. Municipal growth is not circumscribed 
by the invisible lines of corporate authority, but it should not be even slightly 
retarded by the want of appropriate legislation. 

HISTORY OF THE COURT HOUSE. 

The Court House building which towers above our city, and gives to it, when 
viewed from a little distance, an aspect like London with its St. Paul's, is one 
of the most massive and imposing architectural structures of the kind in the 
country, and the following historical particulars respecting it will be interest- 
ing to our readers : 

On the 14th of December, 1822, an act was approved entitled "An act con- 
cerning a Court House and Jail in the county of St. Louis," and, in accordance 
with its provisions, Thomas Sappington of Gravois, Ludwell Bacon of Bon- 
homme, Eobt. Quarles of St. Ferdinand, and Pierre Chouteau, Jr., and Wm» 
Carr Lane, of the town of St. Louis, were appointed Commissioners to select a 
proper site within the town of St. Louis, whereon to erect a Court House for 
said county. The Commissioners were also authorized to receive proposals 
from all persons willing to make donations of lands for the purpose named, 
and to accept any donation that "night seem to them most beneficial to the 
county ; and to cause a deed of conveyance to be executed, whereby the land 
so donated should be conveyed to the Justices of the County Court and their 
successors in office. Under the authority conveyed in this act, the Commis- 



60 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

sioners named selected the site now occupied by the Court House, which was 
donated for the purpose by the proprietors, John B. C. Lucas and Auguste 
Chouteau J the date of the report of the Commissioners being August 25, 1823, 
It is stated that under the old regime, the whipping-post was placed at a point 
on the site now occupied by the Court House. The first step towards the 
erection of the building was taken by the County Court on the 9th of Novem- 
ber, 1825, the Justices then being Joseph V. Garnier, Peter Ferguson, and 
Francis Nash ; when the sum of $7,000 was appropriated for the purpose, and 
Alexander Stuart was appointed Commissoner to superintend the work. On 
the 7th of February, 1826, an additional approj^riation in the sum of $5,000 
was made, and on the 9th of the same month Mr. Stuart submitted plans for 
the building, which were aj^proved, the estimate of the cost being $12,000. 
Some difficulty appears to have occurred relative to the plans adopted, for on 
May 1, 1826, a plan prepared by Messrs. Morton & Laveille was approved, 
and $2,000 additional was appropriated. Stuart's plan was apparently thrown 
overboard, and the contract for the erection was awarded to Joseph C. Laveille 
and George Morton, for $14,000, and bears date May 26, 1826. At a meeting 
of the Court, held on July 26th of the same year, Henry S. Geyer was ap- 
pointed Commissioner to superintend the building of the Court House, vice 
Alexander Stuart, resigned. This building was completed on the 10th of 
August, 1833, the entire cost being $14,416.16 

In June, 1838, the public business had so increased, and the necessity for 
greater accommodations was so evident, that the court asked for proposals for 
clerks' offices on the southwest corner of the square (Fifth and Market streets), 
to be 132 feet long by 36 feet in width. In September, 1838, another public 
notice was given, and an offer of $100 for the best plan for a building on the 
Public Square, either adjoining the Court House or adjacent thereto. A plan 
submitted by Henry Singleton on July 8th, 1839, was adopted, and the designer 
was appointed architect and superintendent. This was reall}^ the commence- 
ment of the present imposing structure, and the first contract for work was 
made by Mr. Singleton with Joseph Foster, for the carpenter work, on August 
12, 1839, and in April, 1842, a contract for the cut-stone work of the rotunda 
was awarded to J. H. Hall. The work progressed slowly until 1851, when 
Robert S. Mitchell was .ippointed architect and superintendent, and he imme- 
diately proceeded to tear down the old building, which stood where the east 
wing was to be erected, and in October, 1852, contracted with Mr. Bernard 
Criekard for the cut-stone work for the wing. It was subsequently decided by 
the Court to have the north and south wings, and on the 28th of May, 1853, Mr. 
Mitchell contracted with Mr. Criekard for the cut-stone work of the south wing, 
and in July, 1853, for the six stone columns in the portico of the east wing. 
In May, 1857, the court superseded Mr. Mitchell and appointed Thomas D. P. 
Lanham to the office at a remuneration of four per cent, on the amount of 
work done under his supervision. The County Court was abolished by the 
Legislature, and on the first Monday in August, 1859, the Board of County 
Commissioners were elected, and on the 2l8t of September following the Board 
declared the office of architect and superintendent vacant, and the day after 



BT. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



61 



appointed Williain Rumbold to the office at a salary of $125 per mouth. The 
work from this period progressed with steadiness. The design for the dome 
prepared by Mr. Lanham was rejected, and the wrought-iron dome devised by 
Mr. Eumbold was adopted, having been carefully tested, and the contract for 
the erection awarded to Mr. James McPheeters. Without further pursuing tho 
different steps in the progress of the work, we will state that the splendid 
building, after the lapse of a quarter of a century from the time of its com- 
mencement, was pronounced completed at the beginning of July, 1862. 
The cost of the work was as follows : 

Cut-stone -work $383,647 05 

Other stone work 48,455 91 

Iron work 151,342 22 

Brick and material 71,115 23 

Plastering 21,054 65 

Carpentry 146,607 19 

Painting and glazing 21,650 13 

Koofing 23,825 49 

Sundries, labor, material, etc 288,329 71 

Architect and superintendent 43,844 33 

Total cost $1,199,871 91 

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF ST. LOUIS SINCE 1810. 



1810 Auguste Chouteau Chairman. 

1811 Charles Gratiot - " 

1812 Charles Gratiot « " T 

1813 Charles Gratiot - " 

1814 Clement B. Penrose » " 

1815 Elijah Beebe -. " 

1816 Elijah Beebe " 

1817 ElijahBeebe " 

1818 Thomas F. Riddick " 

1819 Peter Ferguson » " 

1820 Pierre Chouteau, Sen « " 

1821 Pierre Chouteau, Sen » " 

1822 Thomas McKnight " 

1823 "William Carr Lane -Mayor. 

1824 "William Carr Lane « " 

1825 "William Carr Lane - " 

1826 "William Carr Lane - " 

1827 William Carr Lane - " 

1828 "William Carr Lane - " 

1829 Daniel D.Page « " 

1880 Daniel D.Page " 

1831 Daniel D. Page - •' 

1832 Daniel D.Page « " 

1833 *Samuel Merry " 

1834 John "W. Johnston " 

1835 John F. Darby - " 

1836 John F. Darby ~ " 

1837 John F. Darby " 

1838 William Carr Lane ~ " 

1839 William Carr Lane " 

1840 John F. Darby " 



1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 



Mayor. 



John D. Daggett -,.., 

George Maguire " 

JohnM. Wimer " 

Bernard Pratte„ •* 

Bernard Pratte " 

Peter G. Camden ^ " 

Bryan Mullanphy " 

John M. Krum " 

James B. Barrv " 

Luther M. Kennett " 

Luther M. Mennett " 

Luther M. Kennett " 

John How " 

John How " 

Washington King " 

John How ~ " 

JohnM. Wimer " 

Oliver D.Filley " 

Oliver D. Filley *' 

Oliver D. Filley " 

Daniel G. Taylor " 

Daniel G. Taylor " 

Chauncey I. Filley " 

James S. Thomas " 

James S. Thomas " 

James S. Thomas " 

James S. Thomas " 

James S. Thomas •* 

Nathan Cole « " 

Nathan Cole - " 

Joseph Brown " 



•Disqualified In consequence of holding office under the general government, 
elected Mayor in bis stead. 



John W. JohnBton 



FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



THE ^RGrUMBNT. 

Great cities grow up in nations as the mature offspring of well-directed, civil 
and commercial agencies, and in their advanced development they become vital 
organs in the world's government and civilization, performing the highest 
functions of industrial and social life on the earth. They grow up where hu- 
man faculties and natural advantages are most effective. They have a part in 
the grand march of the human race, peculiar to themselves, in marking the 
progress of mankind in arts, commerce and civilization ; and they embellish 
history with its richest pages of learning, and impress on the mind of the 
scholar and the student the profoundest lessons of the rise and fall of nations. 
They have formed in all ages the great centers of industrial, artistic and in- 
tellectual life, from which mighty outgrowths of civilization have expanded. 
In short, they are the mightiest works of man. And whether we view them 
wrapped in the flames of the conqueror, and surrounded with millions of earn- 
est hearts, yielding in despair to the wreck of fortune and life at the fading 
away of expiring glory, or the sinking of a nation into oblivion ; or whether 
we contemplate them in the full vigor of prosperity, with steeples piercing the 
very heavens, with royal palaces, gilded halls, and rich displays of wealth and 
learning, they are the same ever wonderful objects of man's creation, ever im- 
pressing with profoundest conviction lessons of human greatness and human 
glory. Even in their decay they have been able to wrestle with all human 
time and resist oblivion. We have only to go with Yolney through the Euins 
of Empire ; to trace the climbmg path of man, from his first appearance on the 
fields of history to the present day, by the evidences we find along his path- 
way in the ruins of the great cities, the creation of his own hands. The les- 
sons of magnitude and durability which great cities teach may be more clearly 
realized in the following eloquent passage from a lecture of Louis Kossuth, 
delivered in New York City : 

" How wonderful ! What a present and what a future yet ! Future ? Then 
let me stop at this mysterious word, the veil of unrevealed eternity. 

" The shadow of that dark word passed across my mind, and, amid the bustle 
of this gigantic bee-hive, there I stood with meditation alone. 

" And the spirit of the immovable past rose before my eyes, unfolding the 
picture-rolls of vanished greatness, and of the fragility of human things. 

" And among their dissolving views there I saw the scorched soil of Africa, 
and upon that soil, Thebes, with its hundred gates, more splendid than the 
most splendid of all the existing cities of the world — Thebes, the pride of old 



64 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY, 

Egypt, the first metropolis of arts and sciences, and the mysterious cradle of 
BO many doctrines, which still rule mankind in diiferent shapes, though it has 
long forgotten their source. 

" There I saw Syria, with its hundred cities ; every city a nation, and every 
nation with an empire's might. Baalbec, with its gigantic temples, the very 
ruins of which baffle the imagination of man, as they stand like mountains of 
carved rocks in the desert, where, for hundred of miles, not a stone is to be 
found, and no river flows, offering its tolerant back to carry a mountain's 
weight upon. And yet there they stood, those gigantic ruins; and as we 
glance at them with astonishinent, though we have mastered the mysterious 
elements of nature, and know the combination of levers, and how to catch the 
lightning, and how to command the power of steam and compressed air, and 
how to write with the burning fluid out of which the thunderbolt is forged, 
and how to dive to the bottom of the ocean, and how to rise up to the sky, 
cities like New York dwindle to the modest proportion of a child's toy, so that 
we are tempted to take the nice little thing up on the nail of our thumb, as 
Micromegas did with the man of wax. 

"Though we know all this, and many things else, still, looking at the times 
of Baalbec, we cannot forbear to ask what people of giants was that which 
could do what neither the puny efforts of our skill, nor the ravaging hand of 
unrelenting time, can undo through thousand of years. 

"And then I saAV the dissolving picture of Nineveh, with its ramparts now 
covered with mountains of sand, where Layard is digging up colossal winged 
bulls, large as a mountain, and yet carved with the nicety of a cameo; and 
then Babylon, with its beautiful walls; and Jerusalem, with itsunequaled tem- 
ples; Tyrus, with its countless fleets; Arad^ with its wharves; and Sidon, 
with its labyrinth of work-shops and factories ; and Ascalon, and Gaza, and 
Beyrout, and, further off, Persepolis, with its world of palaces." 

The first great cities of the world were built by a race of men inferior to 
those which now form the dominant civilization of the earth, yet there are 
many ruins of a mold superior, both in greatness and mechanical skill, to those 
which belong to the cities of our own day, as found in the marble solitudes of 
Palmyra and the sand-buried cities of Egypt. It is true, however, that ancient 
grandeur grew out of a system of idolatry and serf-labor, controlled by a self- 
ish despot or a blind priesthood, which compelled a useless display of great- 
ness in most public improvements. In our age, labor is directed more by 
practical wisdom than of old, which creates the useful more than the orna- 
mental; hence we have the Crystal Palace instead of the Pj^ramids. 

With this brief but sufiicient statement of the wonderful character, and lesson, 
which great cities have afforded along the career of the human race, let us turn 
and look beyond and inquire: "Where will grow up the future great city of the 
world?" Let us examine, and if possible ascertain among what people, in what 
nation, on what continent, the great city of the world is yet to be? 

At the very outset of this inquiry it is necessary to clearly comprehend a 
few underlying facts connected with the cities of the past and those now in 
existence, and note the influence of the more important arts and sciences upon 



ST. LOUIS, THK FUTURE GREAT CITY. 65 

the present intellectual and industrial interests of civilized men, and if possible 
■determine the tendency of the Avorld's civilization towards the unfolding 
future. 

It must be true in the case of great cities, as in the development of any other 
department of human interest, that their location and growth are directed and 
controlled by certain fundamental facts and principles, local and general in 
their character. Aii'l that with a knowledge and application of those local 
and fundamental facts and general principles, the investigator can be easily 
carried into the future, and not only the great cities and their locations be 
pointed out but also the place where the future great city of the world 
will grow wp. My task is, now, to point out those fundamental, local facts and 
general principles, and by their application, to nature and civilization, deter- 
mine where the future great city of the Avorld is destined to grow up. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 

Under this head I lay down six general principles, two of which have ever 
been all-controlling, in the production of great cities. The third is substantial- 
ly new and local to America and must exercise a controlling influence on this 
continent. 

I. I lay it down as a general principle, that the highest civilization, the 
gi-eatest concentration of wealth and the growth of the greatest cities, have 
been attained within an isothermal belt or zone of equal temperature, which 
encircles the earth in the north temperate zone. 

II. That all the great cities of the world have grown up, near to, the north 
and south, of the line of an obstructed navigation in mid winter. 

III. That human power is organized to its fullest capacity where the pro- 
ductive power of a continent is greatest. 

IV. That nearly all the great cities of the world have been built upon 
rivers. 

V. That the arts and sciences, do more, to increase population and promote 
the gi-owth, of cities, on the interior lands, than upon the sea board or coast 
lands, 

YI. That to modern civilization, domestic transportation, by water and by 
rail, is more valuable to nations of great territorial extent, than ocean naviga- 
tion. 

THE arguments DEDUCED FROM OUR EIGHT GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 

Having laid down our eight general princijiles, most of which are essential 
to the production of a great city, any where on this globe, I now proceed to 
elucidate the truth and importance of each of them, and ascertain, if possible, 
if they will not, in time, ultimate, upon this continent a greater city, than has 
yet been built by man. I will even gobej'ondand by a more exhaustive eluci- 
dation and a closer aj^plication of the truths and facts, which I shall bring to 
bear, fix the location and determine the growth of the future great city of the 
world. 



66 ST, LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

THE FIRST GENERAL PRINCIPLE ELUCIDATED. 

General Principle. I. That the highest civilization, the greatest concentration 
of wealth, and the growth of the greatest cities have been attained and devel- 
oped, within an isothermal belt or zone of equal temjjerature, which encircles 
the earth in the north temperate zone. Tlie existence of an isothermal zone, 
or belt of equal temperature, surrounding the northern hemisphere was first 
discovered by Humboldt. 

He first called scientific attention to isothei-mal lines, or lines of equal tem- 
perature, which encircle the earth in the north temperate zone. And minute 
investigations established the fact that the human race had since creation's 
dawn been moving westward, as if directed or impelled by a kind of instinct, 
within a zodiac or zone a few degrees Avide, having fur its axis a line of equal 
temperature. " During antiquity this zodiac was narrow ; it never expanded 
beyond the North African shore, nor beyond the Pontic Sea, the Danube, and 
the Rhine. Along this narrow belt civilization planted its system,- from Ori- 
ental Asia to the western extremity of Europe, with more or less perfect de- 
velopment. Modern times have recently seen it widen to embrace the region 
of the Baltic Sea. In America it starts with its broad front from Cuba to Hud- 
son's Bay. As in all previous times, it advances along a line central to these 
extremes, in the densest form and with the greatest celerity. It reveals to the 
world this shining fiict, that along it civilization has traveled, as by an inevita- 
ble instinct of nature, since creation's dawn. From this line has radiated in- 
telligence of mind from the north and to the south." It is the zodiac of em- 
pire. 

It is a noteworthy observation of Dr. Draper, in his work on the Civil "War 
in America, that within a zone a few degrees Avide, having for its axis the 
January isothermal line of forty-one degrees, all great men in Europe and Asia 
have appeared. He might have added, with equal truth, that within the same 
zone have existed all those great cities which have exerted a powerful influence 
upon the world's history, as centers of civilization and intellectual progress. 
The same inexorable but subtle law of climate which makes greatness in the 
individual unattainable in a temperature hotter or colder than a cei-tain golden 
mean, affects in like manner, with even more certainty, the development of 
those concentrations of the intellect of man which we find in great cities. If 
the temperature is too cold, the sluggish torjior of the intellectual and physi- 
cal natui-e precludes the highest development ; if the temperature is too hot, 
the fierj' fickleness of nature which warm climates produce in the individual, 
is typical of the swift and tropical growth and sudden and severe decaj" and 
decline of cities exposed to the same all-powerful influence. Beyond that zone 
of moderate temperature, the human life resembles more closely that of the 
animal, as it is forced to combat with extremes of cold or to submit to extremes 
of heat ; but within that zone the hijjhest intellectual activitv and culture are 
displayed. Nations and cities have arrayed themselves along its grand path- 
way, from Pekin, in China, to St. Louis, in America. 



/■ 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 67 

' ' Through the ageB one iinceasing purpose rune, 

And the thoughts of men are widened with the process of the sun." — 

Herein, then, lies the primal law that essentially controls and directs the 
movements of man upon this globe. 

Within this belt has already been embraced more than three-fourths of the 
world's civilization, and now about 850,000,000 people. It is along this belt 
that the processions of nations, in time, have moved forward, with reason and 
order, " in a pre-determined, a solemn march, in which all have joined; ever 
moving and ever resistlessly advancing, encountering and enduring an inevi- 
table succession of events." 

But granting that the human race, with all its freight of commerce, its 
barbarism and civilization, its arms, and arts, has been moving westward 
since the beginning of time along this zodiac of empire, through pestilence 
and j^rosperit}', across seas and over continents, like a mighty caravan gone 
forth to make the circuit of the globe, will not the same inevitable cause that 
wrested human power from the cities and nations of the ancients and vested 
it for a time in the city of the Caesars, and thence moved it to the city of Lon- 
don, cross the Atlantic Ocean, and with accumulated strength and intelligence, 
organize human power upon the North American continent, in a greater de- 
gree than has yet been known to mankind ? 

Must we not assume, that somewhere in time, this movement of the human 
race, in this zodiac of empire, will be arrested in its westward career, and man 
cease his long march around the earth, and seek the goal of his ambition on 
the American continent? Is it not impossible for the movement to cross the 
Pacific Ocean to the inferior races of Asia ? And is it not in the very nature 
of things that North America is to be the battle-ground where the great pro- 
blems of the world are to be solved, and man attain his full development on 
the planet? Is not this the full and free expression of every enlightened 
American? There is no other conclusion to which civilization is tending. 
The civil conquest of this continent completes the circuit of the globe. It 
unites the isothermal axis at the east and the west, and decides the victory of 
civilized men over the empire of nature. 

But granting that human power will still move forward until it crosses the 
Atlantic Ocean, and that it will be arrested upon the American continent, 
there still arises in the discussion another important question : as to whether 
it will reach and make a lodgment upon the Pacific coast, or will be organized 
in the centi'al plain of the continent. 

It requires but a simple observation, a simple glance at the productive char- 
acter of the continent, to settle this question. On the eastern declivity of the 
continent, is embraced a little more than one-seventh of our territorial posses- 
sions. On the western declivity is embraced, almost one-third of our domain. 
The interior plain or Mississippi basin contains 2,455,000 square miles, infinitely- 
transcending, in productive energies, either of the continental slopes and of any 
other portion of the globe. 

In territorial extent this grand valley surpasses in area all other forma- 
tions of the kind on the globe, and is much greater than the combined area of 



68 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

the Atlantic and Pacific slopes. No other continent has so great an area of 
agricultural lands as it, and none so rich in natural wealth. Its soil in richness 
and extent is beyond all comparison. Its coal-fields and iron deposits are by- 
far the greatest and the richest in the world. "Its river navigation," said 
Benton, "is the most wonderful on the globe, and, since the application of 
steam j^ower to the propulsion of vessels, possesses the essential qualities of 
open navigation. Speed, distance, cheapness, magnitude of cargoes, are all 
there, and without the perils of the sea from storms and enemies. The steam- 
boat is the ship of the I'iver, and finds in the Mississippi and its tributaries the 
amplest theatre for the diffusion and the display of its power. Wonderful 
river! connected with seas by the head and by the mouth, stretching its arms 
toward the Atlantic and the Pacific, lying in a valley which is a valley from 
the Gulf of Mexico to Hudson's Bay." 

The adaptability of the Mississippi Valle}" for building railroads is supreme 
over all other lands. Its climate is in the highest degree fitted for man, and 
the commerce afforded by its fields and factories and foundries will yet flow 
to the markets of every country. Even when looking but dimly upon that 
grand domain, De Tocqueville said that " the Mississipi^i Vallej' is, upon the 
whole, the most magnificent dwelling-place prepared by God for man's abode;" 
and Charles Sumner said " the Mississippi Valley speaks for itself as man 
cannot speak." "About the noblest work," said Thomas Hughes, " that man 
can do is the development of this magnificent continent." 

Since these things are so; since the wisest of men have testified ; since God 
has made that great valley, from Hudson's Bay to the Gulf, far the grandest 
theater for man's abode upon the planet, and fitted it upon each side with the 
great galleries — the Atlantic and Pacific slopes — must we not conclude that 
the center of human power, in its westward movement, will be arrested in the 
central plain of the continent, where are to be found the greatest supply of 
the productive energies of the earth ? In short, it must be in the grand valley, 
where the two waves of civilization — one rolling in from the Celestial Empire, 
and the other from the land of Alfred and Charlemagne — will meet and com- 
mingle together in one great swelling tide of humanity, in the land of Hia- 
watha. 

Having briefly considered the fii'st general principle laid down for the dis- 
cussion, and indicated its all-important truth, how that the great cities of the 
world have, in time, succeeded each other along the highway of nations, and 
how the power, wealth and wisdom that once ruled in Troy, Athens, Carthage, 
Bome, Genoa and Venice is now, in the still onward, and westward, movement 
of the great Family of man, represented by the city of London ; the precursor 
of the final great city of the world — will in time cross the Atlantic Ocean, 
and be arrested in the central plain of North America where in less than one 
hundred years, the great city of the future will grow up, let us pass to a eon- 
Bideration of the general proposition. 

II. That all the great cities of the world have grown up near to the north 
and south, of the line of unobstructed navigation in mid-winter. 

By the line of unobstructed navigation in mid-winter I mean that line that 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 69 

bounds the limits of freezing so as to obstruct by navigation with ice. Such a 
line drawn around the earth, would pass by or near to Cairo, at the junction 
of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. And to the north of it would be much ot 
the internal navigation of the great basin. It is upon such a line, and near to- 
it north and south, that all the great cities have and will grow up on the- 
globe. 

The truth of this must be evident, to every person who Avill consider the: 
subject for one moment. 

Climate every where upon the earth, controls vegetation. Every where in thei 
pui'suit of toil and gain, man is compelled to combat extremes of heat and cold^ 
and the severer the conflict, the greater the impediment to his success and pro- 
gress; hence it is along and adjacent to that line midway the extremes of 
heat and cold, that his successes must be greatest, that his achievements must bo 
most complete. Especially must this be true, south of the unobstructed lino 
of navigation. For it cannot be denied that any impediments to the free ex- 
change of commerce, interposed, by cold, on land or water, is more expensivo 
to the people belonging to the regions where the climate interferes, than to 
those regions of country which are comparatively free from embarrassments in- 
terposed b}' cold weather, thus affording no imjjediment to the ready exchange 
of commerce. Therefore, the people south of such a line must possess advan- 
tages for the promotion of prosperity and wealth, over those regions where 
Bnow^ and ice and the rigors of the climate interpose unavoidable obstacles. 
Still further, the climatic boundary line, to human advancements, has ever been 
to the north and not to the south. The infinite Father basset bounds to the 
north that he has not to the south, and every race and every nation has sub- 
missively conformed to the dictation of providence, and made the great battle 
ground for arms and arts south of the axis of the zodiac of empire instead of 
north of it. Thus proving the greater advantages for men and cities, south of 
the unobstructed line of navigation, than to the north of it. 

But let us pass to our next general principle. 

III. That nearly all the great cities of the world have been built upon rivers, 
whether in the interior or near the ocean's edge : such as Bab3'lon, on the 
Euphrates; Thebes, on the Nile; Nineveh, on the Tigris; Constantinople, on 
the Bosiihorus; Eome, on the Tiber; Paris, on the Seine; London, on the 
■Thames ; New York, on the Hudson ; Cincinnati, on the Ohio ; and St. Louis, 
on the Mississippi ; while Carthage, St. Petersburg, and Chicago belong to in- 
terior waters, and Palmja-a and the City of Mexico to the interior country. 

That there is an important reason why cities are built upon rivers, must be 
evident to every reflecting man. All commercial transactions are leased upon 
transportation — the facilities for the easy and cheap exchange and transportation 
of products, merchandise and peoples, to and from commercial centers. Elv- 
ers for navigation and for the abundant supply of water for domestic purposes, 
have afforded natural advantages for interior and foreign commerce, that cannot 
be supplied without them. 

Not even the new agency, the railway — ti"anscends in the importance of use- 
fulness the natural advantages afforded to the cities, by the navigable rivers 



70 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY, 

They only contribute to give impoi'tance to those advantages, by gathering 
up and concentrating the products of the land at given points on the great 
rivers. Hence the advantages afforded to great cities by great rivers will ever 
remain paramount to localities on the shores of the oceans and lakes; while 
upon them must ever grow the great cities of the world. Passing to our next 
general principle. 

IV. That the greatest human power will grow up and become organized, 
■where the productive power of a continent is greatest. 

The truth of this principle is found in the fact that all man's material inter- 
ests, upon the land, depend U2)0n the material wealth, or productive power of 
the land; viz: the rich soils, the timber, the metals, the domestic navigation 
&c., &c., essential to the uses and wants of man. This truth is so jjlainand so 
great, that it requires no argument for its demonstration. 

It is true that this general principle, in its application to the production of 
great cities has more force in North America, than in any other portion of 
the world. 

Neither the cities of Asia, Africa nor Europe, have depended so much, for 
their immediate prosperity and growth, upon the productive energies of those 
continents, as do and will, the cities of North America. 

Here the whole tendency of industrial civilization is to utilize the labors 
and natural resources of the country, in an aggregated form, more than in any 
other land. And though the results are not yet so over-shadowing in their 
apjjearance, the principle has been vigorous)}' applied. And with the superior 
advantages, which this land affords, for the use of the railway, every sutoeed- 
ingyear added to our national life must bring still stronger evidence, tc prore 
that in North America, the great city is destined to be in the center of the 
productive power of the country, where the center of human power must 
grow up. 

Against the truth and application of this general principle there can be no 
adverse argument ; hence it affords the basis for the strongest possible argu- 
ment in favor of the future great city of the world, growing up in North 
America. From that we pass to our next general principle. 

V. That the arts and sciences, contribute more, to increase population and 
promote the growth of cities upon the inland of a contimcnt, than upon the 
sea-board or coast lands. Steam engines, labor-saving machines, books, the 
value and use of metals, government, the enforcement of laws, and other means 
of self-protection — all have tended more to make the people of the interior 
more numerous, powerful and wealthy than those who dwell along the shores 
of the ocean. 

The truth of this is found in the fact, that man's relations and interests are 
with the land and its natural resources. With these the arts and sciences bar© 
to deal, and where the greatest opportunities combine with the greatest re» 
sources, the arts and sciences contribute most to the welfare of man and tO 
the building up of great cities. 

Our sixth and last fundamental principle is : 

VI. That to modern civilization, domestic transportation by water, and bj 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 71 

rail, is more valuable to nations of great territorial extent, than ocean trans- 
portation. While this fundamental principle, is correct as a genei-al truth, it 
is intimately blended and belongs to and depends upon, the use and application 
of the last two preceding general principles. The arts and sciences contrib- 
uting, only to man's happiness and welfai'e, where their application can be 
made in the most practical way. 

Having thus defined the general principles, in nature and in civilization, 
which produce the great cities of the world, and having laid down these prin- 
ciples as a basis upon which to found the argument and determine the position 
of the future great city, I will now proceed at once to the discussion. 

Assuming that the six fundamental principles just laid down are true, and 
that by a proper understanding of them, it is possible to determine when and 
where the futui'e great city of the world is destined to grow up on the earth, I 
shall at the very out-set of the discussion make the bold declaration, that the 
great city of the future, is to gi'ow up in North America, and that Saint Louis 
is to be that city. The elaboration of our first fundamental principle demon- 
strates beyond question, that the center of human power moving westward, 
in the zodiac of emjiii-emust cross the Atlantic Ocean and make a lodgement in 
North America, and that too where the center of human power is fixed, the 
great city must grow up. 

It must grow up near the axis of that great belt of empire, near the unob- 
structed line of water navigation in mid-winter; on the great river where 
climates cannot rudely interpose obstacles to commerce and navigation. This 
being true, it is a fact of no little impoi-tance, that the very axis of the zone of 
empire — the center of equilibrium between excess of heat and cold — the Janu- 
ary isothermal line of forty-one degrees — passes nearer to the city of St. Louis, 
than to any other considerable city on this continent! Close to that .same 
isothermal line lie London, Paris, Rome, Constantinople and Pekin; north of 
it lie Now York, Philadelphia and Chicago, and south of it lies San Fi-ancisco. 
Thus favored in climate, lying iii the very center of that belt of intellectual 
activity, beyond which neither great man nor great city has yet appeared, St. 
Louis may, with reason, be expected to attain the highest rank, if other con- 
ditions favor. 

Thus we see that St. Louis is not only situated near to the axis of the belt 
of empire, but also near to the line of unobstructed winter navigation which, 
in addition, being supremely favored, as 1 shall show by the other fundamental 
principles laid down at the basis of this discussion, it only remains to support 
those principles by local and general facts, to establish the position and cer- 
tainty of the future great city. Then rising from principles to essential 
necessities for the maintainance of human life, we find that the growth of a 
city is analagous to the growth of a human being, and that there are certain 
prime necessities for the maintainance of human lifej the abundance of which 
stimulates health and the rapid increase of population, and consequently stimu- 
lates the growth of gi-eat cities in proportion to the cheapness and abundance 
of the supply. These i^rime necessities are first, food; second, clothing; third, 
shelter. 



72 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

There can be no civilized life without all of these; and as they are the pro- 
ducts of labor and skill, where they can be produced in the greatest abundance 
and used to the greatest advantage, and the most extensivel}', wmII almost cer- 
tainly be the place where the center of population will be fixed on this 
continent and where the gi-eat city will grow up — where our problem will be 
solved. Added to these should be ample facilities for the intercommunion of 
the people, one with another, and for the ready exchange of commodities 
forming foreign and domestic commerce. These may be enumerated as good 
roads, railways, and navigable channels, with attendant cheap freights. 

That St. Louis occupies a geographical position, central to the productivo 
energies of the continent there can be no question of doubt. In fact no city 
on the globe is so w^ell favored with the resoui'ces necessary to pi'oduce food, 
and tlie materials out of which clothing and houses are made. 

To establish the truth of this statement we have onlj' to examine, in a cursory 
manner, the facts — their continental importance as Providence has bounteously 
provided them on every hand, throughout the length and breadth of the great 
valley of the Mississippi. Let us consider them briefl}-. 

Leaving the Atlantic seaboard and coming west of the Appalachian moun- 
tains, Ave at once enter the domain of the Mississippi Valley, which comiirises 
an area of 2,445,000 square miles, and extends through thirty degrees of longi- 
tude and twenty-three degrees of latitude. 

The Mississippi Valley embraces, within its vast extent, a variety of climates, 
an area of rich soil, an extent of river navigation, a supph- of mineral wealth 
and a configuration of surface, equaled nowhere else on this globe. 

Neither Asia, Africa, Europe nor South America can boast of a valley so 
vast in extent, and so bountifully supplied with natural wealth and natural, 
advantages, essential to the industrial and commercial progress of man. 

To satisfy the reader of the truth of these statements, a few general facts are 
submitted : 

RIVERS OF ASIA. 

Yanqtse — Length, 3,200 miles; navigable, 900 to 1,500 miles; area drained, 
740,000 square miles. 

Obi — Length, 2,530 miles; navigable, 900 miles; area drained, 1,357^000 
square miles. 

RIVERS OF AFRICA. 

Nile — Length, 3,600 miles; navigation ■ unknown ; area drained, 520,000 
square miles. 

Niger — Length, 2,500 miles; navigable, 700 miles; area drained, unknown. 

RIVERS OF EUROPE. 

Volga — Length, 2,150 miles; navigable, 1,800 miles; area drained, 400,000' 
square miles. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 7S 

Danube — Length, 1,700 miles; navigable, 1,500 miles; area drained, 250,- 
000 square miles. 

RIVERS op SOUTH AMERICA. 

Amazon — Length, 4,000 miles; navigable, 3,662 miles; area drained, 2,000,- 
000 square miles. 

Laplata — Length, 2,550 miles; navigable, 1,250 miles; area drained, 1,250,- 
000 square miles. 

RIVERS OP NORTH AMERICA. 

Mississippi — Length, 2,616 miles; navigable, 2,200 miles; area drained^ 
2,455,350 square miles. 

Missouri — Length, 2,908 miles; navigable, 2,000 miles; area drained, 518,- 
000 square miles. 

The above statement of the length, navigable depth and area drained by the- 
ten longest rivers in the world, settles the question of sujjeriority in favor of 
the great river of North America — the MississipjDi, and decides the question of 
size between the great basins. 

Although geographical science long since established the fact that the Ama- 
zon was the king of rivers, modern and minute investigation, has proven the 
basin of the Mississippi, as the above figures show, to surpass in extent any 
other formation of the kind on the globe. It is true that Humboldt estimated 
the area drained by the Amazon to be 2,800,000 square miles, but more recent 
authorities place the number below that of the Mississippi basin. Not only do 
the facts demonstrate the Mississippi basin to be larger than that of the Amazon, 
but the configuration of the two parts of the American continent is quite differ^ 
ent, that of North America presenting three vast interior plains, comprising 
more than one-half of its populable area; that of South America presenting a 
configuration far more mountainous, and devoid of great plains similar to those 
forming the great basin of the Mississippi. 

In the Mississippi Valle%', which is still new in its development, there are al- 
ready many large and flourishing cities, each expecting, in the future, to be 
greater than the others. First among these stand Chicago, Cincinnati, St. 
Louis, and New Orleans — four cities destined, at no distant day, to surpass, in 
wealth and pojnilation, the four cities of the Atlantic seaboard — Boston, New 
York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. Assuming, then, that the future great city 
is to be in the Mississippi Valley, we are to ascertain which of the four cities 
it is to be, or whether some new and more prosperous rival wnll present itself 
for that great achievement. As the gi'eat city is to be in the future, we must 
view it as the growth of the well-developed resources of our countrj- ; and, all 
things being considered, it is but just to say that, inasmuch as it will be an or- 
ganisin of human power, it Avill grow up in or near the center of the produc- 
tive power of the Continent. That Chicago, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and New 
Orleans have each many natural advantages, there can be no question. There 
is, however, this difference : the area of surrounding country, capable of min- 



74 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

istering to the wants of the people and supplying the trade of a city, is broken, 
in the case of Xew Orleans, by the Gulf of Mexico, LakePontchartrain and by 
regions of swamps-. In the ease of Chicago, it is diminished one-third by Lake 
Michigan; while Cincinnati and St. Louis both have around them unbroken 
and uninterrupted areas of rich and productive lands, each capable of sustaining 
a large population. But if it be asked, to which of these cities belong the great- 
est advantages must we not answer, it is the one nearest the center of the 
productive power of the Continent? Most certainl}', for there will grow up 
the human power. And is not this center St. Louis ? "We have only to appeal 
to facts to establish the superior natural advantages of St. Louis over any oth- 
er citv on the Continent. 

But, before we enter upon a discussion of the productive powers of the 
Continent, let us look for one moment at the elements of human want upon 
which civilization is founded: and this brings us back to a consideration of our 
auxiliary and essential requisites to our six fundamental facts. Under all cir- 
cumstances, and in every condition of life, in country or clime, the first and 
greatest necessity of man is food ; and, a civilization and an industry univer- 
sally founded upon the principle "for value i-eceived," it is incontrovertibly 
true that, in that part of the country where the most food can be produced and 
supplied at the cheapest rates to the consumers, there will be an essential 
requisite to encourage and sustain a dense population. Then, without entering 
into a detailed investigation of the advantages afforded to Chicago, Cincinnati, 
and New Orleans, for obtaining an all-sufficient sujjply of cheap food, we shall 
at once assume that St. Louis is central to a better and greater food-producing 
area or country, than either one or the other three cities ; and that no man can 
disj^rove the assumption, is most certainly true. 

St. Louis is, substantially, the geographical center of this great valley, which, 
as we have already seen, contains an area of 2,445,000 square miles, and will, 
in the mature development of the capacity- of its soil, control at least, the pro- 
ducts of 1,000,000 square miles. That we may infer, approximately, the capa- 
city of the more central portions of this valley for food producing purposes, 
we call to the calculation an estimate, made by the Agricultural Bureau, of the 
cereal products of the Xorth-west for the next four decades: 

Year Bushels. 

1870.'. 762,200,000 

1880 1,219,520,000 

1890 1,951.232,000 

igbo'.'.!!".;!!!;!;!!!...;;; ; 3,121,970,000 

We consume in this country an average of about five bushels of wheat to the 
inhabitant, but, if necessar}', can get along with something less, as we have 
many substitutes, such as corn, rye and buckwheat. A low estimate will show 
that our population will be in: 

Year Population. 

1870* 42.090,000 

1880 . 56,000,000 

1890 77.000.900 

1900.!."!!...!! 100,000,000 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 76 

Accordingly, we can use for home consumption alone of wheat in: 

Year. Bushels. 

1870 210,000,000 

1880 280,000,000 

1890 885,000,000 

1900 500,000,000 

This calculation is made for Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Wisconsin and Minne- 
sota,; and by taking into the account Nebraska, Kansas, the Indian Tei'ritory, 
and Arkansas, four additional States which naturally belong to the account of 
this argiunent, we at once swell the amount of food for the next three decades 
to a sufficiency to supply hundreds of millions of human beings, at as cheap 
rates as good soil and human skill, and labor can produce it. 

Nor do these States comprise half of the food-producing area of the Valley 
of the Mississippi. Other large and fertile States, more eastern, and southern, 
and western — Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississipj)!, 
Louisiana, Texas, Kansas and Nebraska — do now, and will continue to, con- 
tribute largely to the sum total of the food produced in the Valley States. 
And when we consider that less than one-fifth of the entire jiroducts of the 
whole country in 1860 was exported to foreign countries, thus leaving four- 
fifths for exchange in domestic commerce between the States, and that such is 
the industrial and commercial tendency of our people to a constant propor- 
tional increase of our domestic over our foreign exchange, we see an inevitable 
tendency in our people to concentrate industrially and numerically in the 
interior of the Continent. And when we take into the account that not more 
than eighteen per cent, of the soil of the best States of this valley is under cul 
tivation, we are still more amazed at the thought of what the future will 
produce, when the whole shall have been brought under a high state of im- 
proved culture. Then the food-producing capacity of this valley will be ample 
to supply more people than now occupy the entire globe, and with the 
superior advantages of domestic navigation that St. Louis has over any of the 
valley cities, and the still additional advantages which she will have in railway 
communications, and her proximity to rich soils, where can a people be sup- 
plied with more and cheaper food than here ? Not onl}' are the superior 
advantages atforded for the jn'oduction of an abundance of cheap corn and 
wheat for food, but also for the growth of rye, oats, barley, sugar and all kinds 
of vegetables and fruits essentially necessary for the wants of those who inhabit 
the land. In addition to the food taken direct from the soil, St. Louis is better 
situated than the other three cities for being amply supplied, at the lowest 
possible rates, with the best quality of animal food. Not only is thei'C every 
advantage on all sides to be supplied with animal food from the constantly 
increasijig products of agricultural districts adjacent to the city, but in twenty 
hours ride by railway we reach the great pastoral region of our country, where, 
in a few years, cattle and sheep will swarm over the wild prairies in infinite 
numbers, where they ai-e kept in reserve to supply the markets of the con- 
stantly increasing people. Already the domestic animals — quadrupeds — are 
more numerous in civilized life than were the wild quadrupeds among the 



76 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

aboriginal savages of this country. In the year 1870, taken together, horses, 
asses and mules, oxen, sheep and swine amounted lo 85,703,913 millions, or 
more than twice the human population of the Union. 
The census returns show the number to be a follows: 

Horses, 7,145,370 

Mules and Asses, 1,125,415 

Milch Cows 8,935,332 

Working Oxen, 1,319,271 

Other Cattle, 13.566,005 

Sheep 28,477,951 

Swine, 25,134,569 

Total 85,703,9ia 

Considering the great pastoral region of our country wliich will, before 
many years, be brought into use, the increase of quadrupeds will, no doubt, be 
greater than that of man ; at least, for the next fift}' j-ears, the inci'ease on the 
pastoral region will exercise a valuable influence in aiding to establish good 
and sufficient markets in the large cities of the Vallev Stales, thus concentrat- 
ing and strengthening the power of the interior people, who will find ample 
food at all times. And, in ever}' view of the subject of food, there seems to 
be no question as to the advantage St. Louis will possess for an abundance and 
for cheapness over the other three cities, holding, as she does, the nearest re- 
lation to the producer, and with better flicilities for obtaining it. 

Let us now pass from this general consideration of the suppl}^ of food to St. 
Louis, to one of a more local character. 

Just across the Mississippi river, and stretching up and down its water line 
in front of St. Louis, lies the American Bottom, estimated to contain 400 square 
miles, or 256,000 acres. In fertility of soil and strength of productive energies, 
no equal area of land can be found," to surpass it in richness. A large portion 
of tbis tract has been cultivated for more than one hundred years, without any 
indications of a loss of ferulit\', or productive strength. This tract alone is 
sufficient to supply an abundance of v'egetable food, of the best quality, to a 
population of more than 5,000,000. An advanUige of this kind, so easy of ac- 
cess and so reliable to produce, must be regarded as one of incalculable value, 
to aid in building up and maintaining the food supplies of a great city. 

Next to food, as a prime necessity, is clothing. The principal materials out 
of which to make clothing are wool, cotton, flax and hides. Each of these can 
be produced cheapest and best in and adjacent to the food-producing regions, 
or, at any rate, the wool and the leather. In fad, in the final advancement 
and multiplication of the human species upon the planet, for the want of room, 
cotton will have to be abandoned, and only those animals and vegetables cul- 
tivated, that can serve the double purpose of supplying food and clothing, and 
material for the mechanic arts. This will compel cattle and sheep, and wheat 
and corn, to be the principal food. The flesh of the sheep and the cow will 
supply food, and the hides, leather, and the wool, clothing. The grain of the 
corn and the wheat will also form food, while the stalk will enter into many 
uses in art. The hog will finally be compelled to give up the conflict of lifej 
his mission will be fulfilled, and man will require a more refined food for his 



ST. LOUIS, THE FLTURE GREAT CITY. 77 

more refined organization. Fish will not be in the way of man in his higher 
and more multitudinous walk upon the earth, and, consequently, will continue 
to supply a valuable portion of his food. Cotton Avill, ere long, be driven to 
an extreme southern coast, and, finally, gain a strong foothold in Central 
America and other more extreme southern countries, and, at last, yield to su- 
perior demands. But, to return : St. Louis, on account of the large area of rich, 
and, in most part, cheap lands, surrounding her in every direction, has equal, 
if not better advantages, for being supplied with ample materials for cheap and 
good clothing than an}- other city on the Continent j and, Avith superior ad- 
vantages, as we shall show after awhile, for the manufacture of the materials 
into clothing, she will stand first in facilities to supply fuod and clothing to 
her ever-increasing people. 

But more especially must we look to wool as the most valuable material out 
of which, the greater portion of the clothing worn by the American people, is 
to be made. And it is not only a gratifying, but great fact, to know that in 
less than three hundred miles distant from St. Louis, the finest wool in the 
worlds has been raised, for more than twenty -five years. The late Mr. Mark 
Cochirell of Nashville, Tennessee, so celebrated, for his immense flock of fine 
sheep, had the honor of raising the finest wool known in the world. He took 
the first premium for fine wool at the World's Fair, at London in 1851. The 
following letter from his own pen, shows the suj^erioi'ity of his wool, when com- 
pared with the reputable sheep of other and older lands. 

WOOL AND WOOL-GROWING. 

Nanhville, Tennessee, October "ilst, 1850. 

Sir : — Your favor was duly received, and I cheerfully made a communication for your Annual 
Report, on the subject of wool-culture and sheep husbandry in the low latitudes of the United 
States. Observation and many years' experience have brought me to difterent conclusions from all 
others who have written on this subject, upon the effects and influence of warm climates on wool- 
growing, and especially upon the finest Saxony wools. 

In a letter addressed to the Commissioner of the Patent Office, and published in the Report for 
1848, page 627, I expressed the opinion " that the United States are a better wool-growing country 
than any portion of Europe ; that tjic low latitudes have an advantage over the high, and will pro- 
duce finer wool ; and also, that as fine wool is now grown in the United States as can be found in 
the world." 

I stated further that I had studied tliis subject with diligence and devotion for 35 years, and 
thought I had come to correct conclusions ; but the Commissioner, Hon. E. Burke, decided that I 
"was wrong, and most decidedly mistaken in the whole matter," and that Mr. Fleischman's views, 
who had said that we must go to Germany for sheep, if we hoped to succeed, were no doubt cor- 
rect. Still confident that my long study and experience had not misled me, when the Commissioner 
published his Report and remarks, I addressed him a letter, which may be found in the " Plough, 
Loom, and Anvil," page 366, December No., 1849, offering to exhibit selections from my own flock, 
in latitude 36deg., against any sheep which could be found in all Silesia, or any high latitude in 
Europe, and especially above 50deg., north latitude. This offer has not been accepted, and I have 
DO fears of the result, if it ever should be. 

It is gratifying now to refer to the impartial evidence of science in favor of the positions then 
taken. 1 was certain the facts existed, but I did not know that the researches and inventions of 
our countryman, P. A. Browne, Esq., of Pennsylvania, would so soon present the testimony in so 
eatisfactory and tangible shape. Mr. Browne practised law for more than 30 years in the city of 



78 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Philadelphia ; retired from [iractice, he has devoted years to the study of hair and wool, aided by 
the lights of others and his own inventions. I consider his examinations, therefore, entitled to full 
faith and credit. 

From two letters addressed to the Hon. R. R. Reed, of Pennsylvania, and myself, published in 
the May No. of the " Plough, Loom and Anvil," 1850, I beg leave to make a few extracts, which 
show important results to the United States, because it places her at the head of the list of all coun- 
tries for fine wools. 

Mr. Browne examined 65 samples, or collections of samples, from all parts of the world, and 
especially the 18 samples brouglit over by Mr. Fleischman, from the most renowned flocks of Eu- 
rope, and distributed, through your office, to the several States, as the standards of excellence, and 
worthy of imitation. 

The quality is exprf^ssed liv the nuniber of fibres which will cover an inch ; or, the diameter of 
one fibre is that fraction of an inch. The low figures indicate the coarser wools, and the high fig- 
ures the finer. 

To an inch. 

."No. 4. Common American wool 500 

' " The wool of Leicester (England) 500 

" " The Irish long wool 560 

" 17. Wool of Odessa 750 

" 31. Three-quarter Aiiierioan Saxony 1041 

" 32. AVool from the herd of Dambran, improved bv buck from Prince Lichiiowskv, 

by C. L. Fleischman ~. '... 1093 

" 34. Lamb fmrn the Duke of Leitcheman, in the possession of Hon. It. R. Keed, 

Pennsylvania 1093 

" 37. Wool from buck "Napoleon," valued at $1500, owned by M. Heller of Chre- 

zelitz, whose flock is considered the onlv rival to that of Prince Lichnowskv, 

collected bv Mr. Fleischman ". ".. 1200 

" 38. Wool from a'buck of the herd of Keti, from Huiii^arv, bv Mr. Fleischman 1200 

" 39. Ewe of Prince Lichnowsky, Kuchelna .....".....". 1250 

" 40. Kuck of Koggon, in Mecklenburg, collected by Mr. Fleischman 1250 

" 42. Ewe from the Duke of Leitcheman. dam <>f the ram of Hon. R. K. Heed „ 1250 

" 45. Another ewe of Prince Lichnowskv, by Mr. Fleischman •. 1562 

" 46. Buck, near Moscow, Russia, by same 1572 

." 47. Buck of Prince Ksterhazy, by same 1572 

" 50. Ewe of the herd of Guettsnandorf, celebrated for its thorough blooii, by same.. 1580 

" 51. Buck of the herd of the Vicerov of Hungarv IGOO 

" 54. Buck of Gross Herlitz, Silesia.^ '. 1875 

" 61. Specimen from a wool-merchant, Dresden 2186 

•' 57. Ewe of Colonel Randall, New York 1875 

" " Specimens from 5 ewes and 5 bucks of Mr. S. Patterson. Pennsylvania 2186 

" " Specimen of Colonel Lee's flock, Peimsvlvania 1875 

" " Flock of Mr. Robert Allen, Virginia.....'. 1875 

" 65. Five specimens from the flock of Mr. Mark R. Cockrill, Tennessee, as 

follows : — 

" 1 1572 

" 2 1875 

" 3. This is H beautiful even wool 1875 

" 4. This is a clean even wool cif the extreme fineness of. 218G 

" 5. Not uniform 2186 

" 5. Some strands in this specimen 2500 

The above is tlie evidence of scientific iiistninu-nts in the hand? of a gentleman devoted to the 
investigation of tliis s-ubject, and I'ully sustains my position, tliat the United States are giowing as 
fine wool as Saxony, Silesia, or any other part of the world. 

Mr. FleiscliMian recommended, in his report, that wool-growers should e:o to Clnezelitz and give 
Mr. Heller $1500 for such bucks as " Napoleon," for the purpose of improving the qnalitii of our 
wool. Compare the sample from Napoleon with the samples in Mr. Brown's cabinet, from New 
York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and Tennessee: 

United States samples „ 1875, 2186 and 2500 

Napoleon — rival flock to Prince Lichnowskv 1200 

Was I mistaken, then, when I said that as fine bucks could be purchased in the United States 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 79 

for |60, as those in Gciniaiiy wliicli aio valued mid sold at $1500? What improvement in quality 
of wool would such a buck aa Napoleon be to the flocks of New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and 
Tennessee, which grow the samples in the above collection, running from 1500 to 2500, whilst he 
wears a coat, grown in tlie snows of Noriliein Europe, of only 1200 to the inch * 

The sample from the flock of Prince Esierhazy, of Hungary, is 15'7'2. This Hungarian prince, it 
is said, owns a flock of 3,000,000 sheep, and 4,480,000 acres of land. We have a right to suppose 
that he lias done every thing that wealth and leisure could accomplish in thai latitude, to improve 
his flock. Yet, would a buck with a fleece of 1572 be an improvement upon our ewes in the low 
latitudes of 36deg., which bear now the "beautiful even fleece of 218ti?" The same remarks apply 
wiih equal force to the flock of Prince Liclmowsky, of Kuchelua, whose samples are 1250 aud 
1562. 

I cannot omit a notice of a remark of Mr. Fleischman, at page 306. He says : " It has been found 
that the highly inii>roved sheep do not last well in America, and that the wool grown in America 
bv the German sheep does not at all compare with that grown in Germany." 

lean excuse Mr. Fleischman's pai-tiality for his " falherhmd," but Isliould do injustice to our own 
country not to challenge a test of such statenients. I hold diiecily the reverse of both these pro- 
positions, and, on the subject of wool, refer to the testimony of Mr. Browne, wh(; deserves from our 
wool-growers a service of plate and a suit of clothes from the " beautiful fleece of 2186," for his 
investigations in this impoitant product. 

There is a traditional belief entertained by the greater poition of the world, that sheep by nature 
belongs to a cold couittri/ ; and that when they are removed from a cold to a warm climate, the 
wool will grow coarser. My obseivations and reflections on this point have convinced me that, 
when the latitude is not below SOdeg N., the reverse of this tradition is true. I believe that the 
improved Saxony sheep, brouglit from the snows of Russia to Texas, in the United States, will pro- 
duce a finer, evenerand fuller fleece than while in Russia. I think the evidence is pretty conclusive 
that the Merino sheep are natives of the orange gioves, and are fitted by nature for tlie warm 
climates generally. Climate is a law of nature, and her laws are in harmony. The animal fitted 
for warm climates are most healthful and vigorous under the action and influence of these laws. 
The elephant, lion, and camel are organized to bear with healthful influences the long-continued 
heat of Africa, and the white bear grows fat on the ice of the Arctic seas. I can with confidence 
say to all husbandmen in the cotton districts of the United States, that, for growing fine wool, they 
have nothing to fear from climate. 

I consider Texas an admirable location for wool-growing, as there is a scarcity of timlier, and it is 
rot so well adapted to other agricultural pursuits. The prairies are productive of grass without 
the labor of man. The winters are mild, open and warm, furnishing green food, with a regularly 
growing fleece throughout the year. Population sparse, and lands cheap, requiring but a small 
capital to engage profitably in the business. Our population is rapidly increasing, and must con- 
tinue to do so ; and last year we imported nearly 20,000,000 pounds of raw wool, besides the wool- 
en goods whicii we annually take from foreign countries. These are strong facts in favor of a 
continued demand for wool. 

Though cotton, the liappy gift of heaven to that class of men blessed witli the fewest comforts of 
life, is steadily in competition with all other materials for coarse goods, yet there are appropriate uses 
for wool which nothing else can supply. The cotton district, embracing 10 States, an J about 600,- 
000 square miles, presents a wide field for the growth of wool. The resources of the South are but 
partially developed, and I am happy to see Southern opinion awakening on this subject. The spin- 
dles and looms are coming to the cotton fields, and when they are up, the cotton crop alone will 
yield $150,000,000 per annum. The wool crop, at 20 sheep to the square mile, will yield 30,000,- 
000 pounds, besides rice aud sugar. We have spread over our cotton teiritory, and the great en- 
terprise of opening new cotton States is nearly closed. We have about $750,000,000 invested in 
the growth of cotton, an enterprise of comparatively but a few years, and the addition now of the 
spindles and looms in tlie cotton fields will double the product of this great growing capital, and 
insure consumption by furnishing coarse goods for the laborers of all the world, at cheaper rates 
than they ever have been or ever can be furnished elsewhere. 



so ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

The cotton district of the United States is to become, in a few years, the dispenser of a great pub. 
lie charity, by furi'ishing the laborers of many portions of the world witli the cheapest clothing 
made in Europe or America. Tlie wool crop may be grown in tlie cotton distiict, without diminish- 
ing the latter, and thus add to the resources of the South. All the cotton region is adapted to wool 
^nd sheep. 

In my estimation, the South is not dependent and not we:ik ; but rich in natural advantages, and 
now ready to say she will luin to account the gilts of nature, and show the strength of her position. 
No power at home or aljroad has any just right to interfere with our domestic relations, and there- 
by disturb our quiet, and arrest tlie full development of our lesources. 

I have said that the low latitudes of the United States will grow the finest Saxony wool, finerthan 

Silesia, the boasted province of Europe. I am also satisfied that the intellect uf the Caucasian race, 

■under the genial influences of our southern sun, and tlie ellects of our domestic relations, is more 

rapid, more polisiied, and more brilliant tlian it is in the higher latitudes of our own country. Mind 

is power ; and the Soutli may add this to its othc-r natural advantages ; and these powers, when 

■developed and understood, and associated in harmony, point to a prosperous destiny. 

I am, very respectfully, yours, 

MARK R. COCKRILL. 
Hon. Thomas Ewbaxk, 

Co>n7ni.s-iioner of Patents. 

This fact is one of great value to the people of the Mississippi, and especially 
to St. Louis, she being situated in the center of a vast and superior sheep 
growing region. 

Next to food and clothing as a prime necessity, for civilized men, is shelter; 
•comfortable and commodious houses in which to live. Without these there can 
be no advancement made in society and civilization, as seen contrasting the 
•condition of the ancient G-reeks and Britons, with that of the civilized people 
of to-day. 

The materials, out of which most of the houses are made, in Amei-ica, are 
brick, stone and wood. In the cities, brick and stone are the principal mater- 
ials used. Farmers use brick and wood. All these materials are to be found, 
in inexhaustible quantities, in every possible direction, from St. Louis, for more 
than three hundred miles distant. It is true Chicago possesses an advantage 
over St. Louis, for an abundant supply of cheap pine lumber. But when we 
consider that the best materials, out of which to make good houses, are stone 
and brick, and that all the better class and more substantial buildings, in the 
great cities, are made of these materials, and that no city on the continent is so 
well favored with them, as St. Louis, then the mere question of pine lumber, 
or at any rate of the slight difference in price, affords no advantage for build- 
ing material, to Chicago, over vSt. Louis. Even the new and best buildings of 
Chicago are made of stone and brick, brought from distant places j while St. 
Louis stands on an immense foundation of good limestone, from which thou- 
sands of perch are quarried annually, and worked into first-class buildings. 
Besides, w^ithin fifty and one hundred miles from the city, in the south-eastern 
part of the State, are inexhaustible beds, of choice qualities, of as fine building 
Btone as the continent affords : — such as the red and white granite ; choice 
marbles of various colors, besides a great variety of other valuable qualities of 
soft and hard stones. Also extensive forests of the most valuable timbers, 
suited for the mechanic arts and for building material, are to be found in the 



ST. LOUTS, THE FUTURE GREAT OITT. 8 

south-eastern portion of the State, one and two hundred miles from St. Louis. 
Brick, first-class quality, are made in various parts of the city, and supply the 
demand for building purposes. Nor can any of these supplies be exhausted for 
ages to come. Stone and wood are found in abundance in all parts of the Val- 
ley States, wherewith to supply the farmer with cheap building materials. 

Thus, we have seen that the three essential requisites, food, clothing and 
shelter, necessary to man's wants and the purposes of civilization, can be sup- 
plied in abundance and cheapness to St. Louis, with greater advantages than 
to any other city belonging to the Valley States; and these must render her 
the greatest market and the best depot for such materials that the continent 
alTords. 

Passing, then, from these essential requisites, let us take up another line of 
discussion, that bears more directly upon the future development of American 
commerce and American civilization. I refer to the productive power of the 
continent, which is the basis of our physical and material life. In what does 
the productive power of the continent consist ? I answer it consists in the rich 
soils suited to agricultural pui-poses, the coal-fields, the mineral deposits, the 
valuable forests, the water-powers, the domestic navigation, with all o'ersprcad 
with a temperate and healthful climate. 

These comprise the productive powers of the continent, and these are the 
materials and elements that form the bases and support of mighty cities and 
empires. And with us of the Mississippi Valley they are more abundant than 
on any other portion of the globe, and unless disturbed, by some unforseen 
calamity, of unparalleled character, this people will bring them all into requisi- 
tion until they have builded mightier, than any people of ancient or modern 
times. No land is so great in its productive powers, and no people possess as 
great possibilities. Still the whole is not known. Although the largest coal 
and iron deposits of the continent are already known, the geology of the en- 
tire extent of our domain is so imperfectly known that there still remain 
undisturbed in many of the Territories, and even in some of the States, valua- 
ble deposits of these two substances, which, ere long, will be unearthed and 
made subservient to the wants of our people. 

But let us tell of what we know. Beginning with the soils of the country, 
it is well understood, by those acquainted with its surface, that the largest and 
richest body of soil, best suited for corn, wheat, oats, rye, and hay -growing, is 
spread over the Valley States. In fact, no country in the world has so large 
an area of rich land as belongs to the States of the Mississippi Valley. In ca- 
pacity for producing the various products in the department of agriculture, it 
has already been referred to in the discussion of the subject of food, and will 
require no further consideration. 

Next to the corn-fields above come the coal-fields below, and the iron de- 
posits. These are the material upon which modern and more advanced civili- 
zation is founded, more than upon any other substances the arts have brought 
into use. Says Prof. Taylor : 

" The two important mineral substances, coal and iron, have, when made 
available, afforded a permanent basis of commercial and manufacturing pros- 



^'Ji ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

perity. Looking at the position of some of the great depositories of coal and 
iron, one perceives that upon them the most flourishing population is concen- 
trated — the most powerful and magnificent nations of the earth are established. 
If these two apparently coarse and unattractive substances have not directly 
caused that high eminence to which some of these countries have attained, they 
at least have had a large share in contributing to it." 

M. Aug. Vischers also says, that " coal is now the indispensable aliment of 
industry; it is a primary material, engendering force, giving a power superior 
to that which natural agents, such as w^ater, air, &c., procure. It is to industry 
■what oxygen is to the lungs, water to the plants, nourishment to the animal. 
It is to coal we owe steam and gas." 

Whoever will look into the development of commerce and civilization, during 
the greater part of this century, will find that coal and iron have given them 
their cast and development in Europe and America. Nor have either of these 
attained their highest use. On examination, we find that St. Louis is far bet- 
ter suiDplied than Chicago, Cincinnati, or New Orleans, with coal and iron ; in 
fact, she stands in a central position to the greatest coal-fields known on the 
globe. Surrounded on the one side by the inexhaustible coal-beds of Illinois, 
and on the other by the larger ones of Missouri, Iowa, and Kansas, who can 
doubt her advantages in the use of the most important substance for the next 
two thousand years ? On the one side we have Illinois, with her 30,000 square 
miles of coal, which is estimated by Prof. Eodgers to amount to 1,227,500,000,- 
000 tons, which is much greater than the deposits in Pen nsylvania — they amount- 
ing^ according to the same authoi'ity, to 316,400,000,000 tons. On the other 
side, we have Missoui-i, with more than 26,887 square miles, amounting to 
more than 130,000,000,000 tons. Iowa has her 24,000 square miles of coal; 
Kansas, 12,000 square miles; Arkansas, 12,(?00 square miles; and the Indian 
Territory, 10,000 square miles. Nearly all the other States are likewise 
bountifully supplied, but these figures are sufficient to show the position of St. 
Louis to the greatest coal deposits in the world. We can only approximate to 
the value of these resources by contrast. It is the available use of these two 
substances that has made England — a little island of the sea, not so great as 
the State of Iowa — the great heart of the world's civilization and commerce. 
She, with her 144,000,000,000 tons, or 12,000 square miles, of coal, with its 
greater development and use, reckons her wealth, in substantial value, at 
$100,000,000,000 ; while our nation, with our 3,740,000,000,000 tons, or 500,000 
square miles, of less developed and not so well used coal, and more than 
twenty-five times as large, are only reckoned to be worth $25,245,400,000, with 
an annual increase of $921,700,000. It is true, our nation is only in its infancy ; 
but these facts and the contrast teach us how mighty we can be, if we do but 
use these apparently coarse and unattractive substances, coal and ii'on, as the 
best wisdom and skill will enable. We possess thirty -four times the quantity 
of coal and iron possessed by England, and perhaps double as much as that 
possessed by all other portions of the earth besides. These resources are avail- 
ably located; they are in proximity to the widest plains and the richest soils 
known to man. They are developed by ocean-like lakes or magnificent rivers, 



ST. LOUIS. THE FL'TURK oREAT CITY. 



83 



and are or will be, traversed by railroads from ocean to ocean. Their value is 
incalculable, their extent boundless, and their richness unequalled. They are 
mines of wealth, more valuable than gold, and sufficiently distributed over this 
great valley to supply well-regulated labor to 400,000,000 ])roducers and con- 
sumers. Adjacent to our coal-tields arc our mountains of iron of a superior 
quality, and of quantity inexhaustible. Thus is St. Louis favored with coal 
and iron in such endless supplies as to always render them as cheap as the 
American market can afford. 

The rich deposits of precious metals which belong to the great mountain 
system of our continent, being on the west side of the valley, have already, 
and will necessarily yet more, contribute to building up the interior of the 
country than either coast region ; and though this interest never can be so 
valuable as that of coal and iron, it is of immense value and important in its 
-bearing upon the subject under discussion. Already the account has been 
made large, as the following table shows, but not the half has been taken from 
those rich and extended mines: 

Table showing the Growth of Coinage of the United States from 1793 to 1867. 



YBARS. 



GOLD. 



1793 to 1800, 8 years I $1,014,29:100 



1801 to ISlU, 10 
1811 to 1821, 10 
1821 to 1830, 10 
1831 to 1840, 10 
1841 to 1850, 10 
1851 to 1360, 9><^ 
1861 to 18t)7, 7 



3,-250,742 50 

3, !(!(;, 510 00. 

1,903,092 50 

18,71il,!-62 00 

89,543,328 00 

470,838,180 98 

29{i,9t)7,4ii4 63 



Total, 74 years I$8S5,375,470 61 



SILVER, 


$1,440,454 75 


3,509 


165 25 


5,970 


810 95 


16,781, 


046 95 


27,199 


779 00 


22,226 


755 00 


48,087, 


703 13 


12,<«8,732 11 1 


$137,914 


.587 14 . 



COPPER. 



$79,390 8-i 
151,246 3'.) 
191,158 57 
151,412 20 
34->,3J2 21 
38).6i0 ,-3 
1,241,012 53 
4,869,3>0 00 

$7,415,103 55 



TOTAL. 



$2,534,135 57 

6,9.1,154 14 

'.',3JS,179 .52 

IS, 835,. 551 65 

46,:S3.S,9J3 21 

112, 0.")0, 7.53 83 

52'>,175,.556 64 

314,47.T,546 74 



$1,030,705,141 30 



Yaluable forests of the best tinibei-s used in meclianical industry are to be 
found in the southeastern part of the State, and will, in due time, furnish ma- 
terial for agricultural implements, furniture, and the various uses to which 
timber is applied. Water powers, not surpassed in any part of New England, 
are to be found in many jmrts of the southern half of the State, and which, 
when properly improved, will contribute largely to the commercial interests of 
St. Louis. 

Not only is St. Louis, situated central to the productive powers of the ^lis- 
sissippi Yalley,and in such a manner as to command them to her markets, with 
greater facilities and advantages, than any other city on the continent, but she 
is also centrally situated in this great system of domestic navigation, and can- 
not fail to be, in all the future, the most important citj- and depot iden titled 
with its interests. »In the nature of river navigation, a smaller class of boats is 
required for the upper waters than those which can be most economically used 
in deeper streams, and hence arises a necessity for transfer, at some point, 
from up-river boats to those of greater tonnage; and at that point of transfer, 
business must arise sufficient of itself to sustain a considerable city. The fact 
that St. Louis is this natural point of transfer between the ujijn'r waters of the 



84 ST. LCniS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois, and the great channel thence to the Gulf, is 
not to be overlooked in estimating its natural advantages. To the domestic 
navigaiic;!! we add the railvvay system of the Valley States, which "will, in a 
few years more, (M)mprisc more than 100,000 miles; and, by reference to the 
map illustrating this new inland agency for the easy exchange of products and 
people, we behold at a glance a most wonderful system traversing all parts of 
these States. In the rapid construction of these lines of communica.tion, St, 
Louis is fast becoming the greatest railway center on the Continent, as well as 
in the world, and, with her advantages for domestic navigation, she is soon to 
be provided with the best commercial facilities of any city on the globe ; and 
to her 20,000 miles of river iiavigation will be added, in less than fifteen years, 
a continental system of railway communication; and with all these constantly 
bearing an ever-increasing commerce to her markets, who cannot foresee her 
destiny among the cities of the world ? These thousands of mile of railway 
can be built the cheapes-t of any extended system in the world, as they are 
unobstructed by mountain ranges; they will also be the straightest, shortest, 
and best routes from point to point, for the same reason. Granting that she 
will become the center of the greatest railway communication and of river 
navigation in the country, we must take into the account the question of 
freights, as an item of interest which will bear directly upon the subject of the 
growth of all Ameri(3an cities. Cheap freights will have a direct and impor- 
tant bearing upon the matter of distributing food and raiment to the people of 
the Valley States, and also of giving to their products the advantages of the 
best market. To settle this question in favor of St. Louis, involves but two 
points necessary to be considered : the first, the universal competition constant- 
ly existing between the various rival railroads of the Valley States, which will, 
of necessity, make the freights to St. Louis as cheap as to any other city ; the 
second point is, that St. Louis stands in the midst of the greatest producing 
and consuming region of the country, and in this she cannot fail to have the 
advantage over any rival city that may aspire for empire in the republic or 
the world. Situated, then, as she is, in the very heart of the productive power 
of the country, and destined, at a very early date, to be connected by railway 
and by water, in the most advantageous way, with every city and harbor up- 
on our seacoast, and with every iiiland city and productive region where 
industry and wealth can find opportunity, we are led to consider her future as 
a commercial and manufacturing city, and her advantages to become a distribut- 
ing f>oint for the future millions of the industrious and intelligent of our race 
who are yet to inhabit this Continent, under one flag and one language. 

POPULATION. 

Having considered the material resources of the great valley, and the rela- 
tion they bear to St. Louis, let us now consider the question of population — 
its westward movement and its future growth upon the continent. 

The subject of the growth and distribution of the population of a country is 
one of the most importivnt and interesting subjects which is brought into the 



8T. 



LOUIS, THE FtfTtmB GRKAT OITY, 



85 



discuasions of statistical science. It not only involves a consideration of tho 
old facts of ethnological science, but the new facts, which the influence of iso- 
thermal lilies, or lines of equal temperature, demonstrate, to exert in govern 
ing and directing mankind on the continents. 

With us, in America, with our extended domain, varied climate and favora- 
ble topography, the subject will ever be a source of fruitful investigation. 
Heretofore the movement of population in North America has been from east 
to west, in conformity to the general law of human migration. There is still 
another movement to which people confonn as they grow populous. It is at 
right angles — north and south from the axis, or line of equal temperature, of 
the zodiac of empire. Having reached the Pacific coast and completed the cir- 
cuit of the globe, our people will henceforth be governed more by tho second 
movement than by the first. They will struggle to condense and fortify the 
center, in obediemce to the active and passive principles of supply and demandj 
as they constantly yield to this second movement, north and south, to exchange 
their products between zones. The first movement of man on the earth is tho 
movement of population, from the east to the west. It is the movement of 
exploration, conquest and dominion. Under the influence of this movement, 
man bridges the rivers scales the mountains, and disputes with the red man and 
Ibe buffalo the empire over nature. 

The movement north and south at right angle to the axis of the zodiac of em- 
pire is the movement that produces power, civilization, wealth and refinement- 
Up to the year 1840, of our country's history, the progress whereby twenty- 
six States and four territories were established and peopled, a solid strip of 
twenty-five miles in depth, and reaching from Canada to the gulf of Mexico, waa 
added annually along the frontier of the Union. Since 1840 the center of popu- 
lation has moved westward in the following order as indicated by the figures 
below. 



Year. Lat. Long. 

1840 39 deg. 02 m. 80 deg. 18 in. 

1850 38 " 69 " 81 " 90 " 

1860 39 " 03 " 82 " 60 " 

1870 89 " 15 " 88 " 89 " 



Approximate Dkscription. 

22 miles south of Clarksburg, W. Va. 

25 miles S. E. of Parke raburg, W. Va. 

20 miles south of Chillicothe, Ohio. 

6 miles west of Hilsboro, Ohio, or 

48 miles east by north of Giucinuati, 



The above calculation is from those of Prof. Hilgard of the Ooast Survey De- 
partment, and we accept as correct. It shows that the center of population moved 
westward at the rate of fifty -five, eighty-two and forty-six miles, respectively, 
during the three past decades. At this rate of advancement, Prof. Hilgard 
assumes that in the year 2000, the center of population in its westward move- 
ment "will still be lingering in Illinois." This might possibly be true if there 
was no Pacific Ocean, and a continent existed instead, with favorable advan- 
tages for human abode and the growth of civilization. This not being the 
case, the professor's assumption cannot be supported by any existing or in- 
ferential evidence. 

To assume his statement to be correct, we must assume that the pioneer 
army of the American people will move on, west of San Francisco, In regular 



86 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GEEAT CITY. 



order, as heretofore, until the year 2000 j thus enabling the center of popula- 
tion, in the mean time, to follow on with slow — paced march. This being utterly 
out of the question, we can assure Prof. Hilgard, that the center of population, 
on this continent, in its western movement, will reach the Mississippi river 
much sooner than the time he has fixed for it; yes, in less than half the time. 
But we must not lose sight of the fact, while considering this subject that the 
center of population movement will be arrested somewhere westward, — that it 
will make a lodgment somewhere in the grand valley of the Mississippi. It 
must do so. And it ia safe to assume, that the center of population will never 
go west of the Mississippi river; at any rate, in no event, will it pass beyond 
the State of Missouri. In evidence of this we have only to look at a map of 
our country to ascertain where the dense population will grow up on our soil. 
Whoever examines the map, must conclude that the most pojjulous part of 
North America, will be that portion that lies between the Ohio and Mississippi 
rivers, including the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. 
It is reasonable to assume from the character of their resources, that those states, 
in time will contain about one-eighth of the population of the entire country. 
Missouri can and will sustain a greater number of human beings than either one 
of those states, but the adjacent states west of the Mississippi river, will not attain 
near so dense a population. The pastoral and mountainous regions of our do^ 
main, will never support a very dense population, and when we consider that the 
more important productive energies of the country, are along and adjacent to 
our internal river sj'stem, we must conclude that there is the place for the 
center of human power on the continent, and that it can never be removed 
from those resources and advantages, so favorable to man's uses and interests; 
not only so but even now the growth of population is more rapid in those 
states of the west where the natural resources are the greatest, as the follow- 
ing tables will show : 

TABLES. 

Sho\eing an Analysis of the Population of the United States, according to the following Geographical Class\fic<t' 

tion of the States and Territories. 

NORTH ATLANTIC 8TATE9. 



8TATJE8. 


1820. 


1830. 


1840. 


1850. 


1860. 


1870. 


Maine 


298,269 
244,022 
235,749 
623,159 
83,015 
275,102 


399,455 
269,328 
280,652 
610,408 
97,199 
297,675 


501,793 
284,574 
291,848 
737,699 
108,830 
309,978 


583.169 
317,976 
314,120 
994,514 
147,545 
370,792 


" 628,279 
326,073 
315,098 
1,231,066 
174,620 
460,147 


626,916 


New Hampshire 


3]8,300 


Vermont 


330,551 


Massachusetts 


1,457,851 


Khode Island 


217,353 


Connecticut 


637,464 








1,669,316 


1,954,717 


2,234,722 


2,728,116 


3,135,288 


3,487,924 



Per cenJ. of increase for each decade: 1620-30, 14.80; 183(M0, 14.32; 1840-50, 23-08; 1850-00, 14-96; 1860- 
10, 11.66. 



-^^ 



■IL.. 



8T. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

CENTRAL ATLANTIC STATES. 



87 



STATES . 



NewYork 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District (.'olumbia 

Virginia & W . Virginia 



1820. 


1830. 


1840. 


1850. 


1,372,111 

277,4-2«i 

1,049,507 

72,749 

407,3.50 

33,0.i9 

1,005,129 


1,918,608 

320,8vi3 

l,348,2.'i;i 

7(>,748 

447,040 

39,,sjH 

1,211,405 


2,428,921 

373,30(i 

1,724,0.(3 

78,085 

470,019 

43,712 

1,239,797 


3,097,394 

4^9,5.55 

2,311,786 

91,532 

.583,834 

1,421,601 

51,687 


4,217,311 


5,3»>2,691 


6,. -5.57, 873 


.'^,ii4<> 649 



1860. 



3,880,735 
672,035 

2,906,215 
112,216 
687,019 

1,5%, 318 
75,088 



9,9:52^568 



1870. 



4,382,757 
906,09* 

3,521,791 
125,015 
780,894 

1,667,177 
131,700 



11,515,430 



Percent, of increase for such decade: 1820-^JO, 27.13; 1830-40, 18.67; 1S4O-.50, 26. .56; 18,50-60, 23.42; 1860- 
70, 15.94. ' 

SOUTH ATLANTIC .STATES. 



STATES. 



North Carolina 
South Carolina. 

(ieorgia 

Florida 



1820. 



638,829 
502,741 
34(,i,983 



1830. 



7;}7,987 

581,185 

516,823 

34,730 



1840. 



7.5.!, 41 9 

.594,. 398 

691,392 

54,477 



18.50. 



869,039 

66.'<,507 

906,185 

87,445 



1860. 



992,622 

703,708 

1,0.57,28;{ 

140,424 



1870. 



1,071,606 
705,606 

1,184,10!) 
187,748 



1,482,5.52. 1,870,725 2,093,686 2,.5:!1,176 2,894 ,040 3,148,824 

Percent, of increase for each decade: 1820-30, 26.18; 1830-40, 11.92; 1840-50, 20.90; 1850-60, 18.21; 1860- 
70, 8.80. 





1820. 


1830. 


1840. 


1850. 


1860. 


1870. 


Totals 


7,359,180 


9,18S,]a3 


10.686,2S1 


13,305,941 


15,961,891 


18,152,180 



Total per cent, of increase for each decade : 18-2O-.30, 24.85; 13.50-40, 16.30; 1840-o0, 24.51; 18.50-60, 20.00j 
1860-70, 13.32. 

Tables showing an Analysis of the Population of the United Slates— Continued. 

LOCATION OF POPULATION. 











— 




._ 






c 
«.2 

OS 

n 


•oS. 




- 5 » 








i 

i2 


a © 

.2x 

3-1 


S 

'it 

Oi o 


J, 2 

m 


So 

Oh O 


opulation 
. Mississi 
alley Stat 


Oh© 




>M 


'-^ 




• W S3 

-go. 




^^ 




1820 


9,6:59,190 


7,;5,59,1,S0 


76.06% 


2,249,418 


23.33>i 


1,860,107 


19.30 


1830 


12,866,020 


9,188,133 


71.16?i 


3,712,4.57 


28.8;5>i 


3,010,736 


23.70 


1840 


17,069,4,53 


10,686,281 


62., 50 


6,:592,684 


37.. 50 


5,0.58,1.54 


29.62>i 


1850 


23,191,876 


13,305,i>ll 


57.12>i 


9,937,622 


42.S7>i 


7, .598, 614 


;52.75 


1860 


3I,443,;521 


15,961,891 


511.50 


15,. 595, 4:50 


49. 50 


11,792,814 


37.50 


1870 


,38.. 549, 987 


18,1.52,8-24 


47.10 


20.:597,807 


52.90 


16,()-i»,2'.tl 


41.60 



PROBABLE FUTURE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



1 


a 
<i'.2 


Population of 
Atlantic Slope. 


Percent, 
of whole . 


Population of 

Miss. Valley and 

Pacific Slope. 


Percent, 
of Whole. 


Population ot 

Up. Mississippi 

Valley States. 




1880 
1890 
1900 
1910 


50,885, 9&3 

67,169,497 

88,663,736 

107,036,130 


20,990,470 
23,602,248 
26,044,873 
26,153,490 


41.25 
35.25 
29.37>i 
23. .50 


29,895,513 
43,. 567, 249 
62,618,863 
81,1,53,490 


58.75 
64.75 
70.62K 
76.. 50 


23, 407,. 5.52 
as, 920, 596 
48,765,055 
63,579,461 


46 

50.60 
65 
59.40 



88 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



Of this entire population there is not an average of fourteen to the square 
mile of our vast domain, exclusive of Alaska. 

Tables shoioing an Analysis of the Population of the United States— Continued. 

MISSISSIPPI VALLKY 8TATB8. 



6TATB3. 


1820. 


1830. 


1840. 

1,519,467 

212,267 

779,8-28 

685,866 

476,183 

43,112 

30,94,'i 

829,210 

383,702 

97,574 


1850. 


1860. 


1870. 


Ohio 


581,295 

8,765 

561,135 

147,178 

55,161 

422;76i 
66,. 557 
14,255 


937,903 
31,693 
687,917 
343,031 
157,445 

681 ,"904 

140,455 

30,388 


1,980,3-29 
397,654 
!)82,405 
988,416 
851,470 
192,314 
305,391 

1,002,717 

682,044 

209,897 

6,077 


2,339,511 

749,113 

1,1.55,684 

1,3.50,428 

1,711,951 

674,913 

775,881 

1,109,801 

1,182,012 

4.35,450 

172,023 

107,209 

•28,841 


2,665,151 


Michisran 


1,184,059 




1,3-21,011 




1,680,637 


TlHnois 


2,539,891 




1,191,792 




1,0.54,670 




1,2.58 5-20 




1,721,295 




484,167 


Minnesota 


439,706 




364,398 


Vebraslca 


122,993 








1,860,107 


3,010,736 


5,058,154 


7,598,614 


11,792,841 


16,028,291 


Per cent, of increase for each decade: 1820-30, 61.86; 1830-iO, 68.00; 1840-50, 50.20; ia5O-60, 
70, 37.61. 

GULF 8TATB3. 


65.20; 1860- 


8TATKS. 


1820. 


1830. 


1840. 


1850. 


1860. 


1870. 


Alabama 


127,901 

75,448 

152,923 


209,527 
136,621 
215,739 


590,756 
375,651 
3-24,411 


771,623 
606,5-26 
517,76a 
212,592 


964,201 
791,305 
708,002 
604,215 


996,992 


Mississippi 

LjOtiisiaiia 


827,828 
726,916 


Texas 


812,996 








356,272 


661,887 


1,290,818 


2,108,503 


3,067,725 


3,364,826 


70, 9.68. 


ch decade : 1 


820-.'50, 85.63 


1830-40, 95. < 


B; 1840-50, 6:J.35; 1850-CO 


, 45.60; 1860- 




1820. 


1830. 


1840. 


1850. 


1860. 


1870. 


Totals 


2,249,418 


3,712,457 


6,392,684 


9,937,622 


15,595,430 


' 20,397,807 



Total per cent, of increase for each decade • 1820-30, 65.04; 1830-40, 72.19; 1840-50,55.44; 1859-60,56.93; 
1860-70, .30.79. 

PACIFIC STATBS AND TBRftlTORlKS. 



8TATKS. 


1820. 


1830. 


1840. 


1850. 


1860. 


1870. 


Oftlifomia 


'33,'639 


, ^ 

'39;83i 


■43,n2 


:92,!>97 

is," 294 
124,614 


379,994 

6,857 

52,4&5 

. 295,. 577 


560,247 




42,491 


OrcETOn 


90,92S 




311,030 








33,039 


39,834 


43,712 


230,505' 


734,893 


1,004,691 



Percent, of increase for each decade: 1850-60, 218.82; 1860-70, 36.71. 



The reader will readily perceive the destiny of our country, by an examina- 
tion of the above figures. It will be seen that in 1820 the population of the Atlan- 
tic slope was 76^ per cent, of the whole, leaving 23^0 to the Mississippi Valley. 
By the census returns of 1870, which comprise a growth of fifty years, the At- 
lantic slope has il\lo per cent., and the Mississippi and the country west of it 



ST. LOUIS, THK FUTURE OKKAT CITlf. 89 

62?So per cent, of the whole population of the country. Assuming that the past 
furnishes a correct basis for estimating the future growth of our population, it 
will require but forty years more — or from 1820 to 1910 — to almost precisely 
reverse the relative proportion of the whole population of the country, thus 
giving to the Valley States 76j^ per cent., and the Atlantic slope 23j^ per cent. 
of the whole population. 

But let us pursue the inquiry a little further, and if possible ascertain what 
the future growth of our population is likely to be. 

We have the same temperate climate, in the central and mest fertile portion 
of the Mississippi Valley, as that of China ; and with superior resources, it is 
not unreasonable to assume that a population as numerous as that of China can 
easily find subsistence in this valley. That great Empire proper has an area of 
1,297,999 square miles; the Mississippi Valkn' has an area 2,455,000, which al- 
most doubles the area of the Celestial Empire. The most populous portion ot 
China has an average of 850 inhabitiints to the square mile, and the entire 
population averages 268 to the square mile. An average of 268 to the square 
mile would give the Mississippi Valley a population of about 650,000,000. 
Dividing the whole country into five equal parts, and there will be found in 
the valley of the Mississippi three parts, and the two slopes will contain one 
part each. This will give to each slope about 220,000,000, and to the present 
area of the United States, exclusive of Alaska, about 1,190,000 inhabitants — 
almost equal to the entire population of the earth at the present time. But 
long before we shall reach this number, our Constitution will over-arch the 
entire continent, bv which our numbers will be increased at least one-third 
more than our present area would contain. " We double our numbers once in 
every twenty-five yeai-s, and must continue to do so until the action in the 
prolific principle in man shall be checked by the same cause which checks it 
in every race of animals — the stint of food. This cannot happen with us until 
every acre of our generous soil shall be put into requisition" — until the pro- 
duct of more than 3,000,000,000 of acres shall be insufficient to fill the mouths 
which feed upon them. If we double our numbers every twenty-five years, 
we shall have a population in a century and a quarter of 1,248,000,000, or more 
than the present population of the globe. A century is but a point in the age 
of a nation. The life of an individual often spans it; and the child is now born 
that will see this nation with a population of more than 600,000,000. 400,000,- 
000 will reside in the Great Valley, 70,000,000 on the Atlantic slope, and 1-30,- 
000,000 on the high table lands of the West and the Pacific slope. 

Then it must be evident that somewhere in this great valley, central to its 
600,000,000 inhabitants, and central to the productive energies of the continent, 
must grow up the future great city of the world. 

But let us then go a little deeper into the discussion. Having pointed out 
a condition of advantages which nature, by an inscrutable wisdom, has organ- 
ized sufficiently strong to insure, under a well-directed civilization, the produo- 
tion on our Continent of the future great city of the world, it is a part of the 
argument to point out some of the essential incidental wants and conditions 



90 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

which must control the use of products in civilized life, in order to make them 
subserve the highest use in supplying the wants of man. 

The first essential want of any productive people are markets, whereat to 
dispose of their surplus products, mechanical or agricultural, at profitable prices. 
Markets are a want of population in all lands. Mr. Seaman says, in the first 
series of his valuable work on the progress of nations, that " pojiulation alone 
adds value to lands and property of ever}- kind, and is, therefore, one of the 
principal sources and causes of wealth." And why is it so ? Simply- because 
population creates a market by causing a demand for property and products ; by 
enhancing the price and exchangeable value, of the products of the toilei-. Pop- 
ulation thus creates markets and markets operate to enhance prices and to in- 
crease wealth, industry, and production. Markets are, therefore, among the prin- 
cipal causesand sources of value and ofwealth, and stimulants of industry.. The 
farmer, mechanic, miner, and manufacturer are all beneficial to each other, for 
the reason that each wants the products of every other in exchange for his own, 
and thus each creates a market for the pi-oducts of all the others, and thereby 
enhances prices and stimulates their industry. Hence the advantage to the 
farmer of increasing mechanical, manufacturing, and mining industry, as far as 
practicable, in his own country, in order to create a market for his products 
and to encourage domestic commerce. 

Agricultural products alone cannot furnish the materials of an active com 
merce, and two nations almost exclusively agricultural have seldom much in- 
tercourse with each other. Tyi-e, Carthage, and Athens, in ancient, and Yenice, 
Florence, Genoa, and the Netherlands, in more modern times, were the great- 
est of commercial nations at their respective eras, as Great Britain is now, be- 
cause they were also in advance of all other nations in the mechanic arts and 
manufactures, and their commerce was based on their mechanism and manu- 
facturing industry, which furnished the principal subject-matter and materials 
for making exchanges and carrying on commerce with foreign nations. Then 
it is that the people of this great valley must look to the proper and highest 
use of the resources and materials which nature has so bountifully bestowed. 
Capital and skill must be made to supply the ever-increasing demand of this 
growing people, and thus it will become the mightiest in art, the most bounti- 
ful in the field, and the richest in commerce, "and in peace more puissant than 
army oi- navy, for the conquest of the world ;" and, stimulated to loftier en- 
deavors, each citizen, yielding to iiTCsistible attraction, will seek a new life in 
the great national flimily. 

But it is argued by some that a city cannot be successfnl in the pursuit of 
both commercial and manufacturing interests. This cannot be maintained as a 
correct position. There never has been any war between commerce and the 
mechanic arts. There c^an be none. They are the twin offspring of industry 
and intelligence, and alike dependent on each other for prosperity. The false 
conception of the relations they hold to each other, and the condition of pros- 
perity they impose upon a city, come from a failure to perceive the true inter- 
ests. The principles of economy regulate them both, and it is rarely that a 
city situated, as they are, on a harbor on the coast, or an available point on a 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 91 

river, where commerce can find its oabiest exclmngo, iw equally atlvaiitafj;eou8ly 
hituated with reference to the ravv material necessary, to enter into the mech- 
anic arts on such terms of comjielilion, as to enable the producer to compete 
with rival products in the mai'ket of the country. Jt is because cities are so 
situated that a strict adherence to the rules of economy cannot admit of the 
union of commerce and mechanic arts in the same city, that some suppose that 
a commercial city cannot be nuide a manufjicturing city, and that a manufac- 
turing cit}' cannot be made a commercial city. 

The following remarks, from a writer in the New York Times, is a valuable 
item in our argument: "No one who desires to under-sUuid the whole subject 
of his countiy's future should tail to seek the metropolitan center of that coun- 
try. The question which puzzles the peo])K', and even the nevvs])a])ers, of late, 
is this, 'Where is Paris, the London, or tiie Jerusalem, of the nation?' 1 
know New York has yet the clearest title to that claim, but of late St. Louis 
has spoken much and often in her own behalf^ — with what truthfulness, I pro- 
pose to examine. Chicago has been heard, (■inciniiati puts in her voice, Phil- 
adelphia prides herself upon her strength and beauty-, Boston calls herself the 
hub, and others put in their claims. Now, next to New York, I ain disposed 
to regard the claim of St. Louis. Before slavei-y died, this claim was not worth 
much, but that dead weight is now removed. Standing here, then, in St. Louis 
an Eastern man, I cannot resist the impression that 1 am in the future com- 
mercial, if not political, metropolis of the land. A thousand voices conspire to 
enforce this impression upon the not very prophetic mind. I would make no 
invidious flings at the cheek of Chicago, the conceit of Boston, the cool silence 
of a New Yorker, as he points to a forest of masts and a million of people, the 
nonchalant airs of the City of Brotherly Love, and the peculiar habits of Cin- 
cinnati. Chicago has the railroads, she says. Granted. A metropolis of 
railroads, without a river deep, pure and broad enough to afford drink to her 
present population, suggests the idea that railroads cannot make a city. Fitch- 
burg, in Massachusetts, has more railroads than any New England town. 
What does that bring her, save the name of being Fitchburg ? Shipping alone, 
which you have in New York, cannot make a city. Philadelphia may keep 
on annexing every town in Pennsylvania, and Jersey, too, and that cannot 
make a metropolis. The pork trade flourishes in Cincinnati, but even so re- 
spectable a constituency as a gentlemanly porker, wdio loves luxury, lives on 
the fat of the land, and is otherwise excessively aristocratic, cannot make a 
metropolis. In fact, no great cosmopolitan center can be made out of one 
specialty. Manchester is greater than London in its specialty, but Manches- 
ter's specialty must always keep it constrained, and prevent its ever becoming 
a center. Cologne, with 'seventy-nine well-defined, distinct, and separate' 
perfumes, has made it the city of odors, but Cologne can never be a capital. 
Shoes make and kill Lynn at once. Lowell and Lawrence have reached their 
highest glory. Chicago is a depot for speculators in grain, and Cincinnati 
abounds in hogs, but this is the end of their glory. New York and St. Louis 
are alike in this : you will find every specialty in about equal proportion. 
St. Louis only needs one thing to make it to the West what New York is to 



92 ST, LOmS, THE FOTUKE GREAT CIl'Y. 

the East — railroads. She is not even an inland city. Light-draught sailing 
vessels can sail from St. Louis to London. All that she further needs is age. 
Up to 1866, capital was slow to venture and settle down in this city. Save a 
few thrifty Germans, the population of St. Louis was southern. This was her 
condition up to this time, so that she is, practically, a city of only ten years' 
growth." 

There is another principle that enters into the account, which may be termed 
an involuntary or fortuitous cause — a kind of happening so ! It is the highest 
form of incidental action in commerce. Often commerce, as if by the control 
of an unknown law, will change from one city to another, and impoverish the 
one and give vitality and strength to the other. These changes, at first 
thought^, seem to be as inexplicable as the eddy movements of the water in 
the stream. They are changes that usually have their oj'igin in the action of 
a single man in the timely use of money, sometimes by a distant cause, some- 
times by legislation; but iiever does commence forsake an available point for 
the development of mechanical industry. Looking at St. Louis, with her loca- 
tion for internal commerce and mechanical industry without a parallel on the 
earth, we can safely say that she is destined to unite in one great interest a 
system of commerce and manufacturing that will surpass in wealth and skill 
that of old England. It is true, her iron fxirnaces and glass factories will be 
built some distance outside of her corporate limits, but the wealth and the 
labor will be hers, and beneath her sway will be united side by side, in the 
most profitable relations and on the largest scale, the producer and consumer; 
and they, actuated by a universul amit}', will seek the most liberal compensa- 
tion, attain the highest skill, aspire to a better manhood, and learn to do good. 
The manufacturing of wood into its various uses will also form a very impor- 
tant part of the industry of this city, as will also the manufacturing of fabrics 
of various kinds. Thus, with a great system of manufacturing industry, com- 
pelling the coal, the iron, the wood and the sand to sei-ve the purposes and wants 
of the commercial interests, as well as to enter into all channels through which 
capital flows and which industry serves, both wealth and population will be 
developed and concentrated in the highest degree. The time fixed for thd 
future great city of the world to gTow up, as the most consummate fi'uit of 
man's civilization, is within one hundred years from our date. 

Let us look still deeper into this matter, and consider the new agencies and 
influences that tend in modern times with such irresistible force to concentrate 
mankind in the great interior cities of the Continents. The greatest of these 
agencies compels a more rapid development of the internal commerce of mod- 
ern nations than in })ast times, and the consequent organization and concen- 
tration of human power in the interior cities. 

There is not a living man whose experience, if he knows the facts written 
in the records of his own land, does not teach him of the continental growth 
and the consequent interior development of the country, in support of the ar- 
gument under consideration. So great are the facts, that the constant develop- 
ment of the internal trade of our continent is rapidly reversing the proportion 
of our domestic to our foreign commerce, so as to soon show the latter to stand 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 93 

in comparative value to the former, as the cipher to the unit; and that the 
immense growth of our domestic and internal commerce will guide and control 
our industry, and establish and organize human power and civilization in our 
own land in conformity to the most economic principles of production, supply 
and demand, there is no manner of doubt. This done, our foreign commerce 
will only be ancillary to the enjoyments of our people, and contribute to the 
development of cosmopolitan ideas among the world's inhabitants, more than 
to the. creation of wealth among the nations. 

It may be asked, to what cause must this change in the relative value of 
foreign and domestic commerce, and the influence of each upon civilized man, 
be referred ? The answer is, that steam is the cause ; It is the most wonder- 
ful artificial agency to advance public and private wants that man has yet 
made subservient to his will. It almost serves his entire mechanical wants. 

We, then, again repeat, that it is this agency that is rapidly transforming the 
ancient order of the world's industry and commerce to a new application and 
a new power; and will compel the cities of the interior, in the future, to out- 
grow in all time the coast cities. It is this agency, more than all other me- 
chanical agencies, that has lifted mankind from the vassal empires of Cyrus, 
the Caesars, and Charlemange, to the great empires of our own time. Itisthis 
agency that will forever develop domestic commerce to a vastly greater value 
than that of foreign commerce, and, consequently, is the most powerful agent 
to produce the great city of the future that the genius of man has made sub- 
servient to his wants. 

But let us not be understood as desirous of undervaluing foreign trade. We 
hope and believe that its greatest blessings and triumphs are yet to come. 
Many of the articles which it brings to us add much to our substantial comfort, 
such as woolen and cotton goods, sugar and molasses; and others, such as iron 
and steel, with most of their manufactures, give much aid to our advancing 
arts. But if these articles were the products of domestic industry — if they 
were produced in the factories of Lowell and Dayton, on the plantations of 
Louisiana and in the furnaces, forges, and workshops of Pennsylvania and Mis- 
souri — why would not the dealing in them have the same tendency to enrich 
as now that they are brought from distant countries ? 

A disposition to attribute the rapid increase of wealth in commercial nations 
mainly to foreign commerce, is not peculiar to our nation or our time ; for we 
find it combated as a popular error by distinguished writers on political econ- 
omy. Mr. Hume, in his essay on commerce, maintains that the only way iu 
which foreign commerce tends to enrich a country is by its presenting tempt- 
ing articles of luxury, and thereby stimulating the industry of those in whom 
a desire to purchase is thus excited — the augmented industry of the nation be- 
ing the only gain. 

Dr. Chalmers says : "Foreign trade is not the creator of any economic in- 
terest ; it is but the oflfi dating minister of our enjoyments. Should we consent 
to forego those enjoyments, then, at the bidding of our will, the whole strength 
at present embarked in the service of procuring them would be transfei-red to 
other services — to the extension of home trade; to the enlargement of our na- 



94 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY, 

tional establishments ; to the service of defense, or conquest, or scientific re- 
search, or Christain philanthropy." Speaking of the foolish purpose in Bona- 
parte to cripple Britain by destroying her foreign trade, and its utter failure, 
he says : " The truth is, that the extinction of foreign trade in one quarter was 
almost immediately followed up either by the extension of it in another quar- 
ter, or by the extension of the home trade. Even had every outlet abroad been 
obstructed, then, instead of a transference from one foreign market to another, 
there would just be a universal reflux towards a home market that would be 
extended in precise proportion with every successive abridgment which took 
place in our external commerce." If these principles are true — and we believe 
they are in accordance with those of every eminent writer on political economy, 
and if they are important in their application to the British isles — small in 
territory, with extensive districts of barren land, surrounded by navigable 
waters, rich in good harbors, and presenting numerous natural obstacles to 
consti'uctions for the promotion of internal commerce ; and, moreover, placed 
at the door of the richest nations of the world — with how much greater force 
do they ajjply to our country, having a territory twenty times as large, unrivaled 
natural means of inter-communication, with few obstacles to their indefinite 
multiplication by the hand of man ; a fertility of soil not equaled by the whole 
world J growing within its boundaries nearly all the productions of all the 
climes of the earth, and situated 3,000 miles from her nearest commercial 
neighbor. 

Will it be said that, admitting the chief agency in building up great cities to 
belong to internal industry and trade, it remains to be proved that New York 
and the other great Atlantic cities will feel less of the beneficial effects of this 
agency than St. Loui^ and her Western sisters ? It does not appear to us diffi- 
cult to sustain, by facts and reason, the superior claims in this respect of our 
Western towns. It should be borne in mind that the North American Valley 
embraces the climate, soils, and minerals usually found distributed among many 
nations. From the noi'thern shores of the upper lakes, and the highest 
navigable points of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, to the Gulf of Mexico, 
nearly all the agricultural articles which contribute to the enjoyment of civiliz- 
ed man are now, or may be, produced to supply any demand. The North will 
send to the South grain, flour, provisions, including the delicate fish of the lakes, 
%nd the fruits of a temperate clime, in exchange for the sugar, rice, cotton, 
tobacco, and the fruits of the warm South. These are but a few of the articles, 
the pi-oduce of the soil, which will be the subjects of commerce in this valley. 
Of mineral productions which, at no distant day, will tend to swell the tide of 
internal commerce, it will suffice to mention coal, iron, salt, lead, lime, and 
marble. Will Boston, or New York, or Baltimore, or New Orleans, be the 
point selected for the interchange of these products ? Or shall we choose 
more convenient central points on rivers and lakes for the theaters of these 
exchanges ? 

It is imagined by some that the destiny of this valley has fixed it down to 
the almost exclusive pursuit of agriculture, ignorant that, as a general rule in 
all ages of the world, and in all countries, the mouths go to the food, and not 



ST. LOUTS, THE FDTUKE GREAT CITT. 95 

the food to the mouth. Dr. Chalmers says: "The bulkiness of food forma 
one of those forces in the economic machine, which tend to equalize the popu- 
lation of every land with the products of its own agriculture. It does not res- 
train disproportion and excess in all cases ; but in every large State it will be 
found that wherever an excess obtains, it forms but a very small fraction of the 
whole popuhition. Each trade must have an agricultural basis to rest upon ; 
for in every pi-ocess of industry, the first and greatest necessity is that the 
workmen shall be fed." Again ; "■ Generally speaking, the excrescent (the 
population over and above that which the country can feed) bears a very min- 
ute proportion to the natural population of the country ; and almost nowhere 
does the commerce of a nation overleap, but by a very little way, the basis of 
its own agriculture." The Atlantic States, and particularly.those of New Eng- 
land, cannot claim that they are to become the seats of the manufactures with 
which the West is to be supplied; that mechanics, and artisans, and manufac- 
turers are not to select for their place of business the region in which the means 
of living are most abundant, and their manufactured articles in greatest demand, 
but the section which is most deficient in those means, and to which their food 
and fuel must, during their lives, be transported hundreds of miles, and the 
products of their labor be sent back the same long road for a market. 

Such a claim is neither sanctioned by reason, authority, nor experience. The 
mere statement exhibits it as unreasonable. Dr. Chalmers maintains that the 
" excrescent" population could not, in Britain even, with a free trade in bread- 
stuffs, exceed one-tenth of all the inhabitants ; and Britain, be it remembered, 
is nearer the granaries of the Baltic than is New England to the food-export- 
ing portions of our valley, and she has also greatly the advantage in the dim- 
inished expenses of transportation. But the Eastern manufacturing States 
have already nearly, if not quite, attained to the maximum ratio of excrescent 
population, and cannot, therefore, greatly augment their manufactures without 
a corres2:)ondent increase in agricultural production. 

Most countries, distinguished for manufactures, have laid the foundation in 
a highly improved agriculture. England, the north of France, and Belgium 
have a more productive husbandry than any other region of the same extent. 
In these same countries are also to be found the most efficient and extensive 
manufacturing establishments of the whole world; and it is not to be doubted 
that abundance of food was one of the chief causes of setting them in motion. 
How is it thata like cause operating here will not produce a like effect? Have 
we not, in addition to our prolific agriculture, as many and as great natural aids 
for manufacturing as any other country ? The water-power of Missouri alone 
IS greater than that of New England; besides, there are immense facilities in 
the States of Kentucky, Minnesota, and Ohio, as well as valuable advantages 
possessed in all the Valley States. But to these water-powers can be added 
the immeasurable power of steam in developing man afacturing industry in our 
own as well as other States of this Yalley. 

If our readers are satisfied that domestic or internal trade must have the 
chief agency in building up our great American cities, and that the internal trade 
of the great Western Valley will be mainly concentrated in the cities situated 



96 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

•within its bosom, it becomes an interesting subject of inquiry how our leading 
interior city will, at some distant period — say one hundred years — become the 
great city of the world, and gather to itself the preiJondei*anee of the industry 
and trade of the continent. 

But our interior cities will not depend for their development altogether on 
internal trade. They will partake, in some degree, with their Atlantic and 
Pacific sisters, of the foreign commerce also ; and if, as some seem to suppose, 
the profits of commerce increase with the distance at which it is carried on, and 
the difficulties which nature has thrown m its way, the Western towns will have 
the same advantage over their Eastern rivals in foreign commerce, which some 
claim for the latter over the former in our domestic trade. St. Louis and her 
lake rivals may use the outports of New Orleans and New York, as Paris and 
Yienna use those of Havre and Trieste ; and it will surely one day come to 
pass that steamers from Europe will enter our gf eat lakes and be seen booming 
up the Mississippi. \ 

To add strength and conclusiveness to theaboVe facts and deductions, do our 
readers ask for examples ? They are at handv The first city of which we 
have any record is Nineveh, situated on the Tigris, not less than 700 miles 
from its mouth. Babylon, built not long after, was also situated far in the 
interior, on the river Euphrates. Most of the great cities of antiquity, some 
of which were of immense extent, were situated in the interior, and chiefly in 
the valleys of large rivers meandering through rich alluvial tei'ritories. Such 
were Thebes, Memphis, Ptolemais and Rome. 

But when we consider that our position in vindication of the superior growth 
of interior cities over outports is sustained by the civilization- of the ancient 
nations, as found in the examples of their great interior cities, and that, too, 
when water facilities ruled the commerce of the world, must rot all opposing 
argument in favor of seaboard cities be of naught when we bring to the dis- 
cussion the power and use of steam, the railway system, and the labor-saving 
and labor-increasing inventions which the arts aflford ? Comprehending this 
mighty reversal in the order and means of industrial civilization, must we not 
say with Horace Greeley, that "salt water is about played out." 

Of cities now known as leading centers of commerce, a large majority have 
been built almost exclusively by domestic trade. What country has so many 
great cities as China — a country, until lately, nearly destitute of foreign com- 
merce ? 

There are now in the world more than 300 cities containing a population of 
60,000 and upwards j of these more than two-thirds are interior cities, contain- 
ing a population vastly greater than belongs to the outport cities. It should, 
however, be kept in mind that many of the great seaports have been built, and 
are now sustained, mainly by the trade of the nations respectively in which 
they are situated. Even London, the greatest mart in the world, is believed 
to derive much the greater part of the support of its vast population from its 
.trade with the United Kingdom. At the present time not one-fifteenth of the 
business of New York city is based upon foreign commerce, but is sustained 
by the trade growing out of our home industry. 



ST. LOmS, TTTE FUTURK ORRIT CTTT. 97 

Thongh the argnment is not exhaustive, it is conclusive. It is founded in 
the all-directing under life-currents of human existence upon this planet, and 
from its principles there is neither variableness nor shadow of turning away. 
Man's home is upon the land ; he builds his master-works upon its sure foun- 
dations. Tt is u])on the land that he invents, contrives, plans and achieves his 
mightiest deeds. He spreads hi^ sails upon the seas and battles with the tem- 
pest and the storm; and amid the sublimities of the ocean he travels unknown 
paths in search of fame. The ephemeral waves obliterate the traces of his 
victories with the passing moments ; upon the land, time alone can efface his 
works. 

The organization of society as one whole is yet too imperfect to call for the 
use of one all-directing head and one central moving heart, and it will only be 
the ultimate, the final great city, that will fully unite in itself the functions 
analogous to those of the human head and heai't, in relation to the whole 
family of man. 

The center of this great commercial power will also carry with it the center 
of the moral and intellectual power. One hundred years, at our previous rate 
of increase, will give more than four duplications, and moi-e than six hundred 
millions of people, to the present area of oiir country. But^ allowing twenty- 
five years for a duplication, and four duplications, wo should have six hundi-ed 
millions at the close of one hundred years. Of these, not less than four hun- 
dred millions will inhabit the interior plain and ihe region west of it; and not 
over two hundred millions will inhabit the margin east of the Appalachiaii 
mountains. The productions of these four hundred millions, intended for ex- 
change with each other, will meet at the inotrt convenient point central to the 
place of the growth or manufacture of their products. Where, then, let us in- 
quire again, is most likely to be the center of the mostample and best facilities 
for the exchange, in the future, of the commodities of that great people ? 
Where will that point be ? Which of the four cities we have under consideration 
is best suited for this great purpose? Must it not be St. Louis, commanding, as 
she will, the greatest railway and river communication ? It cannot be a lake 
city, for neither of them can command, with so great advantage, the great sur- 
plus products of the country. It cannot be Cincinnati, for she is not so well 
situated in the center of the productive power of the continent. It cannot be 
New Orleans ; higher freights upon the products of the country will be against 
her. It cannot be New York nor>San Francisco, for all our six fundamental 
facts stand against them, and uneiTingly j)oint to the central plain of the con- 
tinent, where the six hundred millions of people will jarefer to transact busi- 
ness. 

Wo have seen that the human race, with all its freight of commerce, its bar- 
barism and civilization, its arms and arts, through pestilence and prosperity, 
across seas and over continents, like one mighty caravan, has been moving 
forward since creation's dawn, from the East to the )Vest, with the sword and 
cross, helmpt and distaff, to the conquest of the world; and, like a mighty 
army, leaving weakness behind and organizing power in the advance. Hence, 
we can easily realize that the same inevitable cause that wrested human power 



98 ST. L0UI8, THE FUTURE OEEAT CITY. 

from the cities of the ancients, and vested it for a time in the city of the 
Cfesars, and thence moved it to the city of London, will, in time, cross tho 
Atlantic Ocean, and be organized and represented in the future great city of 
the world, which is destined to grow uj) on the American Continent; and that 
this power, wealth and wisdom, that once ruled in Troy, Athens, Carthage, 
and Eome, and are now represented by the city of London — the precursor of 
the final great city — will, in less than one hundred years, find a resting place 
in North America, and culminate in the future great city which is destined to 
grow up in the central plain of the Continent, and upon the great Mississippi 
river, where the city of St. Louis now stands. 

I know there are those who assume that New York is to be the successor 
of London, and even surpass in population and commercial supremacy that 
great city of the trans-Atlantic shore, before the position of the final great city 
is fixed. This is not possible. We have only to comprehend the new charac- 
ter of our national industry, and the diversity of interests which it and our 
rapidly increasing system of railways are establishing, to know that it is im- 
possible. The city of New York will not, in the future, control the same pro- 
portionate share of foreign and domestic commerce of the country, that she 
heretofore has. New Orleans and San Francisco will take some of the present 
valued ti-ade, and, together with other points which will soon partake of the 
outpost commerce, the trade to and from our country will be so divided as to 
prevent New York from becoming the rival, much less the superior, of London, 
as Mr. Scott bus so earnestly contended. Then, in the westward movement of 
human power and the center of the world's commerce, from the city of London, 
to the New World, it is not possible for it to find a complete and final resting 
place in any city of the Atlantic seaboard, but it will bo compelled to 
move forward, until, in its complete development, it will be organized and 
represented in the most favored city in the central plain of the Continent. 
Besides the diffusion of our external commerce thi-*ugh so many channels up- 
on our seaboard, so as to prevent its concentration at any one of the seaboard 
cities, there are elements at work in the interior of the country', which will more 
surely prevent the city that is to succeed London from growing up on the At- 
lantic shore of our Continent. Eveiy tendency of our national progress is 
more and more to our continental development — a living at home, rather than 
going abroad to distant markets. There is an inherent principle lurking among 
all people of great continental nationality and resources, which, impresses 
them stronger with home interests than with external and distant fields of ac- 
tion; and this principle is rapidly infusing itself among the people of these 
great valley States; therefore, it is needless to look into the future to see our 
great cities on either seaboard of our Continent, for they are not destined to 
be there. But most certainly will they grow up in the interior, upon the lakes, 
the rivei*8, and the Gulf; and among these cities of the interior we are to look 
for the future gi'eat city of the world — that which London now heralds, and 
which the westward tendency of the world's civilization will in, le^s than one 
hundred years, build up as the greatest industrial organism of the human race. 
Human power is not only moving westward fi-om the old world, but it is 



ST. liOinS, THK yUTTJRE aRE.\.T CTTT. 



99 



also moving fi'om the Atlantic seaboard, westward. But a few facts are neces- 
sary to demonstrate the truth of this statement : First, in evidence that human 
power is moviiis: westward from the old world, we have but to refer to the 
reports of the State Department at VV^asliington tipon our foreign commerce, to 
learn that our imports are greater than our exports, and our internal com- 
merce far greater than our foreign commerce ; and by reference to the various 
reports on emigration, we learn that thousands are coming from Western Eu- 
rope, yearly, to our shores, while but few of our own people are seeking homes 
on the other side of the Atlantic. Second, in evidence of the westward move- 
ment of human power from the Atlantic States, the following statistical facta 
are given ; and although our tables show, in the most conclusive manner, that 
human power is moving westward, yet since they were made up, many thou- 
sands of new miles of railways have been added to the great system of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley, and at least three-fifths of the number of miles of railways of 
the entire country are now in the Valley of the Mississippi. 

Nor can these facts, in their magnitude and character, be considered of cas- 
ual concern to the American citizen ; for they are the most imj^ortant in our 
national progress. They are the irrefutable evidences of the historic and sub- 
lime march of the American people, in the course of the star of empire in it» 
majestic career across the continent. 

T^e following Table will show the number of miles of railroad in operation in the 
United States for each year since 1830, also the ratio of such mileage to the area 
and the population of the several States. 



Year. 


Miles in 
■Operation. 


Annual 
Increase of 
Mileage. \ 


Year. 


Miles in 
Oijcrution . 


Annual 

Increiiae of 

Mileage. 


1830 


23 

95 

229 

380 

633 
1,098 
1,273 
1,497 
1,913 
2,302 
2,818 
3,. 535 
4,026 
4,1&5 
4,377 
4,633 
4,939 
5,. 599 
5,9% 
7 , 365 
9,021 

i 


•72 

13-4 
151 
2.53 
2ti5 
175 
224 
416 
389 
515 
717 
401 
1.59 
lf)2 
2.-)6 
2117 
669 
:i97 
J, 369 
1,058 


ia5i 


10,982 
12,908 
15,300 
16,720 
18,374 
22,017 
24,. 508 
26,i)68 
2S.7^9 
30,635 
31,2.->6 
32,120 
.33,170 
33,908 
35,185 
37,017 
39,244 
42,277 
47,254 
53,3;»9 
60,852 


1,961 

1,926 
2,4.52 
1,360 


1831 


ia52 


1832 


1853 


183.3 


1854 


1834 


1S55 


1,6.54 
3,643 

2,491 
2,460 
1,821 


18;J5 


1856 


1838 


18.57 


1837 


itisa 


18.38 


18.59 


18;i9 


IStiO 


1 848 


1840 


1861 


621 


1841 


1862 


8(!4 


1842 


lS6.i 


1 OoO 


1843 , 


1861 


738 


18U 


1865 


1,277 


1S4.^ 


1866 


1 832 


1846 


18^>7 


2 227 


1847 


JS68 


3,(133 


1S48 


1869 


4,t>!l9 


It49 


1870 


6,145 


1850 


1871 


7,453 







8S9C4 



100 



ST. LOmS, TELE FVTXJKE GREAT OITY. 



STATISTICAL STATEMENT. 

Showing the Area, Population, and Assessed Valuation of the States and Terri- 
tories of the United States of America, June 1, 1860, and June 1, 1870 ; and the 
Railroad Mileage therein January 1, 1862, and January 1, 1872, compar- 
atively : 



STATES 


Area in 
square 
miles. 


Population. 


Aseeseed Valuation. 


Miles of B. B. 


TBKIUTORIKS. 


1860. 


1870. 


1860. 


1870. 


1862. 


1872. 


States. 

1. Alabama 

2. Aikansas 

3. California 

4. Coniieciicut 

6. Delaware 

6. Florida 


.50.722 

52,l;t8 

188,981 

4,674 

2,120 

59,268 

.58,009 

55,410 

33,809 

55, '14.5 

81,318 

37,6011 

41,346 

31,776 

11,184 

7,800 

56,451 

83,, -.31 

47,1,56 

65,3,50 

75,995 

112,090 

9,280 

8,3-20 

47,000 

50,704 

,39,964 

95, -244 

46,0(Kl 

1,306 

29,385 

45,600 

237,501 

10,212 

40,904 

23,000 

53,924 


964, 2-11 
4.35,4.50 
379,991 
460,147 
112,216 
140,4-24 

1,0.57, -286 

1,711,9,-iI 

l,a50,428 
674,913 
I07,2-'J9 

1,155,684 
708,002 
628,279 
687,049 

1,231, 066 
749,113 
172,023 
791,305 

1,182,012 

28,841 

6,857 

326,073 

672,0.35 

3,S-0,7&) 
992,622 

2,339,511 
52,465 

2,906,215 
174,6-20 
703,708 

1,10H,801 
604,215 
315,098 

1,219,630 
376,688 
775,881 


996,992 

484, -171 

560,217 

,537,4.54 

125.015 

187,748 

1,184,109 

2., 539, 891 

1,680,6.37 

1,191,792 

364,.39<l 

1,321,011 

726,915 

626,915 

780,894 

l,4.57,a51 

1,184,0.59 

4.39,706 

827,922 

1,721,295 

1-22.993 

42,491 

318,300 

906,096 

4,382,7.59 

1,071,. '16 J 

2,665,260 

90,9-23 

8,,521,791 

•217,. Yi3 

705,606 

1,2.58,. 5^20 

818, .57:) 

330,551 

l,2-ri,163 

442,011 

1,054,670 


$4.32,198,762 
180,211,330 
139,6.54,667 
341, '256, 976 

39,9-29,685 

68,9-29,685 
618,'J32,;587 . 
:«9,207,.372 
411,042.424 
205,16<5,9&5 

22, 51 8, '2.32 
5'28, 212,693 
■435,787,265 
154,380,388 
297,ia5,2l8 
777,1.57,816 
163,, 533, 005 

32,018,773 

,5<19,472,912 

•266,985,&51 

7,4-26,949 


fl55,5S2,.595 

94,, 5-28, 843 

269,644,068 

4-25,433,237 

64,7.87,2'23 

32,480,843 

•227,219,519 

482.899,575 

663,4.55,044 

.302,515,418 

92,125,861 

409,544,294 

2,53,371,890 

204,2,53,780 

4^23,834,918 

1,591,983,112 

272,-242,917 

84,135,.332 

177,-278,890 

5,56,129,969 

.54,. 5.84, 616 

25,740,973 

149,065,290 

6^24.868,971 

1,967,001,185 

130, 378, 6^22 

1,167,731,697 

3 1,798,. 510 

1,319,236,042 

'244,278,8.54 

183,913,337 

253,782,161 

149,732,9-29 

102, .548, ,528 

365,4.39,917 

140,538,273 

333, -209,838 


805 

38 

23 

630 

127 

402 

1,4-20 

2,998 

2,175 

731 

'567 
335 
605 
408 
1,^285 
853 

'S62 
838 

"m. 

633 

2,7-28 
937 

3,100 
4 

3,006 
108 
9:3 

1,'253 
451 
562 

1,379 
,361 
961 


1,671 

258 

1,013 

820 

227 

466 

2,106 

5,904 

3,629 

3,160 

1,760 


8. Illinois 

9. Indiana 

10. Iowa 


il. Kansas 


12. Kentucky 

13. Louisiana 

14. Maine 


1,123 
539 
871 


15. Maryland 

16. --; issuchusetts .. 

17. Mi.'higan 

18. Minneiota 

19. Mi-^sis-^ippi 

20. Missouri 

21. Nebraska 

22. Nevada 


820 
1,006 
2,235 
1,612 

990 
2,580 

8*28 

593 


23. N. Hajiiushire... 

24. New .Jersey 

25. New York 

26. North Carolina.. 
'11. Ohio 


1-^3,810,089 

296,682,492 

1,390,464,6:18 

•292,-297,602 

959,869,101 

19,0-21,915 

7 19, -253, 435 

1-25,104,305 

489,319,1-28 

382.495,200 

•267,792,3.34 

84,758,619 

657, 0-21,. 3.36 j 

156, -226, 169 


790 
1,265 
4,470 
1,190 
3,740 


28. Ore<.;nn 


159 


29. Pennsvlvauia. . . 

30. Rhode" Inland.. . 

31 . .South Carolina. . 

32. Tennessee 

33. Texas 

34. Vermont 

35. V'r>;inia. . .- 

36. West Virginia... 

37. Wisconsin 


5,113 
136 

1,201 

1,520 
865 
676 

1,4S0 
485 

1,725 


Total States 

Territoriei. 
1. Arizona 


1,950,171 

113,916 

104,, 500 

147,490 

60 

90,932 

143,776 

121,201 

80,0,56 

69,994 

93,107 


31,183,744 

si; 277 

4,8.37 

1 45,08v) 

9,3,'5i6 
40,273 
ll,,5fU 


38,113,253 

9,6.58 
39,861 
14,181 
131,7(10 
14,999 
'20,595 
91.874 
86,780 
23,9.55 

9,118 


$11, 984,. 576, 538 


$14,0'21, '297,071 

$1,410,295 
17,. 338, 101 

2, 924' 489 
74, '271, 693 

5,-292.205 

9,913,411 
17,784,014 
12,565,842 
10,642,863 

5,516,743 


32,120 
« 


69,687 


2. CVilorado 




899 


3. Dakota 






4. Distof Columbia 

5. Idaho 


41,084.945 


• 


6. Montana 






7. New Mexico 

8. Utah 

9. Washina:ton 

10. Wyoming 


20,a3S,780 
4,1.58,1-20 
4,394,735 


875 

'498 








Total Territories. 


!>65,ll32 


•259,. 577 


442,730 


$70, 476, ,580 


$l,57,t>89,661 




1,265 


Aggreg'e, U. S 


2,915,203 


:il,443,321 


38,555,983 


$12,055,0.53,118 


$14,178,986,732 


32,1-20 


60,862 



The above table, with some slight <',hftnges, is taken from Mr. Poor's Railroad Manual for 1870-1. In 
fcome particulars it is incorrect. It falls short in giving the present pipulation of the country. Our pre- 
sent census will show us to have more than 42,000,000 itihabitants. It is estimated th.it our preeent rail- 
way systejQQ, as exhibited by the above table, cost $42,000,000,000, which is the annual value of the com- 
merce of our Western rivers. 

'Included in the railroad nuleAge of Maryland. 



ST. Umm, THE "FUl'UKK ORBAT CITY. 



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ST. liOUXB, TUE FDTL'RE OKiiAT CITY. 103 

But granting that human power is moving westward, on this continent, a 
question arises, as to whether, in time, it will be arrested and make a lodge- 
ment somewhere in North America, or whether it cross the Pacific Ocean to 
the inferior races of Asia. 

To answer this question we have only to reconsider the vast material re- 
sources of North America, and realize that they are far more inviting to capital 
and skill, than any inducements that Asia can ofter. This fact is so palpable 
that it requires no argument, and therefore must settle the question of the arrest 
of human power, in its westward movement on this continent. Nor will it 
reach and make a lodgement on the Pacific Slope. 

The vast arid and mountainous regions of the westei*n half of the continent, 
and the unequaled extent of fertile lands on the eastern half of the continent, 
and adjacent to and on either side of the great river, fixes its location inevita- 
bly in the central plain of the continent; and in the center of its productive 
power. And with the development and complete organization of human pow- 
er in the center of the productive power of the continent, will most certainly 
grow up the great city of the future — the great material, social, civil, and mor- 
al heart of the human race. The raw materials necessary to the artisan and 
the manufacturer, in the production of whatever ministers to comfort and ele- 
gance, are here. The bulkiness of food and raw minerals make it to the 
interest of the artisan and the manufacturer to locate themselves near the 
place those materials grow. It is this interest, constantly operating, which 
peoples our Western towns and cities with emigrants from the Eastern States 
»nd Europe. When food and raw materials for manufacture are no longer 
cheaper in the great valley than in the States of the Atlantic and the nations 
of Western Europe, then, and not till then, will it cease to be to the interest of 
artisans and manufacturers to prefer a location in Western towns and cities. 
This time will probably be about the period when the Mississippi shal flow to- 
ward the Arctic regions. 

The chief points for the exchange of the varied productions of industry in 
the Mississippi valley will necessarily giveemploj'ment to the great population. 
Indeed, the locations of our future great cities have been made with reference 
to their commercial capabilities. Commerce has laid the foundation on which 
manufactures have been, to a great extent, instrumental in rearing the super- 
Btructure. Together, these departments of labor are destined to build up in 
this fertile valley the greatest cities of the world. 

It is something to us Americans that the great city, the great all-directing 
heart of the race, is to grow up in our land. Even to us of this generation, a 
conviction of the final growth of great marvel of future ages is a thought which 
we can indulge and enjoy with pride, in the present and coming conflicts of 
this progressive life. As we have already seen, St. Louis is substantially cen- 
tral to the Mississippi Valley, and no city on the continent can lay any just 
claim to become the future great city, and occupy a central position to so many 
valuable resources as she does. She is not only substantially in the center of 
the Mississippi Valley, but, allowing her to be nine hundred miles from New 
York City, she occupies the center of an area of 2,544,688 square miles, and 



104 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

within a circumference the outer line of which touches Chicago. She occupies 
the center of an area of country which, in fertility of soil, coal, iron, timber, 
stone, water, domestic navigation, and railways, cannot be equaled on thd 
globe. 

Not only so, but when we consider by what general rules, the cities have 
grown, and are now growing on this continent, we must conclude that St. Louis, 
still occupies the most favorable position for greatness and power. 

Let us look at this for one moment. Leaving the Atlantic sea board, we 
observe that the cities of the continent have been erected within belts or zones. 
The most central and important of which are 

THE CITIES OF THE RIVER ZONE. 

This zone embraces the belt of country between the mouth of Chesepeake Bay 
and the lower end of Long Island Sound, and extending westward to the head 
waters of the Republican, Smoky Hill and Arkansas. Within this belt of 
country is embraced most of the internal navigation and river of the United 
States, and upon the rivers included within it, now exist the cities of the river 
zone. They occupy the most favored localities of any cities in the United 
States. 

THE CITIES OF THE LAKE ZONE. 

On the north have been founded the cities of the Lake zone. They have 
been built along the line of the Lakes, from east to west, to the upper Mis- 
sissippi, and from a very important chain of commercial cities, but never can 
equal in wealth and power the cities of the river zone, 

THE CITIKS OP THE GULF ZONE. 

On the South has been founded the cities of the Gulf zone. They have been 
built along, and adjacent to the gulf from east to west, to the Eio Grande. The 
cities of this zone, though they will never grow so powerful as those in the 
River and Lake zone; they will grow wealthy, and be noted for refinement 
and sodal character. 

These three zones represent the manner in which the cities of the country 
grew up, under the first movement of civilization across the continent from east 
to west; but now that the Pacific shore has been reached by the pioneer, and 
great army of civilization, and neither can go beyond, a new and second 
movement is now being inaugui-ated, and new city zones will soon define 
themselves. They will be the Atlantic zone, embracing the cities of the At- 
lantic coast, from the mouth of the St. Lawi-ence to Cape Florida. The next 
zone of cities under the new movement of civilization on the continent, will bo 
the zone at the Mississippi Valley, extending from Hudsons Bay to the Gulf of 
Mexico. Within this zone, in time, will exist more great cities than any na- 
tion of the earth will have. Beyond this is the zone of the Pacific. This zone 
will embrace all the cities of the Pacific Slope. 



ar. liOUIS. THE FUTUUK QliKAT OITY. 105 

Intermediately, between the zone of the Mississippi Valley and the Pacifio 
zone, is the mountain and plateau region, the land of religion and conflicting 
ideas. To this region will belong many cities of aplendor and wealth. 

Now to the application. Take the city zones under the first or second order 
of civilization on the continent, and in either case, Hi. Louis possesses supreme 
advantages over any other city in North America. And especially will her ad- 
vantages be greater under the new, or second order of civilization, which will as 
eurely compel all the cities of the valley, to go out at the muoth of the Missis- 
sippi to the Gulf, and to the world. Chicago, no doubt, is not ready to accept 
such a destiny, but no matter, she will. She too, with Cincinnati and St. 
Louis, must follow the flow of the waters to the Gulf. This will establish St. 
Louis as the great continental, distributing point, the depot and the entrepot 
for the great bulk of the commerce of the country. 

The immense accommodation of railroads will, by rapid, cheap, and easy 
communication, draw to great centers from great distances around, and thus 
the great cities of the world will continue to grow until they reach a magni- 
tude hitherto unknown ; and, above them all, will St. Louis reap the rich 
rewards of modern discoveries and inventions, especially as regards steam and 
all its vast and varied influence. 

But let us pass on : Cities like individuals, have a law of growth, that may 
be said to be constitutional and inherent, and yet the law governing the growth 
of cities, does not seem to be sufficiently understood to furnish a basis for cal- 
culating their growth to any considerable time in the future. In the develop- 
ment of a nation, and country, new agencies are continually coming into the 
account of growth and work, either favorable or unfavorable. The growth of 
cities is somewhat analogous to the pursuits of business men : some move rapidly 
forward in the accumulation of wealth, to the end of life; others only for a 
time are able to keep even with the world. So, too, in the growth of cities; 
and thus it is diflScuIt to calculate with exactness their future growth. Cities 
grow with greater rapidit}' than nations and States, and much sooner double 
their population ; and, with the constantly increasing tendency of the people 
to live in cities, we can look with great&r certainty to the early triumph of our 
inland cities over those of the seaboard ; for, so surely as the population of the 
Valley States doubles that of the seaboard States, so surely will their cities be 
greater. The city of London, now the greatest in the world, having more than 
three million people, has only doubled its p()])ulation every thirty years, while 
New York has doubled every fifteen years. According to Mr. J. W. Scott, 
London grows at an average annual rate, on a long time, of two per cent.; 
New York, at five; Chicago, at twelve and one-half; Toledo, twelve; Mil- 
waukee, Detroit, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Buffalo, and St. Louis, at the rate of 
eight per cent. Mr. Scott gives these calculations as approximately true for 
long periods of time. They may be essentially true in the past, but cannot bo 
relied on for the future; for, as I have already said, the growth of a city is as 
uncertain as a man's chance is in business — he may pass directly on to fortune, 
or may be kept back by the fluctuations of the markets, or greater hindrances 
interposed by wars. Touching the subject of clin)ate, I shall not deem it of 



106 ST. LOUIS, THE rCTTDKB GREAT CITY. 

Bafficient bearing upon this subject to enter into a nice discussion of the influ- 
ence of heat and cold upon man in civilized life, in the north temperate zone 
of the North American continent. All experience teaches that there is not 
sufficient variation of the climate throughout the middle belt of our country to 
adversely affect the highest and greatest purposes of American industry and 
American civilization. The same rewards and the same destiny await all. 
The densest population of which we have any record is now, and has been for 
centuries, on the thirtieth degree of north latitude; and if such can be in China,' 
why may it not be in America ? 

Again, returning to our first fundamental fact, that human power is moving 
westward from the cit}' of Loudon, we must calculate that that great city will be 
succeeded by a rival, one which will grow up in the new world, and thai this 
new city will result in the final organization of human society in one complete 
whole, and the perfect develoj^ment and organization of the commerce of the 
world} will grow to such magnificent proportions, and be so perfectly organ- 
ized and controlled in its municipal governmental character, as to constitute 
the most perfect and greatest cily of the world — the all-directing bead and 
heart of the great family of man. The new world is to be its home, and nature 
and civilization will fix its residence in the central plain of the continent, and 
in the center of the productive power of this great valley, and upon the Mis- 
sissippi river, and where the city of St. Louis now stands. All arguments 
point to this one great fact of the future, and, with its perfect realization, will 
be attained the highest possibility in the material triumph of mankind. 

lict us comprehend the inevitable causes which God and civilization have set 
to work to produce, in time, this final great city of the world, in our own fair 
laud J and, with prophetic conception, realizing it« final coming, let us hail it 
as the master-work of all art and the home of consummated wisdom, the in- 
heritance of organic liberty, and a city to be cbntrolled by an all-pervading 
social order that will insure a competency to every member of the in-gathered 
family. 

Heuceforth St. Louis must be viewed in the light of her future, her mighti- 
ness in the empire of the world, her sway in the rule of States and nations. 
Eer destiny is fixed. Like a new-born empire, she is moving forward to con- 
scious greatness, and will soon be the world's magnet of attraction. In her 
bosom all the extremes of the country are represented, and to hei' growth all 
parts of the country contribute. Mighty as are the possibilities of her people, 
still mightier are the hopes iusjDired. The city that she now is, is only the 
germ ot the city that she will be, with hor ten million souls occupying the vast 
area of her domain. Her strength will be that of a nation, and, as she grows 
toward inaturin-, her institutions of learning and philosophy will correspond- 
inglj' advance. If we but look forward, in imagination, to her consummated 
greatness, how grand is the conception ! We can realize that here will be 
reared great halls and edifices for art and learning ; here will congi-egate the 
great men and women of future ages ; here will be represented, in the future, 
some Solon and Hamilton, giving laws for the higher and better government 
of the people; here will be represented some future great tea^ihers of religion. 



ST. LOFIS, THK FCTtHE OKtAT CITY. 



l07 



teat^hing the ideal and gpJritnal development of the race, and the higher allegi- 
ance of man to the angel world; here will live gome future Plutarch, who will 
weigh the great men of his age; here some future ** Mozart will thrill the 
strings of a more perfect lyre, and improviMC grandest melodies" for the con- 
gregated people; here some future " llenibi'uiult, through his own ideal 
invagination, will picture for himself more perfect panoramic scenes of nature's 
lovely landscapes." May we not justly rejoice in the anticipation of the fu- 
ture greatness of the civil, social, industrial, intellectual, and moral elements 
which are destined to form a part of the future great city ? And may we not 
realize that the millions who are yet to be its inhabitants will be a wiser and 
better people than those of this generation, and who, in more perfect life, will 
walk these streets, in the city of the future, with the softer tread, and sing 
music with sweeter tones, be urged on by aspirations of higher aims, rejoice 
with fuller hearts, and adorn in beauty, with more tender hands, the final great 
city of the world ? 









THE AlimiARV IMliMENTS MD EVIDENCE. 



THE QEOaRAPHICAL, GEOLOGICAL AMD TOPOGRAPHICAL SITUATION OF THE OITY 

OF ST. LOUIS. 

The city of St. Louis is situated, geographically, very nearly in the center 
of the great Valle}- of the Mississippi, or hasin of the continent, on the west 
bank of the Mississippi river, and about half way between St. Paul and New 
Orleans, and Pittsburg and Denver City. 

The topography of St. Louis county consists of a system of ridges branching 
from a water-shed between the Missoufi, Meramec and Mississippi rivers. 
This water-shed has a general altitude of two hundred feet above the Missis- 
sippi river, and has numerous small ridges or arms branching from it and 
winding in serpentine courses, and maintaining this general altitude along 
their summits, and terminating in bluffs or low escarpments and declining 
grounds towards the Meramec, Missouri and Missisnippi rivers. 

The city is built geographically on the ends or termination of this ridge sys- 
tem, and extends some twelve miles up and down the river, the ground rising 
gently from the river back for one mile to Seventeetb street, which follows 
in part the apex of the first ridge, and is one hundred and fifty feet above the 
river. The ground then gently declines, and. rises in a second ridge at Twen- 
ty-fifth street, or Jefferson avenue, and parts of Grand avenue, and again slopes 
and rises in a ridge at Cote Brilliante, or Wilson's Hill, four miles west of the 
river. This point is some two hundred feet above the river, and overlooks 
the city. 

Looking at the topography of the site which St. Louis now occupies, tKo 
observer will be mf)st intensely impressed with the thought that nature in her 
immutable decrees hud ordained, from the beginning, that here she laid the 
foundation for a great cit}'^ — the future imperial city of the world. Nor are 
the character and superiority of the land circumscribed by the present city 
limits — not at all. The same beauty in thegeneral formation and adaptability 
of the ground for building purposes, and the consequent expansion of the city, 
extends back in every way from the river for an indefinite distance, and with 
still greater advantages for building purposes as we advance into the country. 

The geological formation of St. Louis county is limestone, shales and sand- 
stones of the coal measures, these being covered with alluvial clays from ten 
to twenty feet deep, making the contour of the ridges wavy and dividing the 
country into rich rolling prairie, from one to two hundred feet above the 
rivers, and bordered with belts and groves of black and white oak woods ; and 
the country shows many substantial brick mansions, highly-cultivated farms, 
vine-yards, orchards, meadows, slopes — forming the most natural grounds for 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTCRB QRKAT CTT!. 109 

bailding purposes found in an}- part of our country. Viewing this rolling 
prairie, with all its wealth of alluvial soil, its contour of ridge and valley, its 
springs and meandering streams, it seems as if the laws of nature had here 
amassed their wealth, and centralized the material resources to supply the 
wants of a dense and wealthy population ; and, not being content with this 
wealth of soil and art on the surface, had underlaid a large part of this area 
with coal veins, St. Louis county containing an undeveloped coal basin of over 
10,000 acres. 

While New York is limited to a barren, rocky island, Phihidelphia to a low 
"ridge between the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, Washington City to a flat, 
sterile, uninteresting region, Chicago to land from five to fifteen feet above 
Lake Michigan, and swampy prairie beyond, Cincinnati to a small circuit sur- 
rounded by steep, rocky hills, St. Louis has the most natural contour of sur- 
face for elevation of residence streets — deep clay over the limestone for brick, 
cellars, sewerage, and foundations, quarries of building rock in all parts of the 
city, wells of pure water in the deep clays in many parts of the city, natural 
sewerage and dome-shaped hills for waterworks, and essentially combining all 
the material resources for a great city. Loudon and Paris are built upon ter- 
tiary basins, where the soil is thin and rocks generally too soft for good build- 
ing material. Grand avenue is twelve miles long, running parallel with the river, 
and forming a grand broadway from the north to the south end of the city, 
and is destined in the future, with its fair-grounds, its great parks, cathedrals, 
churches, waterworks, and private residences, to be the boulevard of the West- 
ern continent. And yet, when this has been said, we have but commenced to 
tell of the wonders of a city destined in the future to equal London in its pop- 
ulation, Athens in its philosophy, art and culture, Eome in its hotels, cathedrals, 
churches and grandeur, and to be the central commercial metropolis of a con- 
tinent. 

It may be asked, how shall we have cognizance of the laws to give us faith 
in this being accomplished ? Go, then, in imagination, ninety miles south of 
the city, over the railroad to the L'on Mountains, where is stored above the 
level of the valleys, iron ore sufficient to supply the wants of a densely-popu- 
lated continent. One thousand tons of this ore now comes daily, over a down 
grade of seven hundred feet, to St. Louis. In another year a double track 
railroad will be needed. Flanking this iron system are 10,000,000 acres of iron, 
lead, copper, zinc, antimony, nickel, tin, silver and gold regions; west of this 
are another 10,000,000 acres, including Southwest Missouri, being fields of 
similar ores, and part coal. This, you will bear in mind, is south of the city. 

Now, let us look east. The four great trunk railroads leading east at ten 
miles from the city reach the coal measures, run each over two hundred miles 
of the great Illinois coal basin, where five or six coal veins are piled one vein 
above the other. To the north this same coa,l system is found, and all the 
railroads in North Missouri are crossing more or less over coal veins. To the 
West, the great trunk Pacific railroad, beyond Jefferson City, crosses over 
vast coal-fields, Kansas City being built centrally in this great field. 

Coal and iron are the bones and sinews of the most powerfvd of modem na- 



110 ST. LOUIS, THK yUTUEB GREAT CITY. 

tions. Lead, zinc, and copper add strength. In the future, the country to pay 
tribute to this center are the va^t cotton-fields of the lower Mississippi, the 
grain-growing regions of the North and West, the argentiferous and auriferous 
belts of Colorado and Montana. 

St. Louis like ancient Eome, once with its 10,000,000 population, is destined 
to be flanked and surrounded with a galaxy or cordon of continental cities. 
Memphis, Kansas City, St. Joseph, Leavenworth, Dubuqtie, Keokuk, Daven- 
port, Jacksonville, Springfield, Terre Haute, and Indianapolis are a part of 
these satellites that in the future are to pay tribute to this center — taking in 
view the fact of their vast material resources, and these being the center of the 
great fruit, agricultural and wine belt of the continent. 

The i^eople, the Teutonic and Celtic races, are the pioneer people in all the 
departments of human industry, politics, culture, theology. We appi*ehend 
that the most acute vision, even were that mind in harmony with the spirit of 
the times, and enabled through that means to look back through the dim 
geologic history of the past, when the economic laws were piling the iron, 
atom by atom, in these iron mountains, growing the dense flora of the coal 
plants, repleting the veins of lead, zinc, copper, tin, silver and gold, and at the 
same time comprehend the ridge, valley, spi'ing, prairie, timber and river sys- 
tems, and was enabled to go back in the ethnography and heraldry of these 
populations, and could fuse these elements or facts in the future, and at the 
same time realize the grandeur of the empires of the past — the Persian, under 
Cyrus; the Macedonian, under Alexander the Great; the Roman, under the 
Republic and the twelve Csesars — that the truth would be forced upon the 
mind, that in the future this great Valley of the Mississippi will include the 
center of an empire, before which, in wealth, power and grandeur, all these 
shall pale; that St. Louis, sitting like a Queen on the banks of the great Father 
of Waters, will be the central city of this people, the tidal waves of whose 
civilization will roll to China and Japan on the west, and to the Bosphorus on 
the east; and with her continental railroad system, her telegraphs over 
mountains and under oceans, her vast water communication, will radiate law 
and order, and become the leadingnational, mining, and commercial metropolis 
of the Western hemisphere. 

St. Louis, though in its infancy, is already a large city. Its length is about 
twelve miles, and its width from four to five. Suburban- residences, the out- 
posts of the grand advance, are now stationed six and eight miles from the 
river, and will soon be twenty. In 1865, the real and personal pro2)ert3' of the 
city was assessed at $100,000,000, and in 1866 at $126,877,000. These figures, as 
well as the present assessment, $147,968,070, ai-e understood by our city ofii- 
cials to be much below the real value of the city. 

St- Louis is a well-built city, but its architecture is more substantial than 
showy. The wide, well-paved streets, the spacious levee and commodious 
warehouses; the mills, machine shops and manufactories; the fine hotels, 
churches, and public buildings; the Uiiiversities, charitable institutions, public 
schools and libraries, the growing parks, the well-improved and unequaled fair- 
grounds, and Mr. Shaw's jewel -of a garden, which Ls by far the garden of the 



8T. LOUIS, THIS FUTUEK QBKAT CITY. Ill 

continent, constitute an array of excellencies and attractions of which any city 
may justly be proud. The appearance of St. Louis from the eastern bank of 
the Misnissippi is impressive. At East St. Louis the eye sometimes commands 
a view of one hundred steamboats lying at our levee. A mile and a half of 
steamboats lying at the wharf of a city 1,000 miles from the ocean, in the heart 
of a continent, is a spectacle which naturally inspires large views of commer- 
cial greatness. The sight of our levee, thronged with busy merchants and 
covered with the commodities of every clime, from the peltries of the Rocky 
Mountains to the teas of China, does not tend to lessen the magnitude of the 
impression. 

These thoughts of the growth and commerce of St. Louis could easily be ex- 
tended to a discussion of the wealth and industry of our continent, but the 
amplification would be of no avail to a people whoso minds, like their eyes, 
are accustomed to range over large extents, and are not content to sit down 
after having acquired a little power. 

POPULATION OP ST. LOUIS CONSIDERED. 

The material growth of St. Louis, from its foundation by Pierre Lacledo 
Liguest, on the 15th day of February, 1764, will ever furnish a historical lesson 
of varied interest to those who now and henceforth enroll themselves among 
its inhabitants. 

" In 1790 a St. Louis merchant was a man who, in the corner of his cabin, 
had a large chest which contained a few pounds of power and shot, a few 
knives and hatchets, a little red paint, two or three rifles, some hunting shirts 
of buckskin, a few tin cups and iron pots, and perhaps a little tea, coffee, sugar 
and spice. There was no post-office, no ferry over the river, no newspaper." 

From its foimdation to the date of the Louisiana purchase, in 1804, but little 
change was made in the character of its social society, and industrial interests. 
The ruder and rougher forms of life were everywhere impressed upon her 
people, and marked the growth of an infant city destined to be the future 
capital of the United States and the great city of the world. The Louisiana 
purchase at once fixed not only the destiny of the nation, but also of St. Louis. 
A change in the title of the land wrought a change in her material growth and 
prosperity. A newspaper was established in 1808 ; in 1809 fire companies 
were organized; in 1810 there were road-masters, who had power to compel 
the requisite labor to improve good highways; in 1811 two schools were es- 
tablished, one English, the other French ; in the same year a market-house 
was built, and prosperity gradually awakened new life in the place, and point- 
ed to a future full of hope. 

A record of the population of St. Louis began to date in the year 1764, a 
little more than one hundred years ago, and the succeeding increase at difiPei'ent 
periods is shown by the following statement : 



112 ST. hOUiSj THB rVTVBS GREAT CITY. 

TearB. Population. Years. Population. 

WM 120 1835 8,316 

1780 6157 i>*V 12,040 

1785 mn 1840 16,469 

1788 1,197 1*14 34,140 

1799 925 la-iO 74,439 

1811 1,400 1862 94,000 

law 4,928 185(5 125,200 

1828 5,000 I860 360,773 

1830 5,852 1870 310,963 

1833 6,397 

Dr. Scott, in fixing the annual average growth of cities, estimated that of 
St. Lonis, previous to 1860, to be at an annual average rate of 8 per cent. 
But by the rapid change which has so recently swept over the countiy — abol- 
ishing slavery and equalizing labor alike in all sections of the country, and 
founding our prosperity alone upon the advantages which God has fixed 
throughout the land, St. Louis, in spite of the terrible ravages of four year of 
devastating war, has grown into the ascendency, during the last ten years, at 
an annual average rate of a little more than nine per cent. But, if we allow a 
discount of two per cent, for decimations during the four years of war, we 
must, to attain the present population of the city, have well nigh increased 
annually at the rate of twelve per cent, since the war. This is almost equal 
to the increase of Chicago in the days of her precocious growth. 

But during the past two years, St. Louis has grown, more rapidly than 
ever before. Her growth has been at the annual rate of at least 12 per cent. 
This would give her at the present time, taking the census of 1870, 310,963, as 
a basis, not less than 393,500, inhabitants. 

And it is not unreasonable, in the absence of an actual census, to assume 
that her population, within the old corporate limits of 19, 9-10 square milef, 
does reach that number, at the present time ; for no city to-day in the United 
States is growing in manufacturing industry as rapidly as St. Louis. Her 
railway system is expanding with immense rapidity. Her dry goods and 
grocery trade, is growing at the rate of 25 and 30 per cent, annually. And in 
every department of industry and traffic new energies and hopes are inspired 
by the people of St. Louis, as they go forward in their mission of greatness ordain- 
ed by the Supreme Euler above. But assuming the present population of St. 
Louis to be 393,500, within the old corporate limits, it is not unreasonable to claim 
that the extended limits, by the last legislature, will give to her, in addition, 30,- 
OOO inhabitants j this added to the number within the old limits, would make 
423,500 as the present population of St. Louis, which may be stated, without 
extravagance, in round numbers at 425,000, which is even below the actual 
fact, when we consider, that more than two years have elapsed since the United 
States census was taken. 

These facts taken together, I lay it down as true, that the present population 
of St. Louis, is not less than 425,000. And I am sure that a well taken census, 
would demonstrate the actual population to be greater, i-ather than fall below 

this number assumed. 

According to the oensua of 1870, the population of St. Lotus as to nativity 
was as follows : 



ST. I,(>; r>, TIIK FUTURE OREAT CITY. 



113 



Table shoicing the CeJisus of the City of St. Louis according to Nationalities and 

Color. 



BOHN IN UNITED STATES. 



STATES. 



Alabama 

Aikaiisns 

Caliloinia .■ 

Connecticut 

DflawiiVL- 

Florida 

Gtorgia 

llliuois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

ilissis-ipiii 

l\lissouri 

Nebr ska 

Nevad.i 

New Hampshire 

Kew J r.--ey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhotte Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

District of Columbia. 

TEUKITORIES. 

Alaska 

Arizona 

•Colorado 

Dakota 

Idaho ... 

Indian 

Montana 

New Mexico 

Utah 

Washington 

Wyoming 






426 

24li 

123 

628 

■J31 

5« 

;54() 

0,72! 

2,4H!) 

1,424 

27 

3,706 

1,882 

712 

l,5(li 

2,f)4: 

746 

145 

5.1 1 

121,1)31 

r>s 

1 

343 
955 

9,2.')0 
190 

6,880 
2 

5,878 
150 
1.50 

l,4:i9 
129 
578 

2,235 

45 

660 

351 



20 
5 






5 
9 
27 
18 
4 
1 



559 

274 

1 

6 

11 

28 

205 

174 

32 

26 

9 

i.OlO 

611 



a 



174 

27 

66 

8 

911 

12,281 

1 

1 

3 

8 

38 

243 

362 



210 

3 

148 

1,704 

89 

4 

1,647 

9 

8 

30 



BORN IN FOKKIGN COUNTRIES. 



COUNTRIES. 



I 



1 



Africa 

.\sia 

Atlantic Island 

Australia 

Austiia 

Helgium 

H.iliemia 

IJiilish America: 

Caniida .. . . 

X. Brunswick 

Newioundlanrt 

Nova Scotia 

Brit'h America, not spc 

cifud 

Total Brit. America 

Central America 

China 

Cuba 

Denmark 

England 

Europe, not specifi- 
ed 

France 

Germ;inv : 

B:iden" 

Bavaria 

Brunswick 

Hainbuig 

Hanover 

Hess, n 

IjUlicck 

Jleckhnburg 

Nassau 

Oldenburg 

Prussia.."; 

SaxoTiy 

Weimar 

Wui temburij 

German V, not specifi- 
ed ... ." 

Total German J' 

Great Britain, not speci- 

lied 

Greece 

Holhind 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Mexico 

Xoiwav 

rai'itic Islands 



o 



7 

27 

3 

2", 

75b 

254 

2,6.52 

1,841 

58 

4 

74 

9 



1 
178 
5,366 



94 

2,788 



16 



5, SSI 

6,4.30 

269 

310 

8,85S 

4,849 

9 

186 

482 

220 

24,269 

1,775 

3 

2,566 



2,933 
59,040 

5 
2 

643 

126 

32,239 

785 

25 

76 

1 



0) 
.3 

o 



114 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



BOUN IN UNITED STATES. 


BOKN IN FOREIGN COUNTBIE8. 


STATES. 




i 

u 

o 

o 


CO 

s 
2 
'■5 

a 

rn 


COUNTRIES. 




'6 

s 

"o 
o 


00 

a 


3 


Af, sea under United 


1 

625 






Poland 


292 

14 

86 

1 

1 

1,202 

15 

45 

237 

2,949 

2 

147 

74 
45 








States flag 


Portugal 








l^ot stated 


53 


2 


Russia 










Sandwich Islands 

Sardinia 








Total U. S 


176,540 


22,045 


30 










Scotland 










South America 


2 






RECAPITULATION . 


Spain 

Sweden 












Total Whites 288,737 


S witzi-rlaud 








Turkey 










38 
1 

198,615 
112,249 


Wales 










West Indies 


i 








At sea. 

Not stated 






** Ti^fiffis'ii 










Total foreign 










Grand total 




310,864 310,864 


112,197 


43 


8 


1 



By the census of 1860 the total foreign-born po]Dulation of the country was 
96,086. The colored population then consisted of 1,865 free and 4,3-46 slave 
the total j)opulation of the country being 190,524. 



»» • ^» 



Table showing the White and Colored Population of St. Louis County. 



ST. liOUIS COUNTY. 


White. 


Colored. 


.2 

a 
1— ( 


01 
CD 

O 

G 


Native. 


Foreign . 


Total. 


Bonhomme 


5,304 
8,120 
5,000 
2,853 
6,262 
8,395 

288,705 
32,099 
21,295 
23,109 
36,633 
26,2.57 
20,408 
16,875 
19,659 
22,268 
19,430 
31,885 
18,787 


858 
803 
297 
583 
952 
805 

22,117 
1,607 

.580 

754 

2,538 

3,510 

1,104 

1,630 

7,051 

649 

1,173 

687 

834 




4,704 
6,017 
3,609 
2,705 
5,346 
5,817 

188,608 
23,389 
12,166 
13,341 
26,363 
19,624 
15,116 
12,603 
18,600 
13,368 
12,298 
19,018 
12,722 


1,458 
2,906 
1,778 
731 
1,868 
»,386 

112,256 

10,319 

9,689 

10,537 

12,810 

10,1.50 

6,396 

5,105 

8,110 

9,574 

8,325 

13,562 

6,899 


6,162 
8,923 
5,387 
3,436 


Central 






Caroudelet 






Merainec 






St. Ferdinand 






7,214 


St. Louis 


3 

38 
2 

■■"i5 

2 

t 





9,203 

310,864 
33,708 


St. Louis 


Fii8t Ward 


Seconil Ward 


21,855 


Third Ward 


23,878 


Fourth Ward 


30,173 


Fifth Ward 


29,774 


Sixth Ward 


21,512 


Seventh Ward 


3 




18,508 


Eighth Ward 


26,710 


Ninth Ward 


1 


4 


22,923 


Tenth Ward 


20,623 


Eleventh Ward 


8 





32,580 


Twelfth Ward 


19,621 












324,729 


26.415 


41 


4 


226,806 


124,383 


351,189 



But to continue the discussion, under this head there is a fact worthy of 
mention, that not only now, but henceforth, will bear materially on the growth 
of St. Louis. It is the constant tendency of her business men to seek new 
houses in the country, along the lines of the various railways leading out oi 
the city. Perhaps no city in the Union is so well favored with beautiful sur- 
roundings, highly adapted to fine residences. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 11& 

These surroundings, not only have been, but ever will be, inviting to the rich 
and refined, who are inclined to seek the quiet of a country residence rather 
than the bustle and turmoil of the great city. In this way, thousand of people 
who are really citizens of St. Louis will, from year to year make their homes 
at a distance and be numbered with other people and thus detract from the 
number of what may be termed the actual population of St. Louis, on account 
of their business relations with it. 

Already thousands of her business men with their families, live in suburban 
places, as the facts will demonstrate. Kirkwood, of about 3,000 inhabitants, 
is made up wholly of heads of families who in some \yiiy do business in St. 
Louis. Webster is the same way. Many live down the Iron Mountain rail- 
road, others at St. Charles, at Alton, at Lebanon, at Belleville, and East St. 
Louis — thus establishing, beyond any question of doubt, St. Louis to be the 
third city on the American continent, and the imperial city of the great States 
of the Mississippi Valle3% 

In the further discussion of this part of the subject, it mustbe borne in mind 
that, in the past, St. Louis, in establishing her increase at eight per cent, per 
annum, had many adverse interests to contend against, which impeded her 
growth and retarded her progress. She is now for the first time entering upon 
a new career of growth and prosperity. She is untrammeled. Advantages of 
every kind surround her with prodigal profuseness. Henceforth her future 
advancement cannot be guaged or measured by the past, and instead of an an- 
nual growth of eight per cent., she will move forward at the rate of at least 
twelve per cent, for the next decade. 

In fact strange as it may seem, St. Louis has not yet begun to grow, I mean, 
to unfledgc herself, into the new life of the future. Nor Avill she, for the next 
four or five years. She is still, essentially a frontier city. West and South 
of her and stretching away to the Indian territory, agricultural pursuits are 
still in their infancy, mechanic arts have not begun to be, education is unorgan- 
ized and society has assumed no solid form. Railways and mills, foundries and 
factories, have made but little advance. And until all these agences of civilized 
industry and society, are organized and developed, St. Louis cannot expect 
any solid support, from a vast region of country reaching from the Missouri to 
the Gulf of California and from the head waters of the Platte to the Gulf of 
Mexico, — a region of country, the trade of which naturally and legitimately 
belongs to her. Therefore however sanguine any may be, about the present 
growth of St. Louis, they must learn that it is only in its infancy, when com- 
pared to what it will be in the future, even within, five yeai'S. Hence there is 
a philosophy in it being the great city of the future. That is, its future growth 
will be a constant fulfillment of a continued prophecy. For when, in the 
years of the future, great national questions, of an industrial, commercial, social 
and civil character are developed through the growth of St. Louis, they will be 
succeeded, by the development through her, of great international questions, 
thus making her history a long line of successive prophetic history, the ful- 
fillment of which is bearly yet in progress. 

But let us look at the special growth of the population of St. Louis, and ii 



116 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

possible, determine what is to be her future career. As it is well known that 
cities have a rapid or slower growth in the long run, varying according to the 
eras or transitions through which nations must inevitably pass, thereby ren- 
dering it impossible to fix a uniform standard of growth, I shall assume the 
following figures to be as near the range of a reasonable possibility, or a-t least 
for a few succeeding decades, as the best judgment could dictate in advance ot 
the facts which time and other generations will demonstrate. 

Starting with the j)resent poj)ulation, as given by the United States census, 
we submit the following figures as showing the probable prospective growth 
of St. Louis : 

Population of St. Louis ia 1870, ppr United States census 312,963 

Population increased at the rate of 10 per cent, per annum to 1880 811 ,742 

•' " " 9 " " 1890 1,917,571 

<< " " 6 " " 1900 3,464,079 

" ■' " 4 " " 1910 5,083,297 

«' " " 3 " " 1920 6,831,502 

" '< " 3 ,' " 1930 9,180,967 

" " " 2 " " 1940 11,192,633 

" " " 2 " " 1950 13,643,757 

" << " 1 " " 1960 15,071,194 

«• " "1 ♦' " 1970 16,647,941 

Notwithstanding the apparent correctness of the percentage of growth given 
above, it is not probable that either St. Louis or any other city of this earth, 
will ever grow to such an enormous size as to contain at anj-time a population 
so numerous. I therefore submit the figures, and leave them for others to 
analj^ze and criticise. I, however, with confidence, jirediet that St. Louis, in 
1880, will not contain less than 800,000 inhabitants, and from 100,000 to 200,- 
000 more than Chicago. Thus fixing her, at that time, the second city on the 
continent, and, in 1890, the first; and in less than one hundred years, the 
solution of our problem — the great city of the world. There are those, no 
doubt, who will regard the prediction for 1880 as reaching beyond the bounds 
of possibility; but not so. Let those object who are over-cautious and igno- 
rant of the under-life developments of our continental country, or envious of 
the prosperit}' of a rival cit3^ There is no monopoly in progress, none in 
industiy, none in intellect; they are gifts alike to all who, under the rule of 
God, toil in righteousness. Civilization in the nineteenth century is not walled 
in. It is the free heritage of the great fumil}' of man, individual, national 
and continental. Nations and States are born under its peaceful supervision as 
new heralds of man's rising and progressive life ; and great cities, like stars 
that begem the skies, will adorn our republic, under its higher administration, 
and be as fine jewels set in the crown of the imperial nation of the earth. 

Whatever may be the change, that civilization will undergo in the future, it 
may with safety be assumed that for the next thousand years, or nearly so, 
the cities of the world will grow to be much larger than they have in the past, 
and that St. Louis will reach a population ranging from 5,000,000 to 10,000,000, 
within the next one hundred and fifty years. In less than fifty years London 
will, no doubt, cease to grow in population, and quite likely Paris. Civiliza- 
tion in the Old World will soon begin to re-cast itself, and Eome will j^et, 
under a new government and a more advanced civilization, become the im- 
perial city of the trans-Atlantic Continent. In less than one hundred years 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY, 117 

New York will cease to grow, and, adjusted to a new order of the world's 
commci-ce and civilization, the struggle for the future great city of the world 
will be between competitors many of which are not now in the race. In less 
than one hundred years, St. Louis will move forward, in the advance, in the 
majestic march of the cities of the world, to her predestined goal of victor in 
the great race. 

What new agencies the arts and sciences may j^et call into existence that 
will have an important bearing upon the distribution or concentration of the 
people, is difficult to tell. We may reasonably expect that in less than fifty 
years both the storms and the rains will be controlled by science, and the 
people can call ihe winds and the rain at their pleasure; that transportation 
by means of pneumatic tubes, as well as lerial navigation, will be introduced 
into i^ractical use, which, together with cheaper freights and more rapid travel 
on railroads, will exert a powerful influence upon the future interests and 
civilization of the world's people. How far such contributions by science and 
art will tend to more readily satisfying the business interests and wants of the 
people, so as to tend to a dispersion rather than a concentration, must be left 
for actual experience to demonstrate. We may assume, however, that neither 
science nor art can very soon contribute anything that will prevent capital and 
monopoly from concentrating people as well as public interests. 

The marvelous growth of cities is seen by the following table, taken from 
the New Yoi-k Tribune: 

" Thirty-eight years ago, there were thirteen European cities having larger 
populations than New York; now thci-e are onl}^ three, and these have been 
capitals for centuries. The table which follows gives the population of the 
fifteen largest Euroj)ean cities in 1832 and 1869, and their respective rate of 
increase. In comparing New York we quote the censuses of 1830 and 1870 : 

Increase,- 

1832. 18G9. per cent 

London 1,624,000 3,214,000 98 

Constantinople 1,000,000 1,500,000 50 

Paris 890,000 1,950,000 118 

NewYark 197,092 924,313 3GS 

St. Petersburg 480,000 667,000 37 

Naples S-iSiOOO 600,000 67 

Vienna 310,000 640,000 107 

Dnblin 800,000 362,000 21 

Moscow 280,000 420,000 50 

Berlin 2,i0,000 800,000 220 

Lisbon 240,000 340,000 44 

Manchester 238,000 3.50,000 49 

<Unsterdara 230,000 2.50, 000 12 

aiasgow *»2,000 401,000 99 

Liverpool m,000 ,-520,000 174 

Madrid 180,000 390,000 105" 

It is evident from the above figures that moderL civilization, on account of 
ite greater protection of human life, enables a more rapid growth to the cities 
yf our own time than was experienced by the cities of the ancients. In fact^ 
monopoly has always been a rule of the human race; and whatever improve' 
ment or art that contributed to man's welfare, also contributed to his monopo- 
lizing tendencies, and therefore to the more rapid and numerous building up 
of great cities. It remains for time alone to change this rule of monojjoly^ if 
It is to be changed at all, and man be dispersed to rural life. But 1 apprehend 



118 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURK GREAT CITY. 

no such change. The greater multiplication and congregation of the human 
race into societies communities and cities, is caused b}^ the general advance- 
ment of civilization, and the growth and refinement of the social nature of men 
and women, and that growth must be constantly for the better, therefore as 
the growth of the social nature tends to multiply and condense, so will the 
greater cities move forward with increased momentum. 

As for me, give me the great city, where man's master-works are reared — 
where great men and women attract, and are attracted. 

" Let poets sing of rural felicity, of flowing brooks and singing birds, and so 
iorth; but give us the surging of the city's life, the unspeakable rapture of 
being surrounded by the heart-beats of humanity. We love mankind more 
than birds or brooks. The prattle of the school-yard is sweeter to us than a 
forest full of orioles, and the refined face of woman a fairer sight to look upon 
than all the rocks that ever scowled from mountain fastnesses. The solitude 
■of being among woods, and looking forever on the stars and listening to brooks 
and birds, would drive one mad ; but the very thought of being surrounded 
by one's kind, and listening to the melody flowing uj) from the great heart of 
the city, makes our garret a palace." 

The great cities of the world will continue to grow in the future for five 
hundred or a thousand years, until civilization and republicanism shall have 
■exhausted themselves in a final culmination of ir.dividualism, or stealing, by 
the human race, and the inauguration of a new and truer government and 
society — a society and government of unity and universality, which, in the 
very nature of their organizations, will tend to diffusion, and be advers* to 
monopoly, and consequently adverse to the building of great cities. 

St. Louis will, in her future growth, be supported largely by her suburban 
towns, which will stand as jewels in the crown of the great city. They are 
now to be seen in embiyo, standing around her oft eveiy side. 

On the east side of the river, and lying within a circle of twenty miles dia- 
meter, with St. Louis for its center, are the following towns, with their pre- 
sent population : 

Towns. Population. Towns. Populatioa. 

East St. Louis 5,648 Shiloh ., 250 

Venice 2,000 Mascoutah 2,800 

Alton 10,000 Fieeburg 1,000 

Belleville 10,000 Waterloo 2,000 

Edwardsville 3,000 Columbia 1,500 

Monticello 1,000 St. Jacobs 500 

Marineto wn 800 Mi tciiel 1 103 

Lebanon 3,000 Centreville 2,200 

Troy 1,500 Prairie du Pout .^ 

OoUinsville 1,500 Caholtia 1,500 

Greenwood 600 Pittsburg 500 

Casey ville 250 Henrysville 60 

O'yallon 675 Smithtou 350 

Total Bi'*-^''^'' "pulation on east side of the river 6? ""^ 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 119 

The suburban towns and their population, on the west side of the river, and 
within a circle of twenty miles, are as follows : 

Towns. Population. Towns. Population. 

St. Charles 7,000 Baldwin 300 

Bock Springs 1,000 Eureka 300 

EUeardville 3,000 AUenton 200 

Lowell 1,000 Florissant 1,500 

Kirkwood 2, .lOO Georgetown 60 

Webster 2,000 Linton 75 

Bridgton 700 Glencoe 60 

Manchester 500 Blackjack 400 

Baden , 1,500 

Total population 22,485 

Add the population of these suburban towns to the number of those who 
live in the country, and then add the whole number to our city population, 
and we have well-nigh 600,000 people within a circle of forty miles in diameter 
and having St. Louis for its center; and it will not require many years to pass 
away, before 600,000 j^eople will do business within the corporate limits of St. 
Louis, and yet reside, with their families, at a distance from the city. Trains 
will soon run upon our railroads at the distance of sixty miles an houi-, and at 
very greatly reduced rates. This will afford advantages and ojiportunity for 
cheaper living in the country, as well as better living to many. As we may 
safely assume that when St. Louis reaches a population of 5,000,000 to 10,000,- 
000, that, in unity with the growth of her suburban towns, she will occujDy, in 
many directions, the country reaching to the circumference of the circle, or 
twenty miles distant, and in the future, it will not be uncommon to find streets 
of the finest character fifteen and twenty miles long, well paved and lighted 
with gas, streets more splendid than those once so beautiful and wonderful in 
Cordova. 

Looking, then, through the veil that obscures the future, and beholding the 
marvelous growth of St. Louis, more real than fiction can jmint to-day, may 
we not anxiously inquire with the poet. 

"Who'll throng these Streets, in eager haste, 
One hundred years from now?" 

The story will one day be told, the riddle of life will be solved with us that 
now live, and other people will live and love in this city, as we of to-day do, 
and build wiser than we know. 



THE RAILWAY SYSTEM OF ST. LOUIS. 

To determine the character and importance of a city or state, the natural 
advantages and improvements which each possesses must be considered and un- 
derstood, both in their character and in their immediate and aj^proximate 
relations. To ascertain the future greatness and conti'olling power of a city 
or state, the local and general relations of each to the natural advantages they 
possess and the possible improvements with which they are likel}' to be favor- 
ed, must be considered in the light of their importance to facilitate the civil 
and industrial pursuits of man. Fully comprehending and understanding the 
character and importance of these things, as means and agents, to facilitate the 
civilization of man, we can easily calculate the future growth of cities and states- 
in their onward career to greatness and 2:)ower. 

It is by these means that I propose to determine the commercial importance 
of St. Louis, and the place she is destined to fill, and the influence she is des- 
tined to exercise, in the present continental strife for commercial supremacy. 

The most important consideration of the subject is her system of railroads 
and navigable rivers, a full description of which wc submit, in so far as the 
facts relate to the practicable purposes of commerce. 

But before we give the facts of these two great branches of commercial and 
material throrough fares, we subjoin a brief historical statement of 

THE ORIGIN OP RAILROADS IN MISSOURI. 

The very first step in the building of railroads in this State, was taken in 

the month of February, 1836, when the then Mayor of the City of St. Louis 

[John F. Darby,] made an official communication to the Board of Aldermen^ 

urging the measure in the strongest terms, and that immediate steps be taken 

to effect that object. On that communication, the following proceedings were 

had. 

"In the Board of Aldermen of the 

City of St. Louis, February 25th, 1836, 

"On motion of Mr. Grimsley, it Avas 

'^Resolved, That the Mayor's communication of this day on the subject of a 
county meeting be referred to a select committee, with instructions to draft 
an address to the people of St. Louiscounty setting forth the groat advantages 
which must inevitably flow to our city, county and state from a speedy survey 
and location of the proposed raih'oad from this cit}^ to Faj^ette in Howard 
county; and inviting the citizens to attend a meeting to be held in the Court 
House on Thursday, the 8d of March, to appoint delegates to a convention to 
be held by delegates from all the counties through which said road may pass 
from this city Fayette aforesaid. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 121 

" ON MOTION OF MR. o'NEIL, IT WAS 

"Besolved, Thnt in the event of the convention for taking into consideration 
the propriet}' of making an application to the next General Assembly of Mis- 
souri for a charter for a Eailroad from St. Louis to Fayette, meeting in St. 
Louis, the Mayor is authorized respectfully to invite the members of said con- 
vention to take lodgings at such house or houses as they may think proper at 
the cost of the city, and to furnish the City Hall for the use of the Convention." 

An address was accordinglj" made to the people of the county of St. Louis,, 
and a meeting called at the Court House in the Cit}^ of St. Louis, on the 3d 
day of March, 183G, for the purpose of taking action to promote the building 
of railroads. The meeting was organized by the appointment of Doctor 
Samuel Merry, as chairman, and Charles Kecmle, secretar}-. 

The chairman appointed a committee, consisting of John F. Darby, Doctor 
William Carr Lane, Thornton Grimsley and Archibald Gamble — a committee, to 
make a report, and draft an address to the peojDle of the State, on the subject 
of Eailroads, and adjourned to the 5th day of March. When the meeting as- 
sembled, John F. Darby, chairman of the committee, made the following 

REPORT. 

When we look abroad, we see the people of every State in the Union, both 
in their individual and corporate capacities, actively engaged in facilitating th© 
social and commercial intercourse between the distant parts of their respective 
States by means of railroads and canals. AVhilst here at home we see noth- 
ing done upon these all important objects, and little essaj'ed until very lately. 

In fact we are forced to admit the unwelcome truth, that, on this matter, we 
are behind the spirit of the age. Our neighbor, Illinois, has gallantly taken 
the lead of us and set us on example much more worthy of imitation than of 
jealousy. She is pursuing the interest of her own people according to her best 
judgment, by intersecting the State in many directions, by channels of communi- 
cation. Let us take admonition from her course, and commence action upon the 
same policy for the benefit of every part of our own State. Fortunately the citi- 
zens of our own State are awakening to a just sense of their actual position and 
true interests; and we, a portion of the people of the city and county of St. 
Louis, most cheerfully meet our brethern from every part of the world, and 
pledge ourselves to aid to the utmost extent of our power every object of in- 
ternal improvement which is intended for the common benefit of the whole 
State. 

In sketching the outline of any great scheme of internal improvement, the 
integrity of the interests of the whole State should be kept constantl}' inview^ 
and those lines of inter-communication which would most eff'ectually connect 
the distant parts of the State, and harmonize their interests, should in our opi- 
nion receive most favor from an enlightened public. 

This assembly disclaims any near-sighted view of state policy which would 
assume that one section of the State could be benefited without benefiting 
the whole State; or that one section could be injured, without injury to the 



122 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

whole. And in prosecuting any such great scheme of improvement, it is ob- 
viously pi'Ojier to proceed upon principles of unquestioned soundness and of 
universal application ; namely that the good of the greatest number of people, 
and the greatest mass of interest, should be first consulted, in accordance with 
the application of this principle. 

We consider the project for a railroad from the western to the eastern 
part of the State, which is proposed to be made, as that object which ought 
to take precedence of all others, and as being altogether worthy of the best 
exertions to ensure its success. 

When we contemptate the completion of this grand project, with all its 
beneficial consequences in a social, agricultural, manufacturing and commercial 
point of view, a project which will approximate the east, west, and middle 
counties — which will break down sectional animosities, having their origin 
and nuture in mutual ignorance of each other — which will increase the 
value of agricultural products, encourage manufactui-es, extend commerce and 
aid in the development of unexplored resources: — we repeat, that the con- 
templation of this project necessarily associates other similar projects as acces- 
sory to the main design, and enlists for all such undertakings, in advance, our 
best wishes. But as this meeting is assembled for the sole jjurpose of co-operat- 
ing with others, in making the road from Fayette to this place, to that object 
alone its action should be confined 3 pi'ojects for the extension of the road 
to the western boundary of the State, and the necessar}^ lateral branches, 
to the consideration of the delegates from the several counties, or to future 
time and enterprise. 

Upon this occasion many reasons present themselves to us which will no 
doubt influence the co-operation of individuals and corporations in this magnifi- 
cent work. Patriotic considerations will influence some individuals and pecu- 
niar}^ interest will govern others. 

The counties through which the road will pass possibly may follow the 
example of Howard county and give soine aid ; the State itself in providing for 
the general welfare may reasonably be expected to put its shoulder to the 
wheel ; and the government of the United States, without doubt, will assist in 
a work which will so greatly enhance the public lands, and of the same time 
facilitate the defense of the frontier. But as this is not perhaps the most sui- 
table occasion which may offer for a detail of the reasons upon which these 
calculations are based, we forbear to enlarge on the subject. 

Be it therefore 

Mesolved, That a committee of delegates, consisting of sixteen persons, be 
appointed by this meeting in behalf of the county of St. Louis, whose duty it 
shall be to meet the delegates from other counties, appointed upon the basis 
of representation at such ])lace as may be most agreeable to our Western bre- 
thern, upon the 20th of April next, or upon an}- other da}- which they may 
name, and that it shall be the duty of our delegates to aid in the adoption of 
such measures, as maj- serve most effectually to ensure the making of a rail- 
road from this city to Fayette in Howard county. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 123 

2d. Resolved, That the different counties throughout the State be invited to 
hold county meetings and send delegates to the proposed convention. 

John F. Darby, chairman. 

Which report and resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

H. R. Gamble, Esq., addressed the meeting at some length on the subject, in 
a spirited, chaste and highl}" patriotic strain of language, and concluded by sub- 
mitting tlie names of the following gentlemen as delegates to the proposed 
convention who were unanimously chosen. 

Edward Trac}', J. B. Brant, John O'Fallon, Samuel Merry, Archibald Gam- 
ble, General William Clark, Joseph C. Lavalle, Thornton Grimsley, Daniel D. 
Page, Henry Walton, Lewellin Brown, Henrj' Yon Phul, Adam L. Mills, Pierre 
Chouteau, Jun., and John Kerr. 

Doctor William Carr Lane submitted the following resolution, which was 
unanimoush^ adopted : 

Resolved, That the thanks of this meeting are due to the Mayor and Alder- 
men of St. Louis for the tender of the hospitalities of the city to the delegates 
from the several counties to the proposed meeting; and that a committee of 
seven persons be appointed by the chair, in behalf of this meeting, to aid the 
committee of the municipal authorities in providing for the accommodation 
and comfort of the delegates during their sojourn in this city." 

We have reported the Avhole of the proceedings, because it was the very be- 
ginning of that great system of railroads, which has since added so much to the 
greatness and glory of this growing and increasing city. The liberal senti- 
ments, enlarged and statesman-like views, set forth in the report and addi-ess 
to the people, are such as to command respect; and should be recorded aa 
emanating from the then worthy representative men of this great city; nearly 
all of whom have passed off the stage of action, but the rich rewards of their 
good deeds survives them and are now being enjoyed by the inhabitants of this 
prosperous city. 

A convention of delegates, in pursuance of these proceedings, from eleven of 
the most pojiulous and wealthy counties in the State, met in the city of St. 
Louis, on the 20th of AjDril, 1836. The members of the convention were all 
entertained at the exjjense of the city. The municipal authorities and the 
great majority of the people of the city joined with enthusiasm in fui'thering 
the object of the noble undertaking. The city government greeted and 
(velcpmed them in the following terms : 

Mayor's Office, Saint Louis, 

April 20th, 1836. 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Convention : 

The municipal authorities of the city of St. Louis have the honor to tender 
to you the hospitalities of the city, and upon the '^Fayor has devolved the 
pleasing duty of announcing to you, that they have been no less honored than 
gratified that their fellow-citizens in the various counties which you represent 
in this convention should have selected this city as the place of your delibera- 
tions upon a subject of such vital importance to the interest and prosperity of 
the State. A committee has been appointed, on the part of the Board of Al- 
dermen, to make provision for the comfort and convenience of the delegates 



124 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

to this convention ; and to provide such other accommodations as may facili. 
ta,te the objects for which you have convened. Be pleased, gentlemen, to ac- 
cept the best wishes of the Mayor, Aldermen and citizens of the city of St- 
Louis, for the successful completion of the improvement you have assembled 
to consult about, and the fullest assurance of support, so far as the corporate 
authorities of this city can aid in the furtherance of an enterprise alike so be- 
sirable to the people of the county and the inhabitants of this city. 

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, 

With great resj^ect, 
John F. Darby, Mayor 

of St. Louis. 

The convention projected tAvo railroads, one to the Iron Mountain ; and the 
other, by way of St. Charles, and up through the counties bordering on the 
Missouri. After which they celebrated their undertaking in a grand banquet, 
given at the then National Hotel, corner of Third and Market streets. The 
Mayor of City, Mr. Darby, presided. 

In pursuance of these proceedings, George K. McGunnigle, as a member of the 
House of Representatives from St. Louis county, at the session of the Legisla- 
ture in the winter of the year 1836-7, inti'oduced and passed the bill for the 
charter of the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad, bring the first railroad 
bill that was ever passed in the Sta,te. The State refused to aid the measure, 
and the money could not be then raised to build the road. 

. The same men, who had first projected these railroads, still continued their 
exertions. In the winter of 1838-9, Mr. Darby, being then a member of the 
Legislature, made an elaborate report and advocated a bill for the building of 
the railroads, which had been recommended by the Convention. 

Since the days of those conflicting political opinions, on questions of inter- 
nal improvement, those earlier and frontier times, there has been a steady 
growth of the railway system of St. Louis, and now she numbers more roads 
than any city on the continent, as will be seen by the lines given below, as 
they are now completed; also those which are being built, and the most 
important of such lines as have been agitated : 

1. The St. Louis and Cairo R. R. 

2. Belleville and Southern R. R. 

3. St. Louis and Evansville R. R. 

4. St. Louis and Southeastern Illinois R. R. 

5. New Albany and St. Louis R. R. Building. 

6. The Ohio and Mississipi^iR. R. 

7. The St. Louis, Vandalia and Terre Haute R. R. 

8. The Indianapolis and St. Louis R. R. 

9. Decatur and Eas-t St. Louis R. R. 

10. Chicago, Alton and vSt. Louis R. R. 

11. St. Louis, Jacksonville and Bloomington R. R. 

12. Rockford, Rock Island and St. Louis R. R. 
Peoria, Pekin and Jacksonville R. R.; a connection. 



- ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITy. 125 

13. Quincy and St. Louis R. E. Crossing tlio Mississippi river, north of St. 
Louis, the first road we meet is 

14. The St. Louis and Keokuk E, E. Building. 

15. The North Missouri E. E. North Branch. 

16. The North Missouri E. E. West Branch. 

17. The Noi'th Missouri and St. Joseph E. E., via Hannibal and St. Jo. B. 
E. 

18. St. Louis, Chillicothc and Omaha E. E. Building. 

19. Missouri Pacific E. E. 

Sedalia and Lexington Branch of Mo. Pacific. 
Sedalia and Ft. Scott Branch of Mo. Pacific. 

20. St. Louis and Ft. Scott Air Line E. E. Prospective. 

21. Southwest Pacific E. E. 

22. Iron Mountain E. E. to Galveston and Mexico. 

23. St. Louis and Springfield, Illinois. Building. 

24. Illinois Central E. E. Eunning through trains between Chicago and St. 
Louis and St. Louis and Dubuque, using the Vandalia line to come into 
St. Louis. 

25. Illinois and St. Louis. 

26. East St. Louis and Carondelet. 

27. St. Louis Count}^ E. E. (Narrow Gauge.) Building. 

28. Detroit, Shclbyville St. Louis. Building. 

Thus we have twenty-eight distinct roads converging at St. Louis, nearly 
every one of which is built, or under way of construction, and not one will be 
abandoned. Of tJiis number only two are specially local. No other city on 
the continent or in the world has so many, nor is it likely that any rival place 
will ever be favored with so great a number. I have neglected to place on the 
list several local and connecting roads which proper!}^ belong to the St. Louis 
system, and which are valuable feeders to other lines, but as they are not 
essentially trunk lines, were omitted. My object has been more especially to 
show that St. Louis stands in the center of a great system of railwaj-s, which 
radiate from her as a focal point to almost every extremity of the country, 
touching oceans, lakes, and seas, and uniting the civil, social and commercial 
interests of a continental people, as well as creating an easy exchange for the 
fish, fruits, and other products of antagonistic climates. 

The following statement of distances will show how St. Louis stands in re- 
lation to some of the principal cities of the country, as well as to our seaboard 
markets. 



126 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Places. Distance. Places. Distance. 

From St. Loais to— Miles. From St. Louis to — Miles. 

Boston, via rail 1200 New Orleans, via rail 722 

New York 1042 Galveston 787 

Philadelphia 974 San Francisco 2353 

Baltimo'-e 929 Denver City 912 

Washington City 951 Omaha 436 

Richmond 1069 Leavenworth 296 

Norfolk 1176 Chi cago 280 

Charleston 970 Cincinnati 340 

Savannah 960 Louisville 302 

Mobile 666 Indianapolis 238 

Kansas City 272 Cairo 153 

TJuflalo 704 Detroit 564 

Milwaukee 365 Pittsburgh 611 

In submitting this statement of the railway sj'stem of St. Louis, its mighty 
frame-work and net-work which ramify the entire Valley of the Mississippi, 
with Briarean arms extended to each ocean, the gulf and the lakes, and holds 
in its grasp the empire of the continent; we also submit that in the most 
superlative degree does St. Louis occup}- the center of the greatest productive 
power, as well as the greatest center of river navigation afforded on the globe ; 
and thus uniting the greatest means with the greatest facilities that the world 
affords, who, with a just comprehension of the facts, does not see the truth of 
the argument in favor of the future great city, so conclusively as to be convict- 
ed of its correctness, generations in advance of the actual achievement of such a 
goal ? But this vast contribution of productive power, this system of river 
navigation, as well as the ever-expanding railway sj'stem, hasa jDrimaiy mean- 
ing. Each foreshadows generations of civil, industrial and commercial pro- 
gress in the years of the future. 

RAILWAY POLICY FOR ST. LOUIS. 

A consideration of this subject leads us to consider a railway policy for St. 
Louis as well as for the entire West. This new policy means nothing more 
nor less than a Western railway policy, and with its adoption will also be or- 
ganized a political and commercial policy for the West. It is no longer. the 
fact that the great States of the Mississipi^i Valle}' are commercial or political 
dependencies of the cities of the Atlantic seaboard. It is true they have poli- 
tical and commercial interest with those cities and States, and it is to be hoped 
ever will have. But the time is now and Avill continue henceforth, long as the 
waters run, that the commercial and political importance of the Valley States 
are greater than those of either seaboard, and therefore they must be the dic- 
tators of such political and commercial policies as their wisdom and welfare 
ma}' demand. The political power and commerce of the American people 
have spanned the continent, and from the Pacific shore civilization re-acts to 
the center, where, like a great maelstrom, sweeping from the circumference 
inwardl}', will organize the greatest power and activity of our people in their 
future growth and struggle for gain. 

It therefore becomes the people of St. Louis, as well as of the West, to es- 
tablish a railway policy that will best subserve their commercial interest — a 
politjy that will create an exchange of Western products North and South, 
instead of allowing them to be carried away in less valuable channels, East 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 127 

and West. Nature has already dictated that the commerce of this great val- 
ley must follow the flow of the waters to the gulf, and from thence seek the 
markets of the world 3 and those of the western people who do not already 
comprehend this truth, will soon learn it through the impoverished railway 
policy that is raj^idly binding them to the East, as the Philistines bound Sam- 
son. 

St. Louis must make a bold stand for a railway' policy that will cause the 
exchange of the products of the Valle}- States North and South — an exchange be- 
tween the lakes and the gulf — between different climates, and not along lines 
of the same latitude. St. Louis wants the trade of the troiDics and the trade of 
the North. She must have a railway policy that will control, this trade, and 
make her the point of exchange between the two climates. 

By the new railway line now projected, via Ii-on Mountain, Fulton and Gal- 
veston Eailroads, which is under way of construction, the gulf can be reached 
at a distance of 787 miles. When this road is comj^leted, it will be of vastly 
more value to St. Louis than any other road of her system, and its completion 
will open the way for that policy, for North and South exchange, which must 
be established in the interest of the trade of the Yalley States. 

In the interest of the especial climatic trade and postal service of the people 
between the lakes and the gulf, it is highly probable that a jji-oject will, in the 
course often years, be set on foot to construct a pneumatic tube from Chicago, 
via St. Louis, to New Orleans. The postal patronage, together with the fish 
and fruit ti-ade, would well-nigh, if not wholly, repay for its construction. 



THE RIVER SYSTEM OF ST. LOUIS. 



Auxiliary to the Eailway System of St. Louis, is her incomparable system 
of river navigation. No continent possesses so great a connected sj'Stem as 
that belonging to the great valley of North America. It has more than 13,000 
miles of available river navigation, and no formidable obstacles to prevent its 
artificial exjjansion. 

The following tabular statement prepared by Humphrey and Abbot, in their 
great worlc, on the survey of the Mississippi river and its tributaries, presents 
some very important facts connected with the larger streams of the Great River 
Systems of the interior basin of North America. 



HIVEES. 


S 
P 


o 

o 

.a 

'S 


Width at 
Mouth. 


O -H 


u 
^1 






Miles. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


Cub. feet. 


Sq. miles. 


Upper Mississippi 


1,330 
2,908 
l,2t;5 
],.514 
1,200 
.500 
380 
l.,286 


1,680 
6,800 
l,f>49 
10,000 
2,4.50 

210 
1,150 

4If> 


5,000 

3,000 

3,000 

1,500 

800 

850 

700 

2,470 


35.2 
20.9 
41.5 
29.3 
39.0 
46.3 
41.1 
30.4 


105, oao 

12), 000 
158,000 
63,000 
57,000 
43,000 
31,010 
675,000 


169,000 
518.000 


Missouri 


Ohio 


214,000 


Arkansas 


189.000 


Red River 


97,000 


Yazoo 


13,850 

10,500 

1,244,000 


St. Francis 


Lower Mississippi 



While it is true that the rivers given in the above list do not include one- 
half, and but little more than cne-fourth, of the navigable rivers of the Missis- 
eippi^Valley, they are the main branches that form the distinct drainage system 
that collect the water of the great valley and send it forth to the Gulf. 

But whether we enumerate them as eight or thirty, makes no difference iu 
the discussion, for St. Louis is alike central in either case, to the great river 
system, of the Grand Valley of the Mississippi. And were there not a railway 
on the continent, she would command the commerce of every State between 
the Alleghany and Sierra Nevada Mountains, for she is connected by naviga- 
ble water, with every part of the great valley. And steamers constantly ply 
to and from her wharf^ up and down the streams ; ramifying every section of the 
country to bear away the rich products of the fixrm, the shop and the mine. 
The importance of the river to St. Louis may be inferred from the statistics 
given below. 



«T. ],(»i;[S, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



129 



AEEIVALS AND DEPARTURES AT THE PORT OF ST. LOTUS 

FOR 1871. 

ARRIVALS. • 





CO 


A 
'« 

x 










5» 






a 

H 






*i 


1871. 






to 

"o 


•-1 

a 
o 


6 




o 

■3 
■3 






'2 

a 


CO 


■js 


a 






o 


_■ 




!c 


'/I 


0) 


M 






"3 




o 




t) 


Hi 


1-4 


a 


O 


O 




<< 


^ 


'-) 


w 


H 


H 


January 


1 


•» 






5 




3 


1 






10 


42 


6,846 
45 873 


February 


24 
83 

88 


80 
iXi 

83 


8 
51 
44 


4 

14 
23 


19 
44 
38 


»> 


5 
5 
i 


5 
6 
4 




2 

3 
2 


52 
154 

99 


199 
457 

387 


March 


146,245 


April ."". 


124,515 

158,447 

94,318 


May 


109 


94 


4^ 


27 


38 




5 


6 




o 


254 


583 


June 


102 

98 


80 
71 


29 
23 


24 

50 


18 
7 




4 
2 


5 
4 




4 
4 


7() 
95 


348 
354 


July 


78,080 
69,012 


August 


114 


83 


20 


47 


4 




4 


3 


i 


3 


93 


372 


September 


90 
98 
74 

1 


S3 
88 
96 

7 


19 
14 
12 


36 
'I 


4 

i 
1 




4 

i 


4 
1 
2 


i 

1 


1 


120 

168 
38 


369 

387 

234 

9 


51,850 


October ." 


52,900 
55,260 


Novtinber 


December 


1,055 




Total 


882 


889 


2(;8 


219 


179 


3 


39 


41 


3 


21 


1,165 


3,739 


884,401 



DEPARTURES. 





•2, 


■^ 










d 






d 








A 


a. 










S3 






S 




















o 














TJ 


n 










zi 






H 
































1871. 




■A 




— H 






O 


i 




a 

C3 




be 




U 


r^ 
% 
& 


00 

'3 


O 


6 


41 

be 
Si 


a 
a 

■a 


3 




S 


"3 


1^ 

00 

a 




^ 


o 


^ 




JS 


■n 


z^ 


pH 


^ 




o 


o 




& 


>A 


^ 


g 


O 


o 






O 


H 


H 


January 


26 


25 
73 


it 


5 


6 
17 




3 
5 


2 
4 


1 


2 


39 
146 


18,048 
59,577 


February 


March 


97 
99 


87 
80 


48 
43 


21 
33 


37 
32 


1 
1 


6 
5 


6 
5 


1 


3 
3 


307 
301 


104,641 
103,928 
112,790 


April 


May 


103 
100 
101 


95 
80 
75 


49 

28 
23 


24 
31 

47 


36 

20 

4 




4 
4 
6 


4 
4 
5 




4 
2 

5 


319 
269 
266 


June 


85,886 


July 


75,120 


August 


117 
91 
91 

OS 


85 

96 

101 

96 


17 
19 
13 
11 


43 

30 

12 

6 


3 
1 

3 




4 
3 

io 


4 
3 
1 
4 


'i 


2 

1 

'i 


275 
244 
219 
199 


63,101 


September 


50,037 
41,481 


October 


November 


51,708 


December 




16 










2 


1 


1 




20 


6,131 




Total 


895 


910 


265 


252 


159 


2 


52 


43 


4l 


23 


2,004 


770,498 



ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES FOR SIX YEARS. 



ARUIVALS. 


DEPARTURES. 


YEAK. 


Boata. 


Barges. 


TONS. 

883,401 
1,100,889 
1,225,443 
1,0.55,795 
1,086,. 320 
1,227,078 
1,229,826 


^TCAll. 


Boats . 


T03TS. 


1871 


2,574 
2,796 
2,789 
2,338 
2,478 
3,972 
2,768 


1,165 
1,195 
1,240 
1,133 
947 
1,142 
1,141 


1871 


2,604 
2,782 
2,786 
2,579 
2,588 
3,096 
2,963 


770,498 


1870 


1870 


1869 


1869 




1868 


. 18(!8 




1867 


1867 




1866 


1866 




1865 


1865 





MERCHANTS AND COMMERCE OF ST. LOUIS. 



THE MERCHANTS. 



If the boy is father to the man, with equal propriety may the village be 
said to be the progenitor of the metropolitan city. The same energy of char- 
acter in both, the same elements of organization, are developed as prophecies 
of future eminence. These may not be apparent at the beginning, because the 
grand characteristics which are to distinguish either maj^ not have found their 
appropriate field of appreciation and action in the mind of the people; the 
embryo, however, existed, and when greatness was achieved its parentage is 
traceable with all possible certainty. When Laclede selected the site now oc- 
cupied by the Future Grreat City of the continent, it was because the locality 
was conducive to the leading design — the successful operations of the business 
of the early founders, the fur trade. Above and below it the rivers of the 
North, West and East, debouched into the main stream of the Mississippi, on 
all of which was found the wealth they sought, and ojDened a field of hardy 
and remunerative enterprise sufficiently broad to attract the attention of the 
boldest spirits. The idea was not conceived at that day that the rich soil 
penetrated by these rivers would teem, in half a century, with the richest pro- 
ducts of agriculture, and that these inland waters would eventually bear upon 
their bosom a commerce of greater value and of more beneficial influences to 
humanity than the world had hitherto known; yet that pre-eminent object 
was then inaugurated by a determinate power which shapes destinies and appro- 
priates resources. The pirogue of the trapper was the pioneer of the steamer, 
and his indomitable will and courage the intuitive foi-ces destined to subdue 
the wilderness and open up this magnificent domain to civilization and the 
beauties and comforts of progressive art. Looking forward at that time, not 
one of those early voj'ageurs or projectors, however intuitive, could discover 
the first intimation of the ultimate result of his labors; looking back, there is 
not an individual but can read plainly and legibly the connection existing be- 
tween the design and the consummation, the commencement and the realiza- 
tion. The village founded by trappers has grown into a city erected by mer- 
chants and artisans; the broad expanse of jilain, varied by valley and hill, has 
yielded to the plowshare and exchanged its savage aspect for the economic 
glories of harvest fields and happy homes. 

At the time, however, when the Mississippi Yalley attracted the attention 
of Spanish and French adventurers, and subsequently of American citizens — 
for three nationalities have claimed the magnificent country — the growth of 
cities was the work of centuries emigration was on a small scale, transporta- 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 131 

tion was of the most primitive order, science had developed little of mechani- 
cal skill and power to overcome distances and impediments. The ocean had 
not been crossed by steamships, while river navigation depended entirely on 
simple muscle. In the energy and brightness of the boy the future 
man might be discerned, because individual achievements had their precedents 
thickly scattered throughout the history of the race, while the formation of 
communities had resulted from the aggregations of ages rather than from the 
advantages of location or the wealth of soil and mineral resources. In a thou- 
sand years, therefore, the daring flight of a poetic fancy might reckon on the 
march of Empire towards the West and class it as the last act in the world's 
drama; but that in a century such a scene should be presented was beyond the 
human intellect to conjecture or entertain. It may be doubted if Laclede ever 
dreamed of a commerce bevond the commodities of furs and skins, of a settle- 
ment greater than that which offers protection by rude stockades against a 
savage enemy, and comforts superior to the most limited demands of humaiii- 
ty. The elements on every hand of progress and greatness, as we see and ap- 
propriate them, were so many obstacles to the development of such a result — 
a seal on the future of a more opaque and impenetrable character to hide the 
supposition from the reason or imagination. Eapid sti-eams, dense forests, 
extended prairies, and the isolation of a vast interior forbade the idea of civil- 
ized industries and the concentrated influences of settlements to resist the 
treachery and combined power of the murderous Indian. His policy was to 
preserve the hunting-grounds in their primeval wildness, for which these grand 
provisions of nature seemed peculiarly adapted. Indeed, we need not go back 
to that time and to the trapper's village to gather uj:) the notions of the geolo- 
gists, the statesmen and the merchants of that period, as they cogitated along 
the banks of the Mississijipi or polled and cordelled upon the Missouri and 
Illinois; for not longer ago than j-esterday the enlightened men of the present 
supposed the broad belt of land between our State line and the Eocky Moun- 
tains to be a desert, incapable of cultivation, and closed out by drought and 
inhospitable barrenness from the inroads of civilization. On our western bor- 
der, however, the work of settlement goes on with continuous improvement, 
from year to year, until for a thousand miles bej^ond the Missouri line the 
Great American Desert is dotted with thriving villages, and even cities, and 
begins to blossom like the rose. The remotest rain-line is already passed, and 
the successful experiment of cultivation even without irrigation has already 
been made and found to be practicable. It is in these constant developments 
of new resources that we find the strength which steadil}' builds up, and must 
continue to enlarge, this metropolitan city. 

There were in the nature of the service to be preformed by the early pio- 
neers characteristics of moral power which have had much to do in shaping 
and directing the destiny of St. Louis. The men who sought this wide and 
wild theater for their exploits were of no ordinary mould. They were self- 
reliant and determined. Danger was their constant companion and steadiness 
of purpose their cardinal virtue. Of all who turned their backs on the safety 
and comforts of home, of whatever nationality, and set their faces hitherward 



132 



ST. 



LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



to brave the perils and share the labors of a constantly exposed frontier life, 
each was a well-defined individuality. None other crossed the Mississippi at 
that day and ventured into the terra incognita which lay beyond, guarded as it 
was by real dangers and by the more terrible apprehensions which sjiring from 
exaggerated legends and imaginary horrors. Their dependence was upon 
themselves j their safety rested alone within the citadel of their own indomita- 
ble will and determined action. Individuality of chai-acter begets resjionsi- 
bilities in almost all cases of intrinsic worth. A prominent man cannot atford 
to be indifferent to his obligations, public or private. His promises and 
pledges must be met promptly, else his standing becomes a mark for peculiar 
derision and defamation. This ingredient in the character of the early set- 
tlers of the Great Valley has exercised ever since a high-toned influenee not 
only in administrative duties which belong to all departments of duty, but in 
tbe trade relations which have been established throughout the country. The 
subject of the boyhood of this community was introduced for the purpose of 
a'dverting to these moral agencies, showing that the implantations of inde- 
pendent thought and action, of energy and integrity, early made, have taken 
deep root and have distinguished, and continue to distinguish, our commercial 
men to the present time. They began with no fanciful schemes of suddenly 
acquired fortunes, but adopted the plain and solid basis of hard work and fair 
equivalents. Wild si^eculations were not indulged, and it may be doubted if 
such vagaries found a lodgment in their brain. Buy and pay promptly, was 
the secret of success, the motto of business. This ^ow and sure policy seems 
to have been adopted — too slow, it may be said, and probably was; for even 
now, with all the evidences of a brilliant future, the brakes are applied to the 
wheels of progress with singular and provoking obstinacy. Never was 
development allowed a safer process. No scheme of early aggrandizement 
was adopted, but the pioneers simply depended upon natural means to acquire 
competence without resorting to any of those excitements in which s^jecula- 
tions finds its main agencies. 

Capital was considered the basis of success, and a character was established 
by our traders which has clung to their successors with remarkably good 
effects. The boy was father to the man in his patient industry, his indomit- 
able independence, his self-reliance and individualitj^, and his freedom from 
experiments of doubtful propriety, in which recklessness forms generally a too 
large ingredient. Then the material of the community was composed of men 
of entex'prise, who were able to brave dangers, were fond of adventure, and 
not easily deterred by arduous labors and personal sacrifices. Each promi- 
nent individual had the reputation of the settlement to bear, and each was 
willing to take the responsibility of that rejDutation, though it involved his 
pecuniary means or his life. How well these characteristics were exemplified 
in subsequent times, when St. Louis began to assume the position of a com- 
mercial point, is one of the proudest portions of its history. The financial 
convulsions of the country were felt here with the same violence with which 
they shook the established centers of business in the East, but they were met 
by resiitances of personal effort and forbearance, of local pride and mag- 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 133 

nanimit}^, of determined purpose and self-sacrifice — the offspring of those 
qualities which had triumphed over phj^sical dangers and overcome the dis- 
comforts of the wilderness, which were not found elsewhere. Men stood in 
the doors of our banking institutions, and by a pledge of their private for- 
tunes subdued the evil spirits of alarm and doubt. They threw themselves in 
the breach and re-establislied confidence. The honor of the city rested 
upon their prompt, decided action, and they were quick to respond. A re- 
markable instance of this kind occurred in the financial disturbance of 1855, 
when the entire country was shaken b^' a crisis that involved both the pecu- 
niary and political interests of the nation. It was a pressure upon oar civic 
institutions which tried beyond precedent at that day the principles of self- 
government, and tested the powers of popular domination. When other com- 
munities went under, hopelessly wrecked by the storm of disaffection and 
partisan fur}^, the people of Missouri, directed b}' calm, decisive leaders, who 
had won their positions through the practical school of imminent danger and 
personal adaptations, re-established order and preserved the honor of ^^6 
commonwealth. Credit and patriotism were boldly asserted, and the victory 
honorably achieved. Capital began to look to the west bank of the Missis- 
sippi for the citadel of ir^.tegrit}^, and here that proud distinction has been 
found, in a cicore of conflicts that have imperiled commercial credit since, as it 
had on less memorable occasions imperiled it before. The honors won by 
the metropolis of the Adriatic were repeated hei*e — the one the refined center 
of Eastern commerce, the other the rude beginnings of a capital destined to 

be erected in the wilds of the Western Empire. St. Louis was unknown 
when 

" Venice sate in .state throned on her hundred isles," 

but the same inviolate honor in trade relations which embellishes the history 
of the old regime of business obligations and extended transactions, still 
works its influence in the successful achievement of metropolitan greatness. 
Looking through those periods of financial struggles, there are comjiaratively 
few of our merchants who took advantage of the stress of circumstances to 
avoid calamity, benefit their position, or jneld to inglorious imbecilit}^ or de- 
feat. They met the liabilities of the day with open frankness, and, generally 
free from the encumbrances of unreasonable liabilities and speculative invest- 
ments, were able with renewed industry to start afresh in the race of enter- 
prise. 

Large business centers have been started since the early trappers settled this 
site as the rendezvous of their operations, and everv inch of ground has been 
Oontested for commercial su])remacy by them. For a while, aided b}^ outside 
rapital and the appliances of modern influences, the contest has seemed doubt- 
fill, and artificial stimulants have threatened to triumph over natural advan- 
tages. The very strength of this locality has seemed but lo assist in its pros- 
tration. Situated between the agricultural interests of the North and South, 
its trade was the exchange of the commodities of both, and it soon became the 
battlefield for theextens^ion or contraction of an institution Avhichfinayll shook 
the very foundations of the Republic. Its gi*and position invited the contest, 
and all the forces of anti-slavery influences Avero pointed in tlii> direction. 
National means Avere emploj^ed, corporate poAvers invoked, individiuxl and 
tC!pbined eftorts brought into requisition to crush or render nugatory the in- 



134 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

herent strength of this business emporium. Our rivers were to be superseded 
by railroads, and our plain old style of honest dealing laughed out of counten- 
ance b}^ a mode of glittering operations which had no basis but that of fancy, 
and no powers but those of excitement. The conflict broke at last in actual 
war, and during its prolonged existence, with the guns of both parties direc- 
ted against us, our trade languished, and those points which presented no 
strategic advantages were really without the circle of business and political 
consideration, were vastly benefited. St. Louis must lose the supremacy of 
her position, even through it requires millions to overcome her natural advan- 
tages, was the languarge and determination of the party who looked upon 
slavery as a morally abhorred sj'stem and political monstrosity. Sclf-i"eliant, 
the descendants of the fur traders had sought no outside influences, and, secure 
in their position, they awaited the results with calm indifterence; still develop- 
ing her energies by those slow processes which wait upon positive demands 
her citizens followed the plain requirements of the day. When the army of 
occupation began to penetrate the far West, and improvements became neces- 
sary to retain the business relations established in the East, and South, and 
!North, our people were ready for action and entered upon the duty with pro- 
■n^x 2eal and activity. 

It is 5 (le of the cUavacteristies of true inerit that it is reliable and distinguished 
under a,!' cireuiiistances. If slavery was supposed to be peculiarly adaj^ted to 
the staple ?rticles of agriculture and the mining wealth of the State, it has 
been found since its aljiogatioti t^.tt '.inivcisal ^rneicipation has far stronger 
ingredients in its nature to enrich materially her conditi'jn, ':nd draw hither 
hither the wealth of population, of labor and of capital. From that giguntie 
civil revolution which tore asunder the bands which supported our industriep-^ 
the foundations on which was erected the superstructure of our local forces — 
the State has become'doubly powerful and prosperous ; she has thrown herself 
at one bound within the influences of a sympathy which prevadesan advanced 
civilization the world over, and gives to this internal region those moral cor- 
respondent qiialities so necessary to the true development of phj^sical resoui'ces. 
Our population, therefore, mingles in its veins the blood of all nations — blood 
which possesses the fire of adventure, the stamina of enterprise, the daring 
necessary to achieve personal independence. 

An allusion to an incident in the history of the city ma}" be permitted which 
illustrates the texture of those moral elements of character derived from the 
crude looms of the earl}- settlei-s of the trappers' village. In 1849 St. Louis 
was visited with the tripple furies of fire, blood and pestilence. The best por- 
tion of her business locations were reduced to ashes ; five thousand of her peo- 
ple died with a disease that bid defiance to medical skill; her rivers rose and 
flooded her productive bottom lands. Euin stalked through her streets and 
pervaded the country tributary to her commei'cial support. At this trying 
moment, Avith that self-reliant and indomitable will which carried her founders 
safely through the ordeals to which they were exposed, she met the responsi- 
bilities of the trial with an independent spirit, a prowess of resistances and 
recuperative energies of the highest type. Honorable as it is to our nature 
that sympathy finds a lodgment not alone in individual bosoms, but in com- 
munities and nations, our citizens asked no aid from this benevolent feeling to 
meet the exigencies of the hour. I^ot a dollar was asked or received from 
contiguous or distant cities. The bravery and self-reliant characteristics of the 
trapper shone out in the artisan, merchant and professional man of the pres- 
ent, and an immediate effort was put in requisition to redeem losses and repair 
devastations. Such an exhibition of unconquerable will, of inherent strength, 
is surely a forcible prognostic, a grand projihecy of the ultimate destiny of 
our beloved metropolis. 



THE COMMERCE. 



We have glanced in the aggregate at the characteristics of the merchants of 
St. Louis, which have constantly imparted a vigorous vatality and rapidity to 
her commei-cial growth, and it Avill be appropriate to turn from such a subject 
to the existing commerce of the cit3% In the historical review, to be found in 
preceding pages, a general idea hus been given of the rise and progress of the 
trade of St. Louis, during the earlier years, when the thriving river town but 
faintly foreshadowed the magnificent metropolis of the future. We have looked 
iupon it in its infancy, and now present some facts and figures which illustrate 
its extent and character in the present, and indicate the vaster proportions to 
be attained in the future. In presenting facts and figures respecting the trade, 
manufactures, etc., of St. Louis, we are necessarily compelled to do so in the 
most compact form, and to leave to the reader the thoughts and comparisons 
naturally suggested by the statistical statements made. It is not our purpose 
to review in detail each branch of business, but to group only the more impor- 
tant, from which the aggregate may be fairly inferred. 

To begin the commercial statement of St. Louis, it is but reasonable that it 
be introduced by a jJresentation of the organization of the Union Merchants' 
Exchange, the official body representing the commerce of the city. 

The name and organization of the Union Merchants' Exchange grew out of 
the exigencies and conflicting political opinions of the late civil war. It 
was organized in 1862, and incorporated in 1863. The character and impor- 
tance of this organization has grown with the city, and it now numbers about 
thirteen hundred members. Membership includes all branches of trade ; but 
the principal business transacted " on, change " is the flour, grain, provisions 
and the products of the farm. 

The regular session, is from 11 A. M. to 12 1-2 P. M. Call board from 12 1-2 
P. M. to 1 P.M. Telegrams, from the London and Liverpool markets, as well 
as from all the pi-incipal cities in the United States are received "on, change," 
and posted daily. 

As to the character and integrity of the merchants and business men who belong 
to the Exchange, and there transact business, none in the United States stand 
Ijetter. In fact, the St. Louis merchant, from time immemorial, has been known, 
all over the country, as a man of honor and integrity. His word and his paper 
have always received the highest credit at home and abroad ; and the merchants 
■of no other city in the country have held a higher rank. 

The following list comprises the officers of the Exchange, since its organi- 
zation, up to 1872, viz: 



136 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Officers of the Union Merchants' Exchange, since its Organization, 

1862. 

President— UYSRY J. MOORE. 

Vice President— Ck\lLO:i S. GREELEY, A. W. FAGIN. 

Secretary and Treasurer CLINTON B. FISK. 

1863. 

President— G^OnGY. PARTRIDGE. 

Vice Presidents— GAAlhO^ S. GREELEY, A. W. FAGIN. 

Secretary and Treasurer— J. II. ALEXANDER. 

1864. 

Presideni—TliO},lXS RICHESON. 
Vice Presidents— BARTOyi ABLE, CHARLES L. TUCKER. 
Secretary and Treasurer— i. H. ALEXANDER. 

1865. 

President— BkYCYO^ ABLE. 

Vice Presidents— E. 0. STANARD. H. A. IIOMEYER, 

Secretary and Trcasnrer-GEORGE H. MORGAN. 

1866. 

President— E. O. STANARD. 
Vice Prestdeiits— ALEX.. H. SMITH. DANIEL G. TAYLOR. 
Secretary and ?V«aAMrc»-— GEORGE H. MORGAN. 

1867. 

President— GVlAVxhE?: L. TUCKER. 

Vice President.-<—EDGAR AMES, DANIEL G. T.A.YLOR. 

Secretary and y/-«(M'<rf/— GEORGE H. MORGAN. 

1868. 

President— iOn^ J. ROE. 

Vice Pre»denU<—GEO. P. PLANT, H. A. HOMEYER. 

Secretary and Treasurer— GEORGE H. MORGAN. 

1869. 

President— GEORGE P. PLANT. 

Vice Presidents— YL. A. HOMEYER, NATHAN COLE. 

Secretary and T/ea^wrcr— GEORGE H. MORGAN. 

1870. 

President— \Yy,\. J. LEWIS 
Vice President— GEO. G. WAGGAMAN, H. C. YEAGER. 
Secretary and 7'/-ea«w>-er— GEORGE H. MORGAN. 

1871. 

President— GERARD B. ALLEN 
Vice Pnsidents-R. P. TANSEY, GEORGE BAIN. 
Secretary and 2V«rtswrer— GEORGE II. MORGAN. 

1872. 

Preside7it— ROBERT P. TANSEY. 
Vice Presidents— W. H. SCUDDEK, CHAS. H. TEICHMAN. 
Secretary and Treasurer— GEORGE H. MORGAN. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Officers of the Union Merchants^ Exchange, for 

1873. 

PRESIDKNT. 

WM. II. SCUDDER. 



137 



FIRST TICK PRESIPENT. 

S. M. EDGELL. 



R. r. TANSEY, 
GERARD ^^. ALLEN, 
WM. HAMILTON, 
E. W. LEONHARDT, 
REDMOND CLEARY, 



D. E. WHITMORE, 



BIRKCTORS. 



SECRETARY. 

GEORGE H. MORGAN. 

ASSISTANTS. 
COMMITTEE OK APPEALS. 



SECOND TICE PRESIDENT. 

WEB. M. SAMUEL. 



JOHN W. CARROLL, 
EDWARD JACKSON, 
WM. CURRIE, 
PAUL WRIGHT, 
SAMUEL FELTZ. 



D. H. BARTLETT. 



S. H. RICHARDSON, 
JOHN WHITTAKER, 
A. K. NORTH RUP, 
H. C. HAARSTICK, 



LEVI L. ASHBROOK, 
W. B. HASELTINE, 
WM. C. BUCHANAN, 
FREDK. BOHLE, 



W. S. HUMPHREYS, 
ED. SPENCER, 
HENRY KALBFLEISCH, 
W. H. GREGG. 



COMMITTEE OK ARBITRATION. 



THEO. BARTHOLOW, 
CHAS. HOFFE, 
J. H. BORGESS, 



E. C. CHAMBERLIN, 
JAMES REILLEY, 
WM. A. BRAWNER, 
E. i^. WALTON. 

NEW EXCHANGE BUILDING. 



LOUIS FUSZ, 
GEO. J PLANT, 
A. EINSTMAN. 



Since the organization of the Union Merchants Exchange, its members' have 
so increased, with the growth of the city, as to require a larger and more com- 
modious building wherein to transact the growing business of the Great Met- 
ropolis of the Mississippi Valley. Preliminary steps have therefore, been taken, 
to ei-ect a new Exchange building, on the block bounded by Chestnut and 
Pine and Third and Fourth streets; — the building to cost $5,000,000, and to 
be the finest exchange in the country. 

As to the commerce of St. Louis, the evidences are to be seen everywhere, 
to prove its rapid and expanding growth. But yesterday it was the taunt of 
jealous rivals, that St. Louis merchants clung, with tenacious conservatism, to 
the old customs and forms of commerce, while t)ther cities led the way, to- 
cheap transportation, and greater facilities. "But ill-founded contempt has al- 
ways been a blow that rebounds." The grain trade of St. Louis is on the 
rapid increase, and elevators will soon be as numerous as mills and foundries. 
Already this city can number the St. Louis elevator, the east St. Louis eleva- 
tor, the Yenice elevator; and besides these, there are several new ones proposed,, 
such as the Advance Elevator and Fairamore warehouse, the Pacific Eailway 



138 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

elevators, on levee, near Plum street, and another on the line of the Pacific 
railroad near Fourteenth street. Also other railway's, on the east side of the 
river, are considering the subject of building elevators. It will thus be seen 
that in the special line of the grain trade, improvement is rapidly going on, 
and must continue to do so, as the States of the great valley grow in power 
and wealth. 

MANUFACTURES OF ST. LOUIS. 

The industrial interests of St. Louis have grown at a marvelous rate, during 
the past year, and the general result shows a large increase over any preced- 
ing year. Yet in the absence of the official census of the general government, 
we are unable to give a complete statement of the increased investments of 
capital in new enterprises, and the consequent expansion of mechanical indus- 
try, in St. Louis, up to date. But the following statement will show the ad- 
vancement made during the past ten years as a manufacturing city : 

Capital invested in manufactures in 1860 $12,733,948 

" " " in 1870 48,387,150 

Making a clear gain of 284 per cent, in ten years, or 24 4-10 per cent, per annum. 

The value of raw material used in 1860 was $16,212,699 

" " " inl870wa8 63,427,509 

Making a gain of 209 per cent, in ten years, or 26 9-10 per cent, per annum. 

The value of products in 1860 was 27,610,070 

" " in 1870 was 109,513,950 

A gain of 296 per cent, in ten years, or 29 6-10 per cent, per annum. 

The following shows the extent of investments and operations in reference 
to some of the more important articles : 



Capital invested in manufacture of 

pig-iron $4,398,165 

Value of material used 2,266,815 

Value of product 3, 18it,815 

■Capital investfd in foundries 2,593,8.50 

Value of material 2,676,991 

Value of product 4,605,887 

'Capital invested in manufacture of 

agricultural implements 660,000 

Value of materials used 295,000 

Value of product 745,000 

Capital invested iu flour mills 6,408,600 

Value of material used 8,230.0C.O 

Value of product 11,221,441 

Capital invested iu planing mills, 

and sash and door factories 2,4.54,7.50 

Value of material used 2,8.54,1,58 

Value of product 4,7.59,793 

Capital invested in breweries 2,198,708 

Value of material 1,7.50,931 

Value of product 3,557,583 



Capial invested in pork and beef 

packing $3,032,802 

Value of material 5,419,430 

Value of product 7,929,700 

Capital invested in manufacture of 

tobacco 1,520,900 

Value of material 1 ,674,068 

Value of product .' 8,094,083 

Capital invested in manufacture of 

steam machinery 1,871,400 

Value of material 596,070 

Value of product 1,509,112 

Capital invested in manufacture of 

white lead, oils and paints 975,000 

Value of material 961,663 

Value of product 1 ,633,500 

Capital investeain manufacture of sugar. .1,000,000 

Value of material 3,430,000 

Value of product 3,678,250 



BANKS AND BANKING. 

There are fifty-three incorporated banks and private banking houses in St. 
Louis, with an aggregate working capital of about nineteen millions. On the 
1st of August last, each of the. fifty-three made a statement to the managers of 
the Clearing House, which showed the following aggregate : 

Capital, Surplus and Net Profits $19,166,754 76 

Deposits and Due other Banks 34,388,896 57 

Loans, Discounts and Exchange Maturing 39,013 ,711 86 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



139 



Vask and Deposits in other Banks 10,902,453 41 

Five had capital and surplus exceeding $1 ,000,000 

Five " " 500,000 

Eight " " 250,000 

Seveuteen " " 100,000 

Eighteen " lessthan 100,000 

The operations of the banks, through the Clearing House are given below, 
•and indicate not onl}' the increase in the banking business of the city, but 
also all other kinds of business, as the banks are only a part of the means by 
which oU>or kinds of business are done. This statement shows the monthly 
clearings, comparatively, for the years 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872 : 



January. . . 
Februiiry . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. ... 
September 

October 

November. 
December. 



Totals. 



MONTHS . 



1869. 



$57,G88,2-2(> 36 
46,004,787 12 
52,407,642 .54 
51,373,701 20 
53,787,979 93 
53,3.-)3,781 62[ 
50,935,806 04' 
50, .540, 733 14 
50.608,439 94' 
56,447,015 18| 
61,415,146 20 
68,966,034 26 



1870. 



$.->9,233,322 
53,281,286 
62,040,575 
65,716,992 
73,618,227 
68.248,274 
69,083,282 
64,381,275 
59,975,'.»93 
65,766,001 
64,504,192 
75,105,121 



I..--, 



$653,589,293 .52 $780,9.54,545 14 



Monthly average I $54,465,774 46| $65,079,545 43 $72,115,196 29 



1871. 



$75, 
59, 
71, 
69, 
73 
71, 
72, 
65, 
70, 
75, 
76, 
83, 



610,676 .56 
424,. 324 18 
264,, 501 96 
938,400 72 
427,624 74 
791,607 72 
092,996 .54 
502,442 54 
767,. 531 92 
917,906 12 
202,10'J 78 
442,231 68 



$865,382,3.55 46 



1872. 



$82,284 
70,285 
80,. 5.56 
87,234 
87,845 
78,315 
82,199 
76,724 
77,921 
93,472 



,401 98 
701 06 
,905 64 
,378 68 
, 145 20 
,066 20 
775 72 
,920 04 
,101 40 
,394 56 



$816,839,790 54 



$81,683,979 05 



IRON MANUFACTURE IN ST. LOUIS. 



Henceforth whoever discusses the material growth of St. Louis, must place 
first in the list of her important interests, her iron manufactories. In these 
must grow her greatest power, her greatest wealth. Advanced civilization 
has proven that there is no wealth beneath the surface of the earth equal to 
that afforded by iron. Neither gold n'or silver, precious stones nor pearls are 
lialf so valuable to man. 

Perhaps the value of iron can be no better illustrated than by the follow- 
ing beautiful passage from Edward Everett : 

"I have now in my hand," said Edward Everett, " a gold watch, which 
■combines embellishment and utility in happy proportions, and is often con- 
eidered a very valuable appendage to the person of a gentleman. Its hands, 
fece, chain and case are of chased and burnished gold. Its gold seals sparkle 



140 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

with the urby, topaz, sapphire, emerald. I open it and find that the works, 
without which this elegantly furnished case would be a mere shell — those 
hands motionless, and those figures without meaning — are made of brass. 
Investigating further, and asking what is the spring, by which all these are 
put in motion, made of, I am told it is made of steel ! I ask, what is steel ? 
The reply is that it ig iron which has undergone a certain process. So, then I 
find the mainspring, without which the Avatch would always be motionless, 
and its hands, figures and embellishments, but toys, is not of gold that is not 
sufficientl}^ good, nor of brass that would not do, but of iron. Iron, therefore, 
is the only precious metal, and this watch an emblem of society ! Its hands 
and figures which tell the hour, resemble the master spirits of the age, to- 
whose movements every ej-e is directed, its useless but sparkling seals, 
sapjjhires, rubies, toj^azes and embellishments are the aristocracy. Its works 
of brass, are the middle class, by the increasing intelligence and power of 
which the master spirits of the age are moved ; and its iron mainspring shut 
up in a box, alwaj-s at work, but never thought of, except when it is disorder- 
ly, broken, or wants winding up, sj-mbolizes the laboring class, which, like the 
mainspring, we wind up by the payment of wages, and which classes are shut 
up in obscurit}', and though constantly at work, and absolutely necessary to the 
movement of society, as the iron mainspring is to the gold watch, are never 
thought of, e«cept when they require their wages, or are in some want or dis- 
order of some kind or other." 

The political and industrial rights and privileges of the laboring classes 
should not be lost sight of by legislators. Educate and develop them, and 
they, in return, will bring iron out of the mountain in greater abundance; will, 
by their supei-ior intelligence, invent machinery, b}' which most of the labor 
of life may be performed ; " make two blades of grass grow where but one 
grew before;" and thus, as in all other things, set the world ahead. The loco- 
motive, steam-engine, telegraph, printing-press, sewing-machines, mowers, 
reapers, seed-planters, harvesters and so forth, will continue to be invented and 
improved just in proportion to the education und development of our people, 
and especially of the working classes. 

While it is not within the province of this book to enter into a discussion of 
the importance of iron, as a metal, to civilized men, but rather to show how St. 
Louis is growing as an iron manufacturing city, the existing magnitude of the 
iron interests in this city and the great importance attaching to their further 
development in the future, give a particular attraction to any intelligent views 
and thoughts on the subject, and the following communication from Mr. John 
Magwire, an excellent authority, will be read with interest: 

L. U. RfiAYis, Esq. : 

Sir: — You have requested me to give in writing my views concerning the manufacturing of 
articles at St. Louis, especially iron. In Septemher, 1866, by request of several gentlemen con- 
nected with the St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Fair, I wrote an essay upon the advantages 
and adaptability of St. Loui.- as a maimfacturing city of all articles manufactured in other cities of 
the United States. When the Lindell Hotel was burned, the essay, which they had published ia 
pamphlet form, was destroyed, except the few copies that had been distributed. The State Agrr- 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 141 

cultural Society had the essay published in their report tor that year, and you will find it commenc- 
ing on page 122 of the Agricultural Report of the State of Missouri. Tliat essay contains, as I V^e- 
lieve, the facts suflRcient to show the advantages at St. Louis for estiiblisliing manufactories of all 
fabrics needed by the people, and the advantages as a point for distributing without the iuterren- 
tlon of commission merchants or middle-men. I do not th'nk that I can add anything of impor- 
tance to what you will find in that essay, except to advert to the results in making iron, so abund- 
antly proved by the working of the furnaces that have gone into operation since 1866. These re- 
sults, however, are so well known now by all persons familiar with making iron that it is hardly 
necessary to write them in a book. Everybody now knows that, owing to the richness and fusi- 
bility of Missouri ores, furnaces using those ores and raw Illinois coal mixed with coke, yield from 
twenty-five to thirty per cent, more iron per day than furnaces of the same dimensions in any other 
locality of this country or in Europe, and that the quality of tlie iron is excellent ; that enough 
good iron can be produced from Missouii ores and Illinois coal to supply tlie wants of the country ; 
and the fact is now also well known that good pig-iron can be produced in Missouri and Illinois at 
a cost of labor varying not far from that required in Wales (England), which is the most favorable 
country of Europe for making iron. There are greater facilities for obtaining ore and coal in Wales 
than any otlier country of Europe, but neither in Wales nor upon any other part of the earth's sur- 
face, so far as my information goes, are oi e and coal so accessible as in Missouri and Illinois. It 
must be borne in mind that all manufacturing, especially iron, is produced by labor; and in the 
production of iron, until the discovery by Bessemer, the refining of iron from the pig into the 
bloom, or bringing it to " nature," as the refiners term it, was the hardest and the most toilsome 
labor that man had ever been required to perform. This labor must be performed upon our pig- 
iron as now made in order to produce merchantable iron or rails, iind the costof producing pig-iion 
is better determined by the quantity one man can make in a day, than by tl e amount of dollars and 
cents or shillings and pence he is paid. It requires, in Wales, the labor of one man for thirteen 
days to produce a ton of pig-iron, or thirteen men one day. In Missouri and Illinois the labor of 
one man, eight days, or eight men one tJay, can make a ton of pig-iron, which will make a rail that 
will last three times as long as the ordinary Welsh rail. In Wales the subsistence of the thirteen 
men, their food and shelter, is equal to the labor of five men ; in the Mississippi Valley, subsisting 
eight men requires the labor of three men. Now here is the difffrence incest of producing iron: 
eighteen men in Wales and eleven in Illinois and Missouri, and the Missouii rail will la.^t three 
times as long as the common Welsh rail. Good rails are made in Wales, but at additional expense 
over the ordinary mode, which makes an inferior rail. Bad rails cannot be made of Missouri iron, 
If proper attention is given, in the ordinary mode. 

In the face of these facts our railroad companies are compelled to import rails from Wales. This 
raises a question which, when inquired into, puts a terrible responsibility upon our American 
statesmen. That the responsibihty of depriving the American manufacturer of the facilities to 
make all the rails needed in this country, must rest upon the conscience of our American statesmen. 
•I am prepared to demonstrate unmistakably ; the proof is at hnnd, but it would be out of place in 
your book. The working of the furnaces in Missouri and Illinois have proved that a sufficiency of 
iron can be produced, and although the iron is of a superior quality, now since steel c.an be made 
from the pig-iron by using the elements which nature has provided, and machinery that the genius 
of man has invented, doing away with the labor of puddling, and our Missouri ore is, with one 
other exception in the United States, the only ore adapted to making steel by the Bessemer or 
pneumatic process, our iron business will not be complete until that mode is fully put into operation 
here, and in place of the uncertain iron-rail, steel-rails can be furnished that will last seventeen 
times as long as iron rails. The Pennsylvania Central road is now, I am informed, re-laid with 
steel-rails, and the pig-metal, or a portion of it, used at the mills in this country to makes rails for 
the Pennsylvania road, was imported from England, where the ore is inferior to Missouri ore, and 
the coal no better, and not as accessible as Illinois coal. The explanation is this : steel cannot be 
successfully made by the Bessemer or pneumatic process unless tlie pig-iron is free from sulphur or 
phosphorus ; two per cent, of sulphur will not hurt, but one-tenth of one per cent, of phosphorus 
•is fatal. Such metal could not be obtained in this country in sufficient quantity. None of the 



142 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY, 



Btone-coal iron would answer, and the quantity of charcoal pig is small and every day decreasing, 
and there is not much of it that will answer. But next to Bessemer's discov ery, and one that will 
revolutionize the iron business, is the process of freeing mineral coal from sulphur and all other 
foreign substances, leaving pure carbon to go into the coke oven. Tlie coke made from coal that 
has been freed from sulphur and other substances, leaving only the carbon, is as good in one 
locality as another; the carbon of coal is alike everywhere, and pig-iron made from Missouri ore, 
with coke, from coal that has undergone the purifying process, will answer for making Bessemer 
steel. The Illinois Patent Coke company in East St. Louis, Theodore Meier, President, havo erected 
works for making coke by the Osterspeys patented process, and will in a short time be prepared to 
deliver to furnace-men 2,500 bushels per day, and there is no limit to the quantity that can be 
made. The process of purifying the coal, the crushing and wasiiing, is done by machinery, only 
requiring the labor of three men and the machinery one day to receive from the cars and deliver the 
purified coal into the coke ovens. The coke made from the pure carbon is compact and heavy ; it 
will carry a seventy per cent, ore on a twenty-foot bosh, and a furnace of tjjat size using this coke 
will yield daily fifty tons of metal. There will be no uncertainty as to tlie quality; it will be uni- 
form day in and day out; every ton may be relied upon with perfect certainty as suitable for Besse- 
mer steel. The working of a furnace with raw coal is a lottery; some days the metal will be goodi 
and the next day bad. Uniformity is not to be expected, and never could be had with all the skill 
that could be applied. 

By the discovery of Osterspeys, the making of pig-metal with Missouri ore will become an exact 
science. And since the coal of one locality can be made as good as any other, and it having been 
demonstrated that Missouri ore is peculiarly well adapted for making steel, ought to settle the 
question you propose. 



St. Louis, Nov. 10, 1872. 



JNO. MAGWIRE. 



IRON FURNACES AND MILLS IN MISSOURI, THEIR CAPITAL AND CAPACITY OP PRO- 
DUCTION. 

Notwithstanding the immense store of mineral deposits in Missouri, art and 
industry have done comparatively little, in rendering these mines of wealth 
serviceable to the people of the country. The following statement of the fur- 
naces now in operation, show the development and practical workings of St. 
Louis in the iron interest at the present time. 

CHARCOAL FURNACES. 



Pilot Knob 

Iron Mountain 

Irondale 

Meramec 

Scotia 

Moselle 

Gasconade one building. 



Furnaces. 
2 



2 
). 
1 
1 
1 



Total. 



Capital. 

$1,000,000 
1,000,000 
300,000 
300,000 
2.=i0,000 
250,000 



$3,100,000 



STONE-COAL AND COKE FURNACES. 



Vulcan 

Lewis 

South St. Louis. 
Carondelet 



Furnaces. 
2 
2 
2 
1 . 



Total 

Four more projected at Carondelet. 



Capital. 

$2.50,000 
250,000 
2.i0,000 
WO, 000 

$900,090 



Capacity, Tons. 

12,000 

12,000 

7,000 

6,000 
7,000 
6,000 

50,000 

Capacity, Tons. 

25,000 

25,000 

25,000 

8,000 

83,000 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



143 



ROLLINQ MILLS. 



Laclede Rolling Mills. 
"Vulcan Iron Works 



Capital. 

$500,000 
200,000 



Total $,700,000 



Capacity, Tons. 

10,000 

40,000 



50,000 



RECAPITULATION. 



Capital. 

15 fur naces $ t , 000 , 000 

Mills 1,000,000 



Capacity, TonSv 

13.5,000 

40,000 



VALUE OF PRODUCTS. 

133,000 tons pig iron, at $35 $4, 655,000 

10,000 tons merchant iron, at $85 aiO.OOO 



4nnual product value $5,505,000 

The following additional facts are of interest, showing the iron produced in 

1870: 

g-Iron produced by Pioneer Carondelct Furnace 6,000 ton». 



Kingsland 
" South St. Louis 
•' Lewis Iron Co.'s 
" Iron Mountain 
" Pilot Knob 
" Irondale 
•' Scotia Iron Co.'s 
" Moselle 
" Merameo 



12,000 
6.. 500 
6,000 
8,5.53 
2,425 
3,993 
2,440 
3,000 
4,000 



Aggregate production of Pig-iron in 1870 54,911 tons. 



1868. 

Tons ore rained 105,000 

Tons ore shipped 47.000 



1869. 
195,000 
120. QOO 



1870 
316,000 
246,566 



The following tables show the shipments of iron ore, fi'om the two impor- 
Ifent iron regions of the state, also the shipment of pig iron. 
Shipped over the Iron mountain Eailroad : 



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144 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



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■~'v aji §«■ 
o ci5S~' 2 



■ a 

■ 93 



3 * * - 












ST. LOUIS, THE tVTV&A GREAT OITT. 146 

Shipped over the Atlantic and Pacific railroad : 

ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC RAILROAD. 

Statement of Ii'on Ore shipped from sundry stations from Ist July, 1871 to 
31st October, 1872. 





1871. 


1872. 


1872. 




8TATIOH8. 


J2« 

OE. 
• o 


0(D 

C B 




TOTAL. 




TONS. 


TONS. 


TONS. 


TONS. 


Iron Ridge 


4,890 

2,590 

20 


2,920 

9,570 

220 

220 

1,870 


8,190 

1,700 

150 

1,120 

5,410 

UO 

420 

130 


16,01)0 


St Jamea .'. 


13,920 


Taylor's 


.{iXl 


Buckland's 


1,340 


Beacon 


7,280 


Kelley's 


60 


Hancock 


420 


Leasburg 


140 




7,500 


14,800 


17,240 


39,640 



FOUNDRIES AND STOVE ESTABLISHMENTS. 

The magnitude and importance of the foundry and stove business of St. Louis, 
compare favorably with the furnaces and rolling mills, of the city, and con- 
tribute largely to the growth and greatness of the iron business, as will be seen 
helow : 



[See next page."] 



146 



ST. L0(7IS, TQ£ 7UTUBE QKEAT OTTT. 



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ST. LOUIS, TttJfi FUTURK ORJSAT OITY. 147 

EXCELSIOR STOVE OOMPAPTT. 

From the more elaborate character of the iron maniifacturea — from tho 
Foundries and Rolling mills, we pass to the most important feature of the 
stove business. St. Louis is already noted for its many stove establishments, 
and the popularity of the stoves manufactured by the various companies now 
in existence. At llie head of the stove business of St. Louis, and we may say of 
the United States, stands the Lxcelsior Maiiufacl uring Company. This comj>any 
has grown iu busineyn and character, with the city of St. Louiw, itself, and is 
one of the great establishments, that give prominence and worth to the busi- 
ness of the metropolis of the Mississippi Valley. 

This mammoth company, was organized in 1849, by Mr. Giles F. Filley, who 
has continued at the head of thecompany,and with his keen foresight and wide- 
grasping, executive ability, has directed its buHiness, with safety and success, 
and now he is at the head of the largest stove company in the world. 

The first buildings were erected and operations commenced, Sept. 1849, 
under the name of the Excelsior Stove Works, making that year 634 stoves ; 
using about 60 tons of pig iron, which came from Ohio. During the following 
years 5,977 stoves were made and about 600 tons of iron used. 

From 1849 up to the present date, 1872, their business has gradually increased, 
producing in round numbers 550,000 stoves of all kinds, consuming 66,000 tons 
of iron. 

In 1865, the Excelsior Manufacturing Company was organized, under a spe- 
cial charter, with a capital of $400,000, which continues under its present offi- 
cers, to-wit: G. F. Filley, president; James W.Bell, secretary; and Mr. E. C. 
Little, superintendent. 

The company made during the year 1872, 45,000 stoves, which required the 
consumption of 6,000 tons of iron, two-thirds of which was made of Missouri 
oi'e, and smelted in St. Louis. 

The sales of the company extends to twenty-eight States and Territories, 
reaching east as far as Pennsylvania and west to California, north to Minne- 
sota, south to Florida and Texas, beside many that are sent to Germany and 
England. 

The best cooking-stove made by this company is the celebrated Charter Oak. 
The sales of the first year of this company, amounted to 2,619 stoves. Tho 
year following 4,785. The number has annually increased until it has reached 
22,000. At the present date there are over 200,000 of these celebrated stoves 
in use or have been in use, cooking the food for more than one 35th part of 
the population of the United States. There are 52 different varieties of the 
Charter Oak stoves made, burning wood, coal and coke. 

What better evidence could be offered to show Its great popularity, when 
after being in use 20 years, it stands unrivaled before the public. 

The most popular heating stove made by this company is the Evening Star, 
which is now in use in nearly all tho western States and Territories. In addi- 
tion to these, an almost endless variety of other patterns are made to sup- 
ply the wants of the country. 



148 ST. rX)UIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

The employees of this company, number 350, whose monthly wages amount 
to $23,000, supporting at least 1,500 people, including women and children. 

THE ST. LOUIS STAMPING COMPANY. 

Another of the leading manufacturing eHtablishments of St. Louis, deserving 
of note, is the Stamping Company. This, although new,'i8 not surpassed in size 
and character in the United States. The building is of the largest class used 
for manufacturing purposes, and is thoroughly tilled with the best kind of 
machinery for making all classes of stamped and Japan wares. For the exis- 
tence of the branch of industry that this company represents, the credit is due 
to the Messrs. Neidringhaus, who are the owners and under whose well-di- 
rected supervision the business is now coiiducted, in the most business-like 
manner, and with the greatest integrity. 

The above facts and statistics substaniially represent the present develop- 
ment of the iron manufacturing interest of St. Louis. And every citizen of 
the metropolis, will read and ponder them with pride and gratification, for in 
them are to be seen the evidences of substantial and rapid thrift, in a depart- 
ment of industry and wealth, destined to revolutionize the present vulgar con- 
ception of the greatness of St. Louis of to-day, and build in the heart of the 
continent, in the heart of the great valley of the Mississippi, a wealth and a 
power stronger than armies and more potent than kings. 

Not only is the iron manufacturing interest of St. Louis rapidly advancing, 
but it is in a health}^ condition. It is not only backed by wealth, but by vigor- 
ous and sterling men, capable and comprehensive, to understand, to dai'e and 
to do. And to what extent, they and others will yet push forward this great 
industrial agency of man, no human can tell. For whereas, we now have less 
than twenty furnaces, we shall have in less than a generation one hundred. 
Capital and skill will be made to subserve their highest use, in the development 
of this most valuable of all metals, iron, and the productive energies of two 
mighty States will be joined — the coal of Illinois and the iron of Missouri, to 
mould in to use, implements of art, for the many millions destined to reside in 
this great valley. At St. Louis and vicinity will yet grow up, in one group, a 
new and mightier Birmingham, Sheffield and Staffordshire. Genius and capital 
will unite with the ruder substances of nature, and the banks of the Missis- 
sippi, will be lighted, for hundreds of miles, wiLh constantly ascending flames 
from the forges, mills, foundries and work-shops ; yet to be the oifsprings of the 
progress and greatness of this people. Let us anticipate these things and take 
new courage in the duties of to-day. Let us comprehend that what our metro- 
polis is to-day, is only the germ of what she is to be in the years of the future. 

COAL. 

The total receipts of coal for 1870 were 957,259 tons, or 23,931,475 bushels. 
The coal resources contiguous to St. Louis are inexhaustible, and nature ap- 
pears to have prophetically provided them to assist in the full development of 
our iron manufactures. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURK QRRAT CITY. 149 

ZltiO. 

There are two or more zinc mills in St. Louis, doing a fine business. 
The product of this metal in this State during the years mentioned was : 

18i;9. 1870. 

Zinc ore produced, lbs 4,270,400 8. 240, 000 

Zinc metal— spelter 723,000 1,545,930 

Valiieof " $70,470 $131,404 

Zinc slabs exported 12,449 49,54a 

LEAD. 

The following lead statistics, show what is doing in the department of the 
production of lead in the state of Missouri, and St. Louis its market. 



1869. 



Tlie Product of Missouri 

Received from the Galena, and other mines. 
Foreigrn ' 'imported' ' 



Total. . 



1870. 

The Product of Missouri 

Received from the Galena, and other mines. 
Foreign ' 'imported' ' 



Total. 



1871. 



The Product of Missouri 

Received trom the Galena, and other mines. 
Foreign ' ' imported" 



Total. 



1872. 



The Product of Missouri 

Received from the Galena, and other mines. 



Total. 



Pigs. 



17-2,697 
42,576 

7,8.57 



223,130 



188,383 

42,342 

4,178 

234,903 



181,691 

45,829 

1,440 

228,960 



156,578 
24,855 



181,433 



Pounds . 



12,963,976 
3,193,200 
1,021,410 



17,178,586 



/ 



14.128,725 

3,175,6.50 

643,140 



17,847,515 



13,676,888 

3,822,630 

233,6-25 



17,433,188 



12,526,240 
1,864,126 



14,390,366 



THE COLLIER WHITE LEAD AND OIL FACTORY. 



In this connection the Collier White Lead and Oil Mill is worthy of men- 
tion, as the largest establishment of its kind in the Mississippi Valley. 

Perhaps there is no manufacturing enterprise in St. Louis, deserving men- 
tion in public print more than the Collier White Lead and Oil Company. It 
was established in 1837, incorporated in 1850, and may be considered among the 
antiquities of St. Louis. This old and widely-known manufacturing establish- 
ment, the products of which have no superior, and whose manufactured leads 
are sought for and used throughout the entire Mississippi Valley, on account 
of the superior covering capacity, durability and opacity of the same, is capa-. 
ble of manufacturing, annually, five thousand tons of the carbonate of white 
lead, two hundred and fifty tons of red lead and lytharge, and two hundred 
thousand gallons each of castor and linseed oils. Has a paid up capital of 
six hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Manufactures white and red leads, 
lytharge, castor and linseed oils, acetic acid and cooperage, for their own 
purposes. Annual amount of business is over one million dollars. Annual 



160 



ST. LOUIS, THE rVTOB^E GREAT CITY. 



amonnt of raw materials used, two thousand five hundred tone; pig lead^ 
fifty thousand 3 fifty bushels of castor beans, and forty thousand bushels of 
flax seed. 

Pig lead is obtained principally from the mines of Missouri, Illinois, Iowa 
and Wisconsin, some portion imported. 

Castor beans are grown and obtained from Missouri, Illinois and Wisconsin. 

Flax seed are grown and obtained from Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin 
and Kansas. The ntnnber of hands in actual employ, averages from one hun- 
dred to one hundred and twenty. The pigments of this well-known company, 
are sought for by all consumers and dealers in paints; thus creating a contin- 
ued, increased demand for the jDroduets thereof, necessitating annually a con- 
tinued, increased productioii of its manufactures, in order to keep pace with 
the gradual and rapid growth of the " Great West," of which the " Future 
Great City," is the seat of empire. 

Mr. Thomas Richeson, one of the most gentlemanly and enterprising of 
our citizens, is president of this mammoth company. 

FLOUR AND GRAIN. 

Of the different branches of manufacturing industry, now in operation in 
St. Louis, that of manufacturing flour has been, for thirty years, the largest and 
most important, and in the future, will no doubt, be only second to the mana- 
facture of iron. 

One of the natural results of the situation of St. Louis in the center of a 
fertile and extensive wheat region, has been the rapid development of the flour 
trade, and in this branch of domestic manufacture she is already famous, wo 
might say on both sides of the Atlantic. And in this interest, as much as any 
branch of industry, do we find the marked evidences of a transfer of material 
power from the east to the west. A little more than a generation ago, Rich- 
mond, Baltimore and Rochester were famous for their fine mills and choice 
brands of flour. They, very naturally, became flour producing centers, because 
of the position each occupied in relation to the fine wheat producing regions 
around them. Richmond was supplied from the choice wheat of the Shenandoah 
Valley, Baltimore received hers from the fine wheat regions of Maryland, and 
Rochester hers from the Genessee Valley. Each region of country, produc- 
ing the best quality of wheat, and each mill contested for years, for the merit 
of producing the best flour in the markets at home as well as abroad. The 
Rochester mills supplied the New England markets with the best family flour, 
while those of Richmond, did a large trade in South American markets. 
The Baltimore millers supplied an extensive trade and secured fair gains for 
their labor by an honorable rivalry with those of Richmond and Rochester. 
As the pioneer and the emigrant journeyed westward, new fields of industry 
and production were opened, and brought into requisition to supply the con- 
Btantly growing population west of the Allcghanies, and with the growth 
of the country new centers of trade and manufacturing industry grew up. 

In 1832, Cincinnati became a western center for the manu&eture of flour. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 151 

The growth of the west and the newness of the soil stimulated her milling in- 
terest, and she soon became the great source from whence flour was supplied 
to the west and the south. Her millers supplied the emigrant and the trader, 
alike, as far west as St. Louis and as far south as the gulf. They held undis- 
puted sway in the flour trade, until 1840, when the production of wheat in 
Illinois caused the building of mills in St. Louis, which at once supplied the 
home demand and made her a flour center-, destined to rival and surpass in the 
number of her mills and the manufacture of choice qualities of flour, Richmond 
Baltimore, Rochester and Cincinnati. St. Louis became a competitor of Cincin- 
nati for the trade of the south, which compelled her millers to make good 
flour. Stimulated by the sharp contest of rivalry, she has grown to be the great 
flour center of North America. The character of her millers, for honor and 
integrity, stands second to none in the country, and the quality of her flour is 
not surpassed in the markets of the world. 

One of the special causes that led to the establishment of the high character 
of St. Louis millers and their floui-, has been the great amount of custom work 
which they have always done. This special work demanded special attention, 
on the part of the millers, and the result was an enduring reputation for mak- 
ing the best quality of family flour. 

But let us go back a moment in the discussion. While it is true that new flour 
centers grew up with the westward movement of population across the contin- 
ent, it is also true that the gradual decline in the productive energies of the 
soil in the older states of New York, Maryland and Yirginia, aided largely to 
facilitate the growth of the flour business west of the Alleghanies, where the 
soil was new and more productive. The same cause operates to-day in favor 
of maintaining the supremacy of St. Louis in the flour manufacture of the 
country. Not, only so, but she is geographically situated in the center of 
the great fall wheat producing region of the continent — a region, the produc- 
tive power of which cannot be exhausted, within the period allotted, by Provi- 
dence, for man to exist on the continent. Probably not more than one-tenth 
of the wheat region, I mean that region that produces the delicate choice 
qualities of fall wheat, which the St. Louis millers must always control, and 
draw their supplies from, has yet been brought into requisition. Making the 
Wabash the eastern boundary of the region from whence she draws her supplies 
of wheat, that portion of Illinois and northern Missouri that contributes to her 
trade, forms but a small portion of the still uncultivated lands of Missouri, Kan- 
sas, Arkansas, the Indian Territoiy, Texas, New Mexico and the farther west, 
\vhich are destined to contribute to her millers, through scores of generations 
yet to come, a still better quality of wheat than now constitutes the dominant 
supply in the market. 

St. Louis stands pre-eminent, from the fact that the best fall flouring wheat 
is grown south of Quinc}^, and even of this city, convenient to the vast coal- 
fields, the source of motive power, and other supplies essential to domestic 
industry, and tlius the bread-producer, bread-maker and bread-consumer arc 
Hide by side, in iiatiii-a! aggreation, a circumstance of vast importance, in view 
oi the future gi'owth and weliarc of St. Louis. 



152 ST. LOUIS, THB FUTURE GRJGAT CITY. 

Cincinnati in no longer a rival of St. Louis in the manufacture of flour for 
market, for the people of Ohio consume the wheat raised in their own State, 
and there is u o surplus to go abroad. St. Louis therefore stands pre-eminently 
the great flour center of the country, destined to control the surplus wheat 
from which the distant markets are to be supplied. Chicago may boast of her 
grain trade, but the facts demonstrate that trade is not equal in value to the 
flour interest of St. Louis. 

The Chicago market may control the inferior wheats of the extreme north- 
west, which constitute the export wheats, but the St. Louis market will ever 
control the delicate choice fall wheats, which constitute the bread-stuffs of the 
American people, and which are grown in the central and south-western por-" 
tions of the country. Already St. Louis supplies the citizen-s of Chicago with 
their best flour. 

Nearly all the grain brought to St. Louis is manufactured by her millers, 
thus giving employment to thousands of people, and contributing at least 
15 cents, per bushel, in the way of wages, to the actual industry and business 
of the city. Chicago only gains from 3 to 4 cents per cent, in the way of stor- 
age, interest and exchange, on each bushel of wheat her merchants handle, and 
that gain is confined to only a few persons, whereas the milling business of 
St. Louis distributes labor to many thousands of people. In fact, it is said on 
good authority, that the milling business alone of St. Louis, supports a popula- 
tion of 75,000, directly and indirectly. But the great trade of the St. Louis 
flour men is with the southern States. And while two-thirds of all the flour 
she manufactures goes directly to the consumers in the south, without any 
competition, it is with the south, St. Louis millers must continue to maintain 
their greatest field of operations. It is with the people of the southern States, 
that ours of the great central cit}'^ must build up commercial relations, 

" Wide as the Witters be.' 
BRANDS OF FLOUR. 

In former days the more important brands of St. Louis flour were aa 
follows, Chouteau w^ater mills, Page's steam mills, Gratiot street mills. Magnolia 
mills, Mound mills. Plant's extra. The Union steam, The Eagle steam, 
Monantum mills, Star mills, Missouri mills. Park mills, Cherry street mills, 
Fagin's four-ace, St. George mills. O'Fallon mill. 



ST. LOUIS, TOE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



153 



PRESENT MILLS OF ST. LOUIS, AND THE FLOUR MANUFACTURED DURING THE PAST 

FIVE YEARS. 



HILLKRS. 



NAME OF »ni,l.. 



1871. 



1870. 



Isfi9. 



1868. 



1867. 



Kehlor, Updike & Co 

Kehlor, Updike & Co 

E. O. Stai)„vd&Co 

John F. Telle 

JohnF. ToUe 

Bain ;& retrain 

Yeager & Co 

Yeaeer & Co 

E. Goddard 

Empire Mill 

Tom Miller, Jr 

Geo. r. Plant & Co 

Leonhardt & Schuricht. . . 
W. & U. Ileinrichshofen. 
J. F. Brock.smitli & Co. . . 
Sessinghaus Bros 

F. Eickerman & Co 

Kall)flei8ch & Lange 

Lallement Bros 

Smucker& Co 

Charles llezel 

V. Stocke 



Davis and Emmon.s. 
F. Buschraan 



Wm. Ludwig. 



Laclede 

Paciflc 

Eagle 

il'ark 

Clierry Street... 

Atlantic 

Union Sleam. . . 

Anchor 

I United States . . 

Empire 

il'ha;ni.K 

Franklin 

iSaxony 

Dyke 

|0' Fallon 

'.Jefferson 

iCamp Spring. . . 

1st. Geortte 

'Carondelet City. . 
iiireat Wtstern. 
East St. Lonis. 

Star 

Sterling 

Pearl 

Gamble Spring. 

Exchange 

St. Louis 



1-25,569 

56,100 

114,6-21 

101,3-20 

88,740 

1-29,359 

'32,347 

125,790 

85,100 

1-28,000 

76,340 

6m, 347 

57,187 

40,690 

41,1.34 

32,816 
;J3,944 
9,000 
3,400 
26,300 
38,800 



42,250 
7, -233 
7,000 
3,150 



I 



131, -2-29 
35,000 
99,630 

8-2,000 
77,820 
U7,i«50 
75,603 
60,3.^5 
75,500 
75,500 
64,347 
60,000 
61,000 
.53,-257 
4(1,6.55 
41,700 
3">,H80 

3:;, 870 

17, -250 

If), 215 

16,000 

12,500 

6,500 

31,485 

6,049 

6,580 

6,908 



89,464 
.52,000 
84,916 
78,000 
71,400 
75,395 
52,110 
60,000 
31,000 
62,216 
.53,000 
60,981 
.55,00(1 



110,000 
38,000 
64,700 
75,000 
68,000 
7.5,000 
34,000 
19,601 
26,347 
65,000 
40,000 
.53,-2(K) 
47,5(JO 



94,973 
38,547 
66,199 
40,000 
fvi,40<t 
a5,U9 
27,700 
13.403 
22,. 538 
67,859 
21 851 
.5+, 770 
43,000 



34,000 
-25,800 

•22,2:>s 

32,000 



24,000 
10,-200 
22,103 
20,540 



.-59,8.50 

4,485 

20,821 

24, -242 



3,:i51 
11,907 
•25,401 

3,60it 
23,2-23 
11,000 
27,-200 
11,000 



17,000 

13,36 

13,000 

20,000 

20,000 



15,000 



18,000 

2,500 

21,000 



14,410 



1,507,915 1,351,773 1,068,592 895,1.54 766,298 



* Only run four months. 



FLOUR MANUFACTURED BY OITY MILLS FOR TWENTY-ONE YEARS. 



TSAK. 


BBL8. 


YKAB. 


BBLS. 


1851 


408,099 
383,184 
455,076 
503,157 
603,353 
678,496 
662,548 
8-25,651 
763,446 
839, 165 
694,110 


1862 


906,860 
758,428 
782,. 560 
743,281 


1853 


1863 


1853 


1864 


1854 


1865 


1865 


1866 


818,:W(I 


1856 


1867 

1868 


765, 29S 


1857 


895,154 


1858 


1869 


1,068.593 
1,3.51,773 
1,507,915 


1859 


1870 


1860 


1871 


1861 



During the past year, the manufacture of flour has increased fi*om 1,251,773 
barrels, in 1870, to 1,507,915, barrels, in 1871. 

The following exhibit furnishes a condensed view of the operations of our 
millers during the past five years. 





1871. 


1870. 


1809. 


1868. 


1867. 


Received 


1,428,408 bbls. 
1,.507,915 " 

364,043 " 


1,491,6-26 bbls. 
1,351,773 " 

407,561 " 


1,310, .555 bl)l8. 
1,068, .592 " 

297,860 " 


805,836 bl)ls. 
859, 1.54 ' ' 

245,8-22 " 


944,765 bbls. 


Manufactured 


765,-298 " 


Bold and shipped direct 
from country mills . . 


180,370 " 


Total 


3,300,366 bbls. 


3, -250, 960 bbls. 


2,677,007 bbla. 


1,910,812 bbla. 


1,889,748 bbla. 



154 



ST, LOUrS, THE FUTCRE ORKAT OrTT. 



The total receipts and exports for six years ending 1870 were as follows: 
TOTAL RECEIPTS FOE SIX YEARS. 



ARTICLES. 


1871. 


1870. 


1869. 


1868. 


1867. 


1866. 


1865. 


Flour (itsluced to wheat) 

Wheat 


7,142,040 
7,311,910 
6,aj0,734 
4,358,09vl 
374,.i36 
876,219 


7,4.58,130 
6,6:58,253 
4,708,838 
4,519,510 
210,. 542 
778,518 


6,,5.52,775 
6,736,4.54 
2,395,713 
3,4<;l,814 
266,056 
7.57, 6W 


4,029,180 
4,3,5.1,591 
2,800,277 
3,2;59,l:{2 
367,961 
634,. 590 


4,720,3:5 
3,. 571.. 593 
5,1.55,480 
4, 4.55,. 388 
2.50,704 
705.215 


6,043, (KiO 
4,410,.3(& 
7,233,671 
3,467,2.53 
375,417 
.548,796 


5,805,190 
2,4.52,722 


Corn , , . 


3,162,313 


Oats 


4,173, 22» 


Rye 


217,568 


Barley ... 


846,230 








Total bushels 


26,09;l,3:i6 


24,313,791 


20,170,442 


15, 444, 73 1| 17,&48,7,V>! 2 J, 079, 072 


17,6.57,25 


TOTAL EXPORTS FOR SIX YEARS. . 


ARTICLES. 


1871. 1 1870. 


lt<69. ;' 1868. 1 1867. | 1866. 


1865. 


Flour (reduced to wheat) 

Wheat 


13,382,6351 13,4.53,695 

1,048,532! 6:54, .562 

4,469,849 3,636,060 

2,48t,,582 3,144,741 

138,756 100,2.54 

62,843 70,451 


10,86.3,805 7,496,6t^ 7,252,375 
1,715,005 .543,234 321.888 


8,503,700 

635,817 

6,7.57,199 

2,624,044 

225,458 

89,751 


7,607,325 
62,860 


Com 


1,298,86.1 1,611,618 

2,103,002 2,9.52, ,579 

110,447 192,555 

57,134; 64,426 


4,318,937 

2,244,756 

56,076 

55,750 


2,591,558 


Oats 


3,083,864 


Bye 


31,445 




50,000 






Total bushels 


21,587,1871 21,039,766 


16,148,756 11,860,097 


14,!i49,752 


18,835,969 


13,427,052 



The direction of the trade is thus indicated: Total shipments southward dur- 
ing the year 1870, 1,713,918 barrels. Total shipments eastward, 933,591 
barrels. Total shipments to other points, 43,235. Total shipments during the 
year, 2,690,730 barrels. 

There is every reason to be satisfied with the condition of the grain trade of 
St. Louis, while there are the most encouraging prospects for the future. 

THE BREWERY BUSINESS. 

Third in importance, in the list of the different branches of productive indus- 
try now in successful operation in St. Louis, stands the Brewery business. 
Perhaps one of hasty judgment would, donsidering the capital invested and 
the number of men employed to manufacture and sell beer, fix its rank next 
in importance to that of iron, as a productive industry. But when we consider 
that the milling business, relates more directly to the vital interests and 
necessities of the people, we must, in comparison to the capital invested and 
men employed to manufacture and sell flour, place the milling business of St. 
Louis, next in importance to that of iron, and greater than that of the Brewery 
business. 

Considering the growth and the statistics of the Brewery business in this 
city; the vast capital invested, the annual business of the Breweries and the in- 
fluence the manufacture and use of beer exerts upon the industrial and 
social interests of our society, we cannot pass the subject by, without giving 
it due weight and rank as a class of productive industry. And as will be seen 
by the figures below, an array of facts present themselves that are scarcely 
surpassed by the same class of business in any city in the United States. 
An invested capital of near §4,000,000, and an annual productive yield of about 
the same amount, are items of no small concern in any branch of industry, 
based almost wholly on manual labor, and especially when such a branch of 



8T. LOUIS, THK FCTUKK GRKAT CfTY. 



155 



industry is confined to the towns and cities, ai)d has none of the fundamental 
elements of production, but grows out of supply and consumption. 

The Brewery business of St. Louis, is very i^reat. ft adds vastly to swell 
the city's wealth and character. 'Vhe brewers are moneyed kings, and 
have it in their power to do incalculable good to St. Louis, by aiding to ad- 
vance her commercial and industrial interests, in the great struggle to become 
the metropolis of North America. 

TABC;L.\a STATEMENT OF THE BREWKHY BUSrNKSS OF ST. T/OUTS. 



BRBWKRe. 



E . Anheuser & Co 

William Siumiif 

WiUiiim J. Limp 

Jos. Uhiig 

Feuerljivpher & Schlosstien. 
Samut'l Wainwiight &Co.. 

Anlhony & Kuhn 

Mathlus Wiess 

H. Grout & Co 

Klausemanse & Co 

JoHtph Schneider 

John B. Fleming 

Christian Staehlin 

T. Spengl.r & Son 

John K nepfert 

Louis Koch 

C. Kochler & Co 

Herold & Loch 

Joseph Feria 

Briiicwirth & Griesdiech.. . . 

Heiilbreder & Niemann 

William Moran 

A. Leather & Co 

Julius Winkelmeyer & Oo. . 
Chaa. G. Steifel 




Capital 
stock . 



Totals $3,842,000l$3,47.i,000| 411,000 



$250,000 

H5,000 

200.000 

300,000 

300,000 

300,000 

150,000 

5,000 

150,000 

100,000 

400,000 

20,000 

500,000 

50,000 

22,000 

100, (kjO 

125,000 

120,000 

10,000! 

50,000j 

30,000 

25,000 

250,000 

300,000 

140,000 



•r - c 



$210,0(J0 

150,000 

400,000 

■_'50,00o 

24,000 

24,000 

150,000 

120,000 

150,000 

90,0011 

280,000 

50,000 

200,000 

80,000 

50,000 

165,000 

120,000 

150,000 

20,000 

100,000 

60,000 

45,000 

150,000 

300,000 

175,000 



■x-a 



"c^; 



■5 a:r * 



SB 

• s a 






2,400 

1,.")00 
40,iX)0 
25,0(X) 
24,000 
24,000 
15,000 
12,000 
14,000 

9,000 
28,000 

5,000 
20,000 

8,000 

5,000 
16,5(h5 

1,200 
16,000 

2,000 
10,000 

6,000 

4,500 
18,000 
30,000 
18,000 



40 
12 
00 
30 
30 
30 
30 
15 
15 
18 
55 
20 
40 

8 

4 
20 
18 
20 

2 
20 
10 

6 
20 
40 
24 

587 



No. of wagona 
Employed. 



o 

JS 



5 

8 
5 
4 
6 
4 
3 
3 
4 
6 
2 
4 
3 

4 
3 
8 

4 
2 
2 
4 

5 

4 

96 



42 



hi 

o 

.a 



PROVISIONS. 



The trade in provisions like most other great trades in the products of the 
west, is comparatively one of modern growth, so far as the interests of St. 
Louis and the country immediately tributary to it are concerned. For years 
St. Louis was a mere enterpot, a place of exchange, between the east and west ; 
the rich fields of the north and the cotton and sugar regions of the south, in 
contradistinction to the productive capacity of the country immediately 
tributary to it, and it was not until the year 1861, when the production of 
provisions, like the extension of agriculture, the development of the inexhaus- 
tible mines of iron — the wonder of the world, coal, lead, copper, zinc and the 
rich depository for the manufacture of glass and queensware began to attract 
the attention of enterprising producers, who for a time seemed to struggle, al- 
most unaided by capitalists, in the great work of developing the capacity of a 
country, which, whether regarded in its niinei-al, agricultural, mechanical, or 
ooramercial aspect, had few, if any equals, and taken as » whole, lying in the 
great valley of the Mississippi — equally distant almost between the lakes oi 



166 ST. rXlUIS. THK FUTGIIE GREAT CITY. 

the north, the gulf of I'le south, the Atlantic and Pacific possessed natural ad- 
vantages, which no other point in the world commands. As these advantages 
were opening to general attention, the war between the Northern and Southern 
states unfortunately c^ommericed, and for several years diverted attention from 
peaceiui duties — in the meantime, trade, improvement and progress were ar- 
i*ested, save in articles of war; the great intei-est of the country was merged 
in the more pressing necessity of conquering a peace, and thence of re-establish- 
ing a union among the several states, which was virtually' accomplished by 
the fall of Richmond, but subsequently, more cordially confirmed by the gener- 
ous acceptance of the situation " by the brave and good men who had so valiantly 
defended their rights during war, and nobly yielded to power when defeat 
became inevitable." Coincidcntly with the close of the war in 1865, the lessons 
of the camp, and the bravery of the field, were supei-scded by an earnest en- 
quiry into the condition of the country; the most effective means not only of 
its recuperation, but by skill, art and industry, not merely to renew its onward 
progress, but to lift it above the ordinarily, impulsive and upward movements 
of a country so energetic as ours; and within the seven years intervening, 
more has been accomplished in the work of recuperation, of extending im- 
provements, of building up manufactures, of creating cities, of constructing 
railways, of developing the inexhaustible riches (mineral and agricultural) not 
merely of Missouri, but of Arkansas, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa and the far and 
" fairy country " beyond, to the Pacific, than luid been done in the thirty pre- 
ceding years, and many of them are so graiui, if not so startling, that they look 
more like the workof some pure intelligence, than that of mere man, however 
aided by capital and tlie pent-up energies of an enterprising people. In the 
general onward march, the improvement and extension in provisions, have 
more than kept pace, since the natural, if not inevitable working of the trade 
was to drive the growth of hogs, cattle and sheep from the dear and impover- 
ished lands of the east, to the cheap and richer ones of the west; particularly 
now that the whole country, even tlie wild prairies and the comparatively 
untrodden forest of the Indian, are so overrun with railways and approachable 
by the fleet-footed steamer, thatany point on the continent, — across the Atlantic 
to Europe, or beyond the Pacific to the flowery regions of Asia is witliin reach, 
as is being daily demonstrated by shipments of hogs, cattle and sheep to the 
Atlantic coast, and the movement of cured meats from the west, even the ex- 
treme west to Europe, to the Atlantic Islands and via San Francisco, to South 
America and across the Pacific to Japan and China. This onward movement, 
froin places of production to those of consumption, has been so great, so diversi- 
fied, and so impulsive, that it has been im])ossible to chain it down to any regu- 
lar order or system, or even to place it in such position that it may even be 
<.'onnted, much less estimated in the general products of the west. It is known 
that it is simply immense, that it is steadily increasing, that it may be seen 
moving in almost every direction, and that its importance is to be less estimated 
by the statistical reports at the cities, than the advices of individual operators 
in the interior, and the showings at the bankers juid merchants of the cities ; 
neither of which are accessible to a collator, and like other good things, among 



ST. LOOIP, THE FUTURE GREAT CTTT. 157 

thcra the hcs^t, must l>e accepted on fiiith. The capital, energy and enterprise 
of St. Louis, liave b^^en directed to the curing and prepai-ing of proviBionsin 
theinterior, for immediate trans])ortation to markets of consumption or export, 
without touching at St. Louis, or appearing even indirectly as among its assets, 
which in the department of provisions amount to over $30,000,000, at their 
present low value, or $3,000,000 less than it was two yeai'S ago, when there was 
less done, and the market value was 40 cents, 50 percent, greater than at present. 
Commencing some 20 years ago with a slaughter of 25,000 hogs, the business 
has been steadily progi-essive and has reached the full quota of 500,000, in 
addition to the product of 750,000 (unitedly 1,250,000 hogs) which is the esti- 
mated quantity of hogs and their products which have been handled by ihe 
packers and dealers during the season 1871-2. This quantity might have been 
materially increased, and would have been, but for the want of slaughtering 
facilities and the small number of persons engaged in the trade. This trade 
is steadily increasing, and as the growth of animals for food is not merely an 
acceptable, but the best and most remunerative, form in which the immense 
grain crops of the west can be brought to market, the business will go on in- 
creasing and still increasing, until it shall have reached a magnitude that will 
command the attention of the feeders of the world, as did that of Egypt in old- 
en times. It is no part of our business to speculate — to indulge in reveries of 
fancy, but when a business swells into a magnitude bordering upon the fabulous, 
it is sometimes difficult to bind oneself down to the sober realities of the past 
and to permit the data of former years to become the basis of future calculation. 
This is too often done, as in no country, not even in the comparatively devel- 
oped ones of Western Europe, is one year an index of another, and in a coun- 
try so new, so forming and so developing as these western states, is there or 
can there be a similar recurrence of facts, hence the inapplicability of produc- 
ing the events of the past, as evidence of what may be expected in the future; 
when population is increased, commercial requirements enlarged, and bi'oader, 
wider fields of consumption become dependent upon the productive ca])acities 
of the west for food, to supply the increasing wants of older states and coun- 
tries, whose population is compelled to relinquish agriculture, save of tb?- most 
valuable kind, to leave their homes in a countr}^ comparatively worn ciM, and 
to seek the means of life and of enjoyment in the mechanic arts, in science, 
in commerce and their associate avocations. Evidences of this constant change 
from the fields to the work-shops and the studio, are found in the steady growth 
of cities, the increase of manufactures, the more imposing importance of com- 
raerceand the greater number of colleges, seminaries and studios of arts, which 
are being erected to meet the constantly growing avidity of the people for 
knowledge, as a means of avoiding hardships, and to give the graceful charm 
of elegance and comfort to the ordinary duties of life. It is only a few years 
ago. when the provision trade of the west was located in the country cast of 
the Wabash river — then it amounted to less than 1,700,000 hogs; last year, 
within the so called "packing season," it was but little short of 5,000,000, and 
the great bulk of it was west of tlie Wabash, showing that its march is westward, 
and its great home, will be soon located west of the Mississippi — on the cheap 



158 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTDKB QREAT CITT. 



and productive lands of the west. In its new, and possibly permanent location, 
a point possessing such commanding advantages as St. Louis, for an exchange, 
via river and rail, between producers and consumers cannot be overlooked, 
and should be the grand depot for both sellers and buyers, and especially 
commends itself as the most desirable location in the west, for those seeking 
to avail of this great and growing trade, as the road to fortune. Our western 
packers, and especially those of St. Louis, though few in number, have fairly 
met the duty devolving upon them, have honorably accomplished a great work; 
but superhuman exertions cannot be accomplished by mere man, and they are 
excusable if in common with the interests of the country, they require aid, both 
men and money, to meet the revolution, the coup de main, the old fogy ideas of 
the world are to be changed — the new is to become feeders to the old, and the 
old manufactures and artisans for the new world. 

The following figures show the growth as well as indicate the present status 
of the packing business in this city : 

HOGS PACKED AT ST. LOUIS FOE NINESEASONS 



Ko. Hogs 
A'vnet W't 



1870-71, 



305,600 
216 



186!>-70. 



241,316 
190 50- 100 



1868-69. 



231,a37 
189 27-100 



1867-68. 



237,160 
193 91-100 



1866-67. 



186,'>-66. 



183,. 543 123,33.1 
222 34-100 '208 91-100 



1861-65. 



1863-64. 



191,890 244,600 
178 50-1001 179< 



1862-63. 



178,7.iO 
207 



1861-62. 



84,083 
224 50-100 



This department of business is one very much dependent on facilities for 
handling, and the means of easy communication with theS tatesand sections of 
country producing the stock. A few years must necessarily make St. Louis, 
the first packing point in the West, as she possesses all the material advantages 
requisite to secure that position. 

PACKING AT THE FIYE PEHSTCIPAL WESTEEN CITIES. 



St. Louis Jan. 21, 1871.... 264, 699 

Chicago " " 649,036 

Cincinnati " " 415,436 

Louisville " " 243,941 

Milwaukee •• " 163,000 

Total 1,738,113 



Jan. 21, 1870. . 



.221,222 
454,637 
318 160 
180,449 
130,000 

1,304,408 



Whole S«a8on, 1869-70. .. .241,526 
" " " 685,959 

" " " 337,330 

" " «« 180,449 

" «• •• 178,626 



1,617,600 



LTVB STOCK. 

The development of our "Western system of railroads has greatly expanded 
our stock market, and the proportions it must assume in the future, with the 
completion of the bridge, the opening of other railroad lines, and of agricul- 
tural wealth, of the rich and boundless country to the west of us, must be 
enormous. The receipts and exports for the year, and other figures of interest 
and importance will be found in the following tables: 



ISee next page,'] 



8T. L0DI8. THK FUTDBK QRBAT OITY. 



159 



LIVE STOCK. 



&ECSIPT8 Ain) SHIPMBNTa OP OATTLK, 8HBBP AND HOQS FOE 8EVKN YSARd 





BSCKIFT9. 


BHiPXKirrs. 




Cattle. 


Sheep. 


Hogs. 


Cattle. 


Sheep. 


Hogs. 


1871 


199,527 
201,422 
124,56.) 
115,352 

74,146 
10:5,259 

94,307 


118,899 
94,477 
96,626 
79,315 
62,974 
64,047 
52,133 


633,370 
310,8.50 
344,848 
301,560 
393,241 
217,6-22 
99,663 


103,018 
129,748 
69,867 
37,277 
26,799 
24,402 
46,712 


37, 4K) 
11,649< 
12,416. 

6,415 
19,022 
15,191 

8.680 


113,913 


1870 


17,156 


1869 


39,076 


1868 


16,277 


1867 


28,627 


1866 


13,368 


1865 


17,869 



KXPORTS FOR THE TEAS. 



BOCTTBS. 



By River 

8t. Louis, Alton and Chicago Railroad 
Indianapolis and St. Louis " 
6t. Lonid, Viind. and T. Haate " 
Ohio and Missiaaippi " 
Toledo, Wabaah and Western •' 
Other Routed 

Total Exports 



Cattle. 



6,543 

34,003 
20,989 
30,702 
11,501 
20,802 
5,478 



130,018 



Sheep. 



9,185 

2,161 

12,205 

7,425 

269 
5,860 

360 



37,465 



Hogs. 



10,08T 
1,978 
30,338 
10,260 
28,754 
31,303 
1,19» 



113,918 



DRY GOODS TRADE. 



The past year was satisfactory in its results in reference to this most import- 
ant department of trade — more so, indeed, than any since the close of the year. 
It was characterized by a steady shrinkage in values; but the business done, 
although accompanied by a reduction of profits, was conducted on sound prin- 
ciples, with no tendency to over-trading. While the operations of the year 
afford unmistakable evidence of a general expansion in the trade, correspond- 
ing to the increase observable in every department of our city's commerce, it 
is indeed an undeniable fact, that already our dry goods merchants sell to a 
larger territory than any other cit}'^ in the United States. Previous to the war 
the dry goods business ranged from $10,000,000, to $12,000,000, while now it 
aggregates $50,000,000. The aggregate wholesales of dry goods and fancy 
goods reaches $48,750,000, retail sales about $11,250,000. The retail sales of 
two of our houses reach over $1,000,000 each, annually, and four (including 
the two) about $500,000 each. The wholesale trade, heretofore confined to 
Main street, now indicates a decided movement toward Washington avenue and 
Fifth street, and the four magnificent stores now all but completed on the lat- 
ter thoroughfare, near St. Charles street, will be occupied this Fall by Main 
street houses, while other buildings in the same locality, for wholesale purposes, 
are in contemplation. The yearly increase in the dry goods trade of St. Jjoma 
cannot be less than 80 per cent. 



160 



ST. LOmS, THB FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



TH^ GROCERY TRADE. 

The grocery trade of St. Louis is fully representative of the best business 
enterprise and the soundest commercial principles. Our merchants import 
largely from all quarters, availing themselves of the fullest range of the 
trade. 

The following table gives a general glance at this important department 
of trade, during the past year. 

GROCEEIES. 

MONTHIiY RECEIPTS AND EXPORTS OF MOLASSES, C0Ff%E AND RICE FOR 1870 



MOLASSES. 



HKCK1PT8. 



MODthB. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Total 1871 

" 1870 

" 1869 

•• 1868 

•« 1807 

"' 1866 

" 1865 



Bbl8. 



1,164 

4,898 

2,452 

1,943 

1,319 

529 

459 

1,099 

580 

676 

1,091 

922 



17,132 
13,819 
26,468 
15,377 
8,565 
6,100 
10,090 



Half 

bbls. 



Kegs 



34 

261 

224 

25 

39 

1 



41 



11 

19 



635 

693 
1,991 
2,38-2 

473 
1,033 

998 



4 

62 

444 

1,276 

1,383 

28 

688 

138 

. 704 

300 

111 

100 



5,238 
5,221 
5,053 
4,189 
996 
761 
1,461 



IXPOBT8. 



Bbls. 



1,590 
2,a36 
4,215 
3,528 
3,743 
2,7.')7 
2,642 
2,385 
1,984 
2,146 
3,148 
2,185 



32,659 
21,754 
21,040 
15,338 
10,92.5 
9,582 
9,379 



Half 
bbls. 



1,037 

1,639 

2,767 

1,6S1 

2.661 

1,&S8 

1,89: 

1,138 

1,68 

1,.321 

1,435 

1,156 



20,197 
12,275 
9,6:54 
9,047 
7,728 
4,981 
2,130 



Kegs . 



1,578 
2,048 
4,544 
4,8.50 
4,065 
2,940 
2,499 
1,796 
1,9:^6 
1,793 
1,559 
1,546 

31,2(H 
21,361 
20,. 365 
17,596 
14,763 
11,132 
11,095 



COFFEE. 



RBCT3, 



BaM. 



14,444 

9,059 
13, 861 
16,609 
16,505 
12,711 

9,612 
25,. 5.50 
13,112 
17,392 
11,377 

8,S2<i 



Bags. 



169,058 
113,9.50 
135,491 
92,6tJ9 
98,617 
90,367 
60,106 



10,857 
11,095 
l.><,134 
15,870 
16,405 
13,981 
12,646 
12,580 
12,994 
12,672 
11,022 
11,474 



1.59,730 
113,621 
107,843 
91,015 
80,344 
&5,98.5 
50,963 



BICE. 



BECBIPTS. 



Sks. 



116 
49 
65 
484 
538 
617 
215 
181 
367 
175 
103 
152 



3,062 
1,298 
4,308 
5,284 
4,883 
3,977 
2,0;J5 



Bbls. 



332 
423 
252 
374 
176 
131 
312 
71 
69 
543 
272 
.5.53 



3,. 5.58 
5,1.50 
5,287 
3,736 
1,181 



KXPT. 



Pkgs. 



3a5 

1,028- 
1,754 
1,483 
2,002 
1,716 
1,378 
1,155 

940 
1,020 
1,066 

772 



15,148 

10,971 

10,304 

9,781 

7,. 560 

6,344 



MONTHLY RECEIPTS AND EXPORTS OP SUGAR FOR 1871. 



BBCEIPT8. 



MONTHS. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

.rune 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Total 1871 

" 1870 

" 1869 

" 1868 

" 1^67 

" 1866 

•• 1865 



HHDS. 



2,034 
5,444 
6,927 
4,816 
2,673 
3,174 
2,123 
2,714 
1,738 
818 
881 
2,190 



35,532 
23,289 
23,742 
16,628 
19,730 
14,686 
17,889 



BBLS. 



579 
563 
1,602 
1,378 
1,134 
1,901 
1,792 
4,257 
4,6:11 
5,760 
6,455 
1,301 



31,353 
10,. 597 
24,529 
15,973 
19,819 
12,119 
8,169 



BOXES. 



1,880 
7,829 
1,904 
4,167 
4,004 
847 
6,. 548 
2,614 
5.944 
2,313 



38,0.50 
50,2.55 
61,011 
44,196 
29,924 
43,607 
29,410 



BAGS. 



13 
35 



47 

114 

4<J9 

516 

2,142 

1,649 



EXFOBTS. 



HHDS. 



6-22 

819 

1,818 

1,264 

1,525 

664 

615 

423 

443 

260 

489 

545 



9,390 
5,160 
4,048 
3,374 
2,85.5 
1.985 
1,852 



BBLS. 



6,623 

7,.5.J6 

14,713 

14,8!»3 

12,808 

16,102 

13,i58 

13,000 

13,100 

9,452 

9,234 

7,806 



138,675 
93,243 
96,990 
80,203 
67,670 
57, M8 
53,069 



BAGS. 



222 

15 

1,174 

820 

1,199 

3,144 

3,1,54 

1,70!) 

604 

6 • 

6 

a 



10,0.55 
10,870 
21,125 
22,735 
24,849 
17,960 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITT. 



161 



To illustrate the extent of the business, we may say that there are in St. 
Louis, seven firms doing a business of about $1,000,000 each annually, and two 
or three whose operations reach about $2,000,000 each per annum. The 
wholesale trade of the present year will be fully twenty-five per cent, over 
that of last year, and total annual wholesale trade for the past year reached 
$34,350,000, and the retail sales about Sll,250,000, making the grand total an- 
nual sales $45,600,000. The wholesale merchants are now importing more 
heavily than during any previous year, and the expansion of the business- 
corresponds with that observable in the other departments of our commerco. 

It is impossible to speak of the grocery trade of St. Louis without adverting 
particularly to the Beleher Sugar Eefinery and establishment, which, in mag- 
nitude of operations and mercantile influence, is among the first of the kind 
in the country. The business which resulted in the establishment of the refin- 
ery was commenced in 1840, and by the persistent energy of Messrs. W. H. 
and Charles Belcher was steadily increased, and has now attained a colossal 
character reflecting credit upon our city. The buildings of the refinery cover 
nearly four squares. We have not space to enter into any detailed description 
of this establishment, but the extent of the business of the company is fairly- 
indicated by the following figures : 

Sales of refined sugar by Belcher's Sugar Eefining Company in the home 
market : 



Yeare. Poundfl. 

1856 13,700,000 

1857 11,800,000 

J858 12,900,000 

ia-i9 18,800,000 

1860 15,000,000 

18G1 9,500,000 

\mi 7,400,000 

1SG3 7,900,000 

1864 7,900,000 



Tears. Pounds. 

1865 13,100,000 

1866 17,300,000 

1867 17,300,000 

1868 18,300,000 

1869 22,400,000 

1870 25,500,000 

1871 29,100,000 

1872 32,800,000 



The amount of duty paid to the government by the refinery is shown as 
follows : 



Years Amounts. 

1865 $378,015 

1866 • 463,727 

1867 651,924 



. Years. Amounts. 

11868 $637,371 

1869 754,649 

1870 801,141 



The refined sugars and syrups made by this refinery, find a sale here and in 
the leading towns and districts west of St. Louis. Formerly it sold many 
goods to Chicago and Milwaukee and the upper Mississippi towns, but that 
trade has all gone to New York and other Atlantic cities. The growth of 
St. Louis and the country west of it, however, compensates for this loss. 

The following are the present directors and officers of the company: 

Directors — E. J. Lackland, D. A. January, James Smith, Carlos S. Greeley, 
Joseph C. Cabot, Geo. S. Drake^ Chas. Belcher. 

Officers — Chas. Belcher, president; Ed. Y. Ware, secretary. 



HARDWARE. 

The hardwai*e trade was largely increased in volume during 1869, and suf- 



162 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTUaE GREAT CITY. 



fered no falling off in 1870. The sales for 1870-2, show this department of 
trade to have a healthy growth, while there ai-e satisfactory evidences of a 
constant expansion. The value of production during the past year was nearly 
$3,125,000, and the amount invested in manufacture is ahout §1,000,000. The 
business of each of our more important houses shows a material increase over 
that of the preceding year. The annual sales of seven wholesales firms, for 
1871, are represented respectively by the following figures : $600,000, $150,000, 
$234,000, $100,000, $135,000, $400,000, $550,000. In a city destined to become 
famous in the working of metals, the hardware trade must necessarily assume 
a proportionate magnitude and importance to the growth of the city itself, and 
it is not unreasonable to assume thai, at no distant day, St. Louis will be the 
Sheffield of America. 

LUMBER. 

The receipts of all kinds of lumber during the year 1870 were as follows : 



Feet. 

White Pine 199, 569, 000 

Yellow eiae 80,350,000 

Toplar 3,775,000 

Walnut 3,679,000 

Oak 2,866,000 

Ash 467,000 



Feet. 

Cypress 70,000 

Shingles 1 10, 434,000 

Lath 27,514,000 

Pickets 1,210,000 

Logs 29,400,000 



The total number of feet of all kinds of lumber and logs on hand in St. 
Louis, January 1, 1871, was 119,882,265. The sales in 1870 exceeded those of 
1869, 53,110,000 feet of lumber, and the aggregate during the season is 229,- 
110,000, demonstrating an increase in the trade of 30 per cent. Alluding to 
the lumber i-esources of Missouri, Mr. Joseph Bogy, in a statement respecting 
the trade, published in the annual report of the Union Merchants' Exchange, 
speaks as follows : " This business in our State has not received the attention 
it deserves. The fine timber regions of the Gasconade, Washington, Madison, 
Iron, and other sections, have not been developed to any extent beyond their 
home demand and that of our own market. While a large business should be 
done, and capital attracted to these regions, we hope to see, by the exten- 
sion of new railroads, which will soon penetrate those sections of our State 
where timber is abundant, these causes obviated. It is a well-known fact that 
the pine regions of the North are fast giving out, and that we have reached 
that period whei-e the demand for lumber is increasing and supply diminishing, 
and, sooner or later, the yellow pine must take its place as a substitute foi, 
most of the white pine now used. 

The following figures show the receipts and shipments of lumber, logs, shin 
gles, etc., during the months named of the present year : 

RECEIFTS. 



JAX0AKY— White Pine 541, 000 

Shingles 3,158,000 

Yellow Pine Flooring, 435,000; Dimension, 77,000 412,000 

Poplar, 1jU,000; Oak, 200,000; Walnut, 145,000 495, (HVJ 

ReaC«dar, 1(^,000; Aj>h, 12,000; Hickory, 9,000 129,0«*i 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 163 

FiBEUABT— White Pine 2,016,000 

Shingles 4,665,000 

Yellow Pine Flooi-ing and Dimension 641,000 

Poplar, 358,000; Oak, 293,000: Walnut, 337.000 988,000 

Cedar, 185,000; Ash, 20,000; Hickory, 16,000 221,000 

Sycamore, 10,000; Maple, 5.000 15,000 

Walnut Logs, 100,000; Oak Logs, 100,000 - 200.000 

March— White Pine 6,231,000 

Shingles 3 , 919,000 

Lath 3,930,000 

Poplar, 764,000; Oak, 515,000; Walnut, 880,000 l,ft)0,000 

Tellow Pine Flooring and Dimension 1 , 147 , 000 

Red Cedar. 784,000; Ash, 47,000 831,000 

Oak Logs. 216,000; Walnut Logs, 350,000; Ash Logs, 50,000 610,000 

All other kinds of Lumber 7 . WW 

F ence POBtd 12, OOu 

April— White Pine 8,978, 00(i 

Yellow Pine ^ 1,573,000 

Shingles 9,658,000 

Lath 1,601,000 

Pickt?t3 . > ... . 20 OOo 

Oak, 272i7MJ Walnut, 'i69,66o;'PopiM l,19ti,'35(. 

Red Cedar, 165,000; Ash, 66,352 831,352 

Other Lumber 20,000 

Oak Logs, 389,000; Walnut Logs, 245,000; Cottonwood Logs, 247,000 881,000 

Mat— Total Logs and Lumber 42,667, 3«> 

Shingles 7,61)0,000 

Lath 3,000,000 

JcjiB— Total Logs and Lumber 30,575,00<* 

Shingles 9,075,000 

Lath 3,211,000 



Total Lumber sod Logs receiTcd, in feet 101,640,402 

" Shingles " 43,065,600 

•« Lath " 12,:i42,000 

" FenoePosta " 12,000 

The shipmenta were as follows : 

Jawuaby— White Pine and other Lumber S, 163, 00{< 

Shingles 3,270,000 

Lath.. l,100,00(v 

Fkbbuatit— White Pine and other Lumber • • • • 3, 5G6, 000 

Shingles 3,575,000 

Lath 1,620,000 

BIabch— Pine and other Lumber 7,904,000 

Shingles 9,608,000 

Lath 5,2.50,000 

A«ui,— All kinds Lumber 5,892,00li 

Shingles 10, 616 , 000 

Lath '. 3,798,000 

Mat— Lumber of all kinds 9,134,000 

Shingles 12, 

Lath 8,16.J,00f' 

Juke — Lumber of all kinds 10,661,000 

Shingles ll,8!!8.006 

Lath G.COi.OOO 

WOODEUr WARE. 

Of the manufacture of wooden ware, Mr. Sarau^ Cupples, of St. Louis, 
Sftands at the head. Mr. Gupples came from the East, when not advanced in 
years, and with that keen foresight, that has distinguished every man, who ha^ 
impressed himself, by bufliine«s and talent upon St. Louis, he started business 
in 1851, with a capital of $20,000, and now on account of the advantage in 
locality, and the superior management of the business, Mr. Cupples stands at 
the head of the largest establishment of the kind in the world. The special 
character of his trade is oak and ash cooperage, and the magnitude of it may 
be inferred from. the following facts: The annual business of this establish- 
ment is $1,500,000. Of the materials consumed annually in the manufacturing 
of wares and things, there are 5,000 cords of white oak, 225 tons of hoop and 
Wail iron, out of these are made 78,000 well-buckets and 86,000, five and tea 
gaUou kegs. 



164 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

For the manufacturing of paper bags, one and a half million pounds of 
manilla paper is used annually, and out of which 90,000,000 bags are made, 
also one-half a million pounds of a superior article is used for wrappings, 20,- 
000,000 pounds of manilla cordage is used annually, and 3,000,000 pounds of 
wrapping paper, for groceries. 250 hands are emplo3'ed, four-fifths of which 
are heads of families. 

This immense establishment does business from the Wabash to San Fran- 
cisco, and from St. Paul to Galveston. A branch of business, so great, cannot 
fail to contribute largely to the growth and importance of St. Louis, and Mr. 
Oupples bears testimony, that one of the most important reasons for his great 
success, is in the locality where he has conducted his business. He says that 
St. Louis is the best point, in the United States, for manufacturing industry. 
It has the advantage of the cheapest freights for collecting materials and dis- 
tributing goods, and what is true of Mr. Cupples' business, is also true of more 
than one dozen of the leading branches of the manufacturing industry of the 
country. A truth like this is of incalculable value to the future growth of St. 
Louis. 

JACOB TAMM A CO. 

The St. Louis wooden ware works, for the manufacturing of ware out of pine 
lumber, is an extensive establishment. The annual business amounts to 
$250,000. The class of wares consist of poles, tubs and churns. The annual 
consumption of lumber is 4,000,000. To run the business requires 150 hands. 

PATENT MEDICINE. 

One of the leading business interests of St. Louis, is that of Dr. J. H. Mc- 
Lean's patent medicine establishment, which, in point of trade, is second to no 
other in the United States. But a few years ago, the Doctor began with 
scarcely any capital. His business is now conducted on a capital stock of 
$150,000. His annual sales amount to $400,000. He manufactures five 
different medicines, as follows: — Dr. J. H. McLean's Strengthening Cordial, 
Dr. J. H. McLean's Volcanic Oil Liniment, Dr. J. H. McLean's Universal Pills, 
Dr. J. H. McLean's Candy Vermifuge, Di-. J. H. McLean's Chinoidine Sugar 
Pills. To conduct this business requires 8,000,000 almanacs jirinted annually, 
in different languages, 4,000,000 little pamphlets and 8,000 reams of paper. It 
requires fifteen traveling agents, and 35 hands in the medical establishment. 

TOBACCO. 

A general glance at the condition of the trade in this important article is ap- 
pended in the following tables : 



ST. L0TJI8, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

EEVIEW OF ST. LOUIS TOBACCO MAEKET. 

MONTHLY RECEIPTS OF HHDS. TOBACCO FOR PAST FIVE YEARS*. 



165 



YBAB. 


JAN. 


FEB. 


MAR. 


APRIL. 


MAY. 


JUNE. 


JULY. 


AUG. 


SEPT. 


OCT. 


NOV. 


DEC. 


TOTAL. 


1867 


35 

65 

123 

146 

126 


82 
148 
349 
394 
634 


4-27 

857 

641 

625 

1,068 


1,360 
1,449 
911 
1,226 
1,238 


1,719 
1,966 
1,420 
1,714 
1,524 


3,342 

3,170 
2,642 
2,815 
2,678 


3,712 
1,310 
1,307 
1.548 
3,568 


3,599 
1,489 
1,181 
1,449 
3,208 


2,734 

1,1.56 

717 

640 

1,349 


887 
351 
423 
323 

488 


437 

229 
220 
165 
427 


250 
76 
194 
148 
225 


18,584 


1868 

1869 


12.266 
10,128 


1870 

1871 


11,193 
16,533 



1871— Boxes and Packages of Leaf Tobacco 1.376 



MONTHLY EXPORTS OP HHDS. TOBACCO FOR PAST FIVE YEARS. 



TEAR. 


JAN. 

90 
72 

153 
69 

314 


FEB. 


MAR. 


APRIL. 


MAY. 


JUNK. 


JULY. 


AUG. 

2,469 


SEPT. 


OCT. 


NOV. 


DEC. 


TOTAL. 


1867 


182 
122 
99 
129 
152 


626 
418 
238 
233 
733 


636 

601 
683 
692 

598 


983 

1,381 

1,005 

91., 

707 


2,548 
1,399 
1,765 
1,513 
1,503 


3,183 

889 
1,130 
1,2.50 
2,743 


2,512 


1,6.50 
703 
637 
766 

586 


1,080 
62«i 
233 
413 
217 


309 
147 
216 
221 
102 


16,278 


1868 


1,125 1,413 
850 1,197 
8(J(I 6-43 

2,199 1,380 


8,894 


1869 

1870 

1871 '. . . . 


8,214 

7,642 

11,264 











Total sales at public auction, including reviews 7,261 hhds. 

Total reiectiono sold privately or shipped elsewhere 3,147 " ,„ ^^ ^^ . 

' 10,408 nnds. 

fitockonhand January 1st, 1870 403 hhds. 

Receipts during 1870 1U93 " ii,596hhd8. 

Kxports during 1870, direct 1.M3 hhds. 

'< " " from warehouses 4,230 " 

'< " " to adjacent manufacturing establishments 1,819 " 

City consumption ^5_3 " 1^,795 hhds. 

Stock on hand January Lst, 1871 801 bbds 



WOOL, HIDES, PELTRIES AND FURS. 

The table appended gives a compact view of trade operations in the articles 
above named, during the year 1870 and the five years preceding : 



T«AB. 



WOOL. 



KJIC'TS. 



1870 
1869 
1868 
1867 
1866 
1865 



Pkgs. 



13,486 
14,905 
17,7.56 
12,040 
9,206 
10,599 



kxp'ts 



Bales . 



17,882 
20,738 
18,530 
11,928 
8,557 
9,394 



HIDES. 


PELTRIES. 


FURS. 


KKCEIPTS. 


EXPORTS. 


rec'ts. 


kxp'ts. 


REC'TS. 


EXP'TS. 


Pes. 


Bdls. 


Pes. 


Bdls. 


Bdls. 


Bdls. 


Pkgs. 


Pkgs. 


120,739 
103,906 
150,245 
146,421 
160,470 
' 187,. 591 


37,425 
17,170 
lt),3f)2 
11,910 
6,981 
7,310 


.55,896 
66,173 
81,. 546 
85,291 
16.5,. 580 
267,119 


132,321 
81,048 
47,0*5 
45,113 
22,181 


12,903 
11,584 
11,278 
10,278 


4,238 
4,279 
4,042 
3,807 


2,923 
4,051 
6,536 
6,093 


3,612 

1,897 
4,992 
2,820 



166 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 
RECEIPTS OF HIGHWINES FOR SIXTEEN YEARS. 



Year. 


Barrels. 


Year. 


Barrels. 


Year. 


Barrels. 


1871 


21,. 505 
61,754 
.52,103 
23,419 
;}S,455 


1866 


58,1.57 
38,014 
50,407 
54,862 
70,374 


1861 


72,790 
102,356 
100,092 
122,295 
125,547 

95,821. 


Is70 : 


1865 


1860 


1869 


1.S64 


1S59 . 


18(>8 


186:3 


1858 


18C7 


1862 

1 


1857 




1856 



LEATHER MANUFACTURES. 

In liiiy, hh in various other manufacturing branches of this city, to fully de- 
lineate its character and magnitude it would be necessary to treat it far more 
in detail than is possible in this condensed commercial resume, and we can only 
present a few significant facts. From reliable statistics it appears that there 
is over §5,000,000 invested in the business, and that the annual sales rang© 
between §15,000,000 and 820,000,000, including, of course, all branches of the 
business. Indeed, if we include saddlery and the other departments which 
may correctly be comprised in the leather trade, the capital invested will 
reach nearly §8,000,000. There is no market in the United States where a. 
greater variety and better articles are placed at the disposal of buyers. 

COTTON. 

St. Louis is not at present as active or extensive a cotton market as it should 
be, but the obstructions to the development of the trade are transitory in 
character and the prospects for the future are decidedly encouraging. The 
establishment of the proper means of compressing, increase of storage facili- 
ties, and the perfecting of the railroad system south into the cotton-producing 
territory removed from river transportation, will unquestionably expand 
operations at this point. The cotton consumed by our manufacturers during 
the past year Avas : 

By St. Louis Cotton Factory 3,.'500 bales. 

By Brown, Marriott & Co 900 " 

By Win. B . Edg.ar 200 " 

By Brooks Bolton 95 " 

Total 4,495 balea- 

RECEIPTS AND STOCK OF COTTON FOR NINE YEArtS. 





1871. 


1870. 


1869. 


1868. 


1867. 


1866. 


1865. 


1864. 


1863. 


1862. 


Receipts 


41,572 
285 


11,372 

InO 


19,022 
40 


19,160 
1.4,50 


40,572 
2,917 


22,167 
9,. 5-25 


89,675 
322 


33,324 


26,920 


39 574 


Stock, Jan. 1st 








Total 


41,857 


11,472 


19,062 


20,610 4,{,489 


31,692 


90,007 


33,. 3-24 


26,92<i 


.•19,5;}4 



EXPORTS AND CONSUMPTION OP COTTON FOR SEVEN YEARS. 





1871. 


1870. 


1869. 


1S68. 


1867. 


1866. 


1865. 


ExDorts . ... 


35,782 

5,375 

700 


6,692 

4,495 

285 


15.419 

4,407 

100 


16,727 

3,843 

40 


39,. 5.50 
2,489 
1,4.50 


25,227 
1,710 
2,917 
1,838 


73,113 


City Consumption 

In Store Dec. 31st 

Unaccounted for 


1,500 
9,525 
5,869 


Total 


41,857 


11,472 


19,926 


29,610 


43,489 319,62 


90,007. 



ST. LODIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 107 

The amount of bagging manufactured during the year 1870 was 3,377,845 
yards. 

Receipts and Exports of Flax Tow for Two Years. 



RECEIPTS. 






EXPORTS. 




Articles. 


1870. 


1S69. 


Articles. 


1870. 1869.. 


ri.ax tow, b.ales 


16.399 


9,03.^ 


Flax tow, bales 


l,G3o' 73 



Meceipts and Exports of Rope and Cordage. 



RECEIPTS. 


EXPORTS. 


Articles. 


1870. 


1869. 


1868. 


Articles. 


1870. 


1809. 


Rope, coils 

Cordage 


93 
19,093 


50 
24,107 


630 
14,466 




40,001 


41,471 







Receipts of Hemp and Tow for Ticenty Yaars. 



Year. 



1670. . 
1863 . . 
1868.. 
1867.. 
1866.. 



Bales. 



1-2, 7lt; 
24,4:;f 
2.'),iilt9 
30,7.")0 
13,759 



Year. 



I860. 
18(>4. 
1863. 
186-2. 
I8(>1 . 



Bales. 



40,846 
64,078 
.Mi, 337 
78,317 
25,. 568 



Y'ear. 



1860 
1&59 
1858 
1&57 
1856 



Bales. 



68,673 
68,796 
81,423 
80,094 
53,7.37 



Ytar. 



1855.. 
1854. . 
1853.. 
18.52. . 
1851.. 



TJal'es. 



91,326 
69,G'.;9 
62.CP2 
48.819 
65,471 



MANUFACTURE OF COTTnX AND WOOLEN GOODS. 

A few facts in relation to the relative advantages of St. Louis, for the manu- 
facture of staple cotton anid woolen goods will be of interest. It is situated in 
the center of the great and inexhaustible coal region of the West, and our 
proximity to the cotton and woolen belt, and the cheap transit of the iMissis- 
sippi river and railways, insures an average price of two cents per pound less 
for middling cotton than at New York or Boston, thus enabling the manufac- 
turer to produce his goods in St. Louis at less than the Eastern mills can pro- 
duce them, and at an additional saving of a half cent per yard for the 
transportation of the manufactured product. Through the rare productiveness 
of our soil, we can prosperously support a larger population to the square mile 
than any other country in the world. Our destiny, therefore, as a manufac- 
turing center is a matter of ftict, and not a question of argument. We are to 
be the center of a manufacturing district in textile fabrics, which is to supply 
the wants of the Mississippi Valley, the Southwest, the Northwest and the 
Pacific Slope. 

In the manufiicture of staple goods, where the raw material and fuel are the 
leading items in the cost, a very small diiference in the cost of production 
turns the scale for or against any locality— thus, if the raw material can be 



168 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



converted into manufactured goods in one week at a profit of one per cent., it 
amounts to the enormous profit of fifty-two per cent, per annum. 

There are already established a large number of cotton mills in the Missis- 
sippi Valley, and three-fourths of all the sheetings sold in this market during 
the last year have been the production of these mills. The increase of woolen 
mills during the last five years, in the section of which St. Louis is the com- 
mercial center, is beyond parallel in the history of this country. There have 
been mistakes made in the excessive production of some kinds of goods, but 
the fact has been proven that we have the ability to produce such goods at less 
cost than Eastern mills. For the future the wool will be grown here and west 
of us, and can only reach the Atlantic seaboard under the heavy tax of double 
first-class freight for wool in the grease and dirt, equal to four or five cents 
per pound upon scoured wools. With these facts in view, it must be apparent 
that it is only a question of time when the great manufacturing interest of the 
United States will be in the Mississippi Valley, and St. Louis its center. 

THE ST. LOUIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The fecilities for Public education in St. Louis are of three kinds : (1) the 
public schools free to all. (2) The parochial or demominational private schools, 
sustained chiefly by the Catholic and German protestant, evangelical churches. 
(8) Private schools, established through individual or corporate enterprise. 
The growth of all these systems and particularly that of the free schools, may 
be seen, by comparing the statistics at the close of each decade for the past 
forty years. 



TSABS. 



1841. 



1851. 



1861. 



1871. 



Population of the City 

BnroUment in Public Schools 

Knrollment in Private Schools 

Per cent, of entire population at School. 



20,826 

360 

700 

5 



83, 459 

2,427 

2,300 

6 



163,783 

13,380 

7,800 

13 



325,000 

31,087 

17,500 

16 



During the past two years 1871 and 1872, the Catholic church has built a 
very large number of beautiful and commodious school houses, locating them 
in different parts of the city. 

The increase in the number of scholars enrolled from year to year in the 
public schools, is upwards of 3,000; and the Board of Public Schools builds an- 
nually, three or four first-class school houses, in order to accommodate the new 
comers. 

As far back as 1812, Congress passed an act donating certain vacant lands 
in the territory of Missouri, situated in or adjoining St. Louis, St. Charles and 
other settlements, for the support of schools in those towns and villages. In 
1824 and 1831, acts were passed amending and supplementing the provisions 
of 1812. The first charter creating a school Board in the city of St. Louis, was 
passed in 1833. For the previous sixteen years, a Board had existed for the 
control of the lands given by the general government for school purposes; 
this Board was a close corporation. The new corporation by its charter con- 
stitute the whole white population of the city ; its powers were vested in a 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 169 

Board of Directors, composed of " two members from each ward, elected by the 

qualified voters thereof, and to hold their office for the term of three years, and 

until their successors were duly elected and qualified." At the time of the 

formation of this Board, the steamboat interest had just begun to give a new 

impulse to the settlement of this cit}', and the population doubled in four years 

afterwards. Proceeding to rent the real estate then in their possession, in a 

i'ew years enough revenue was saved from i-ents to erect two brick buildings, 

costing about §3,000 each, and accommodating in the aggregate 350 pupils. 

The first of them was opened in April 1838. It was situated on the corner 

of Fourth and Spruce streets. 

In 1889 a lot was obtained for the "Benton school," and in January 1842 

the building now standing on the corner of Sixth and St. Charles streets, was 

opened for pupils. The cost of what was then so large a building, (upwards 

of S10,000) impoverished the Board, and a reaction took place. A tuition fee 

of $10 per annum, greatly crippled the growth of the schools until 1847. In 

1846, three more school houses were built and occupied, making in all six 

cheap school houses, established before the first city tax was levied for common 

schools. A tax of one mill on the dollar, of taxable property, was voted by a 

majority of five to one, in June, 1849. The revenue from real estate leases 

at that time amounted to $14,000 per annum, and the population was 70,000 and 

doubling once in six years. The first " mill tax" was collected in 1860, and 

yielded $18,432. 

Since that period the growth of the schools has been very rapid. In 1861, 

the schools suifered a serious drawback through the wi*r. A tuition fee was 

charged and 60 per cent, of the attendance on the schools was cut ofi" at once. 

The school fund arWing from the lands given by Congress, amounts to about 
$2,000,000. Adding to this the value of property in use for school purposes, 
we have a total of $3,500,000 permanent investment for the city schools, which 
are under the management of the Board. The Board has now the chartered 
power, to levy a tax not exceeding one half of one per cent, per annum, for 
school purposes. A fine education is offered to all the youth of the city, in all 
the branches required, from the lowest primary grades up to the finished educa- 
tix)n for the man of business. 

The schools number in all over fifty, including a central High school and 
four Branch High schools, one Normal school for the training of teachers, six 
schools for colored children and forty three district schools. In most of the 
schools, German is taught by competent teachers, so that pupils of German par- 
entage may attend the public schools, without the danger of losing their native 
tongue, while thej- acquire the English. 

A flourishing public school library, containing upwards of twenty-eight 
thousand volumes, is a novel feature in the system, but is a great practical suc- 
cess. Not merely the " how to study," but the " what to study " is to be taught 
in this school system. 

The result proves, that pupils join the library while in the schools, and con- 
tinue their membership with it after they leave ; thus lengthening their school 
life indefinitely. 



170 ST. LOUISj THE FCTURE GREAT CITY. 

A system of evening schools commences its sessions the firstof Oetoher, and 
lasts until spring, giving instruction four evenings each week, to all who are 
prevented from attending the day schools, by reason of employment in some 
useful branch of industry. Over 4,000 youth and adults of both sexes, were 
in attendance on these schools in the winter session of 1871-72. Free raem- 
bershi2:)S in the Public School Libi'ary, were given to the regular and industrious 
pupils. 

These details concerning the facilities for education, are of vital importance 
TO those who propose to immigrate to this city. Every parent feels it his 
duty in selecting his home, to consider as paramount the welfare of his child- 
ren. The wages that he cp,n earn are to be expended for food, clothing, shel- 
ter and culture for his family. The real gain from year to year that he 
can count from his care and anxiety and his mone}", all invested in his child- 
ren, must consist in their mental and moral improvement. At an expense of 
$200 to S500 j)er year apiece, for the necessaries of life, it must need seem a greafr 
matter, that this be utilized in the only possible way, to-wit : in intellectual 
culture. In no way can children be profitably employed, except in educating 
themselves for after life. 

A special object to be attained in a public school system, is the removal of 
class distinctions. Nowhere can this process go on so well, as in the school. 
Homogeneity of language, manners and customs, becomes the necessary result 
of a good system. A republic demands this. One class does not exist for the 
benefit of another ; but all for each and each for all, is the democratic prin- 
ciple. 

CHURCHES. 

As in education, so in the advantages for religious culture, St. Louis is well 
provided. 

The church edifices in reference to the denominational phases of religion, 
number of, as follows : 

Catholic 26, Lutheran 18, Methodist 16, Baptist 13, Presbyterian 13, Epis- 
copal 9, Congregational 4, Hebrew 3, Christian 3, Unitarian 2, Swedenbor- 
gian 2. The Mormons or Latter day saints, have two church organizations, 
but no edifice. There is also one organization of Spiritualists, and 103 Sun- 
day schools, in the city ; Steps are also taken to build a new church fcr Dr. 
Berkley, to be called St. Peters church. 

LIBRARIES. 

St, Louis is quite well supplied for a western city, with public libraries, as 
the facts show : 

Mertiantilc Library 40,300 Volumea. 

St. Louis University Library 24,000 " 

Polytech iiic Library 30,000 " 

Academy of Science 3,000 " 

Law Library, Court House 7,100 " 

Law, Polytechnic 900 " 

Law, Washin.icton University 1,000 " 

Washington Un iversity .'),500 ' • 

Oircalrtting Library. 27,000 " 

Sabbath Schools 25,000 " 

Other Law Libraries 15,000 ' 



THE PRESS OF ST. LOUIS. 

In presenting the present material growth of St. Louis, and the public in- 
terests, that go to make up its greatness, the press cannot be omitted, as it 
necessarily forms an important part, of the representative growth of the city, 
and reflects to a great degree, the mental and moral progress of its people. The 
order and character of the press of St. Louis, is therefore presented as follows: 

THE MISSOURI REPUBLICAN, 

ISSUED, DAILY, TRI-WKEKXX A2fD WEEKLY. 

The Missouri Republican is the oldest newspaper published in St. Louis, and 
the representative journal of the city and state, furnishing the best illustration of 
the spirit of progress which has given her press its high position. On the 12th 
of July, 1808, the first number of the Republican, and the first newspaper 
published in that section of the country now known as the State of Missouri, 
was issued in St. Louis. It was a diminutive sheet, measuring only twelve by 
fourteen inches, but was as well proportioned to the business of the town in 
that period, as its mammoth successor is to-day. Not quite four years had 
elapsed, since Spain had ceded the territory to the United States, and St. Louis 
was still nothing but an insignificant trading point containing about two hundred 
houses, built of hewn logs and rough stones, with little more than one thou- 
sand inhabitants. From that date to this, the Republican has been a faithful 
mirror of the advancement made by the city and the state, and the period of 
its being embraces all that is interesting in their growth. In fact, to write its 
history would bo but to write the history of the Mississippi Valley and the 
Great West. When first issued the paper was known as the Missouri Gazette, 
but in December 1809, the title was changed to Louisiana Gazette, and in 
July 1818, the old name was again assumed, but gave place in 1822, to that of 
Missouri Republican, by which it has been known ever since. At the time 
the lastchangd in its name was made, the Republican had, by two enlargements, 
attained the prodigious size of twenty by twenty-six inches. Until April 1833, 
it was published as a weekly paper, but then a semi-weekly edition was start- 
ed, and in September 30th, 1836, the first issue of the Daily was printed. 

Just as the history of the Republican, is a complete history of the territory 
in which it is published, so also in almost equal degree is it the history of the 
great art of printing. The press on which it was first woi-ked, was a primi- 
tive machine of western manufacture, in fact, the pioneer press of the west. 
It was a rude concern, of just the same kind as those used in the days of Frank- 
lin. The Republican was quick to avail itself of power presses after their 
invention, and by May 1849, had grown in size to twenty-eight by forty-eight 



172 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

inches, and possessed a large establishment fitted out with the best machinery 
to be had, when the great fire that month, which nearl}' destroyed the city, wiped 
the whole building and its contents out of existence in a night. But a single 
day's intermission occurred in the publication of the pajier, and new machinery 
was promptly obtained. Prosperity continued, and by 1853, the paper had at- 
tained the gigantic proportions of thirty-three by fifty-six inches, making it, 
with two exceptions, the largest paper in America. The Eepublican was then 
printed on a double-cylinder, and in March, 1859, by one of Hoe's rotary four- 
cylinder printing machines. To thiswas added, in 1764, an eightcylinder Hoe. 

In May 1870, the Republican was again visited by fire, and the whole estab- 
lishment was destroyed. But one day's issue was missed, however, and the pro- 
prietors with characteristic enterprise constructed in ten days, on the ruins of the 
burned building, a new structure, and on the seventh day after the fire the paper 
was restored to its former size. A new and elegant building was shortly after 
commenced, on Third and Chestnut streets, which it was intended should surpass 
any similar edifice in the country. This intention is more than realized by 
the magnificent iron front, fire-proof building in which the Republican is now 
housed. In beauty and elegance, and the perfection of all its appointments, it 
is equaled by no other newspaper establishment in the world. It is five 
stories in height and substantially as well as elegantly finished, and contains 
the most spacious and handsome composition room to be found in the country. 
Its editorial and counting rooms, are also in keeping with the general elegance 
of the building. It is, however, in the press rooms, that the vast advance 
made by the Republican, is most noticeable. In this department it stands in 
the lead of all the papers of the land, and is a long step ahead of even the 
great dailies of New York, and the other eastern cities. There are in its press 
rooms, a Hoe four-cylinder press, a Bullock press and a Walter press. This 
latter is the last great improvement made in printing machinery, and was in- 
vented and manufactured for the use of the London Times. It is the fastest 
press in existence, and presents the greatest economy of labor and expense 
with the highest maximum of speed. The machine has been in use but half a 
dozen years and only nine in all have been built, six of which are in the Lon- 
don Times office, tvvo in the Edinburgh Scotsman office, and one in the Repub- 
lican office. The Bullock is a similar machine in general character but an 
American patent and manufactured in Philadelphia. Altogether the Republi- 
can has press facilities to print about 37,000 perfected copies per hour, a fair 
indication of the extent of its- circulation. On the 27th of October, 1872, the 
Republican moved to its new quarters, and with the issue of that day the form 
was changed from a folio to a quarto. 

Wiih the introduction of these improved printing facilities, the Republican 
once more changed its form, appearing in the quarto shape, and is now one of 
the handsomest sheets published. In importance and general character it 
ranks with the great dailies of the country, by none of whom it is surpassed, 
and is popularly known as the great representative journal of the West. Its 
tone is high and dignified, and few newspapers, anywhere, enjoy such a wide- 
spread influence. In Missouri its power is undisputed and unrivaled, and to 



ST. LOUIS. THE FUTURE GREAT CTTT. 173 

only less extent, it has not unfrequentlj been felt throughout every state and 
territory of the Union. 

The polities of the Eei^ublican were originally those of the [N'ational Eepub- 
lieans. It supported Adams and Clay, and, with the friends of those states- 
men, hailed the organization in 1834 of the American Whig party, and was 
one of the ablest champions of Whig principles in the country. It, however, 
resisted the effort to make the Whig organization an engine of oppression, to- 
wards foreigners and Catholics, and when the American Know-Nothing party 
arose, the Eepublican refused to follow a large majority of its old political 
associates into the new party, but made vigorous and effective war upon its 
professions and claims. In 1856, the Eepublican threw its vast influence in 
behalf of James Buchanan, the Democratic candidate for President, and 
thenceforth it has upheld Democratic men and measures. It supported Doug- 
las, in 1860, and carried Missouri for him in spite of the efforts of the Federal 
Administration, Senator Green and a large number of the most influential 
politicians of the State. During the war, while opposing the radical measures 
of Mr. Lincoln's Administration, it steadily opposed secession and the disrup- 
tion of the Union. The Eepublican was the chief promoter of the celebrated 
" bolt" in the Eepublican party of Missouri, through which, and the passive at- 
titude of the Democracy, B. Gratz Brown was elected Governor over the Ead- 
ieal Eepublican nominee. It was also an early advocate of the adoption of the 
" passive policy," by the National Democracy, in the presidential election of 
1872, and opposed the nomination of a Democratic candidate, or any active 
part, by the Democracy, in the formation of the lines of the contest of that 
year. It claims entire independence of party control, but adheres to the con- 
servative and constitutional principles of the Democracy. 

The conspicuous ability with which the Eepublican has been conducted, 
throughout its lengthy existence, has gained for it an extensive circulation, and 
a national reputation, which renders unnecessary any eulogium upon its char- 
acter as a great journal. Its identification with and devotion to the best inter- 
ests of St. Louis and Missouri, have given it a circulation in the city and state, 
which has never been approached even by the most successful of its competi- 
tors; and at the same time have brought it an unusual large number of sub- 
scribers from other sections of the territory. This is a remarkable peculiarity 
of the Eepublican, and it is especially noticeable that there is no paper in the 
country, which has so large a number of readers outside of its own local terri- 
tory. There is no point of consequence in the United States in which the 
Eepublican is not received, and in fact, scarcely any city of importance in the 
whole world, visited by any number of Americans to which copies are not sent. 
It is regularly mailed to such remote countries as Japan, China, the East In- 
dies, Egypt, various points in Africa and Australia. 

As would be imagined, from its extensive circulation, the working force of 
the Eepublican is excelled by that of very few newspapers. It employs regu- 
larly about twenty editors and reporters and maintains a large corps of special 
correspondents, having representatives at all the chief capitals and news cen- 
tres of the world. The daily force in the composition room, numbers from 



174 ST. LOUIS, THE FIXTURE GREAT CITY. 

sixty to seventy men, and nearly an equal number are employed as carriers. 
There are altogether upon its pay roll, about two hundred and fifty men, the 
whole of this force being employed upon the newspaper, no job printing or 
other outside work being executed in the Eepublican establishment. 

The concern is conducted by a stock company known as George Knapp and 
Company, of which George Knapp, John Knapp and Henry G. Paschall are 
directors. 

THE ST. LOUIS DEMOCRAT. 

laSUBD DAILY, TRI-WEEKLT AUD WKEKLT. 

The St. Louis Democrat (late the Missouri Democrat) has a more than ordi- 
nai-ily interesting history. It has not only repeated the experiences incident 
to the founding and permanent establishment of all the large journals of the 
country, with which it takes rank, but its early life is so closely identified with 
the rise and growth of the Republican party in Missouri, that the story' of ita 
career is the history of that party. 

In 1845, the Free-soil doctrine which had, then for sometime, had a follow- 
ing in the free States began to be agitated in the slave State of Missouri. Ita 
advocates were very naturally in the minority but they were sufficiently 
numerous, it was thought, to justify the publication of a journal devoted to 
tiieir interest. The Barnburner was accordingly commenced by Mr. "Wm. 
McKee, as a campaign paper. It continued through the campaign but event- 
ually suspended publication. In 1850 Mr. McKee, in connection with Mr. 
Wm. Hill, began the publication of the Daily Sentinel in advocacy of the same 
doctrines, and with nearly the same subscription list that had supported tho 
Barnburner. A few years afterwards these gentlemen purchased the Union — 
an opposition journal — and merging the two together, formed the Missouri 
Democrat. This was in 1852, and from that time, until the present, the Dem- 
ocrat has been steadily growing in circulation and influence. The defence of 
free-soil principles was continued by the publishers of the Sentinel and the 
Union, and the founding of the Democrat only gave a fresh vigor to their 
work. The Democrat characterized the first year of its existence by a 
brilliant support of the nomination of Thomas Benton, for Congress. After 
the election of President Buchanan, whom it supported, it gradually adopted 
the faith of the tlien new Republican party, and at the time of the election of 
Ml". Lincoln, was one of its staunchest defenders. During the trying, early 
war days, and throughout the whole of the contest, it was a fearless defender 
of the government and was so strong and earnest in its course, that on several 
occasions its office was threatened with violence, from which it was protected 
by guards of United States troops. 

From the commencement of the enterprise, Hon. Fi-ancis P. Blair, Jr., 
held a proprietary interest in it, having at one time an equal share with Mr. 
McKee and Mr. Hill. In 1857, Mr. George W. Fishback, who, since 1854, had 
been the city and commercial editor of tlie Democrat, purchased a one-sixth 
interest, and Mr. Hill failing in health, retired. Hon. B. Grata Browa, about 



gT. LOUIS, THE FUTURE OREAT CITT. 176 

this time, also purchased an interest. This, however, he subsequently trans- 
ferred to Mr. Fiahback. Mi\ Dan'l M, Houser, in 1865, purchased one-sixth 
interest, and Mr. Blair then retired, as did also Mr. Brown. From this 
time the publishing firm was known as McKee, Fishback & Co. In 1872, Mr. 
Fishback, becoming dissatisfied with the management, made a proposition U* 
his associates, for their interest or sell them his. The matter was finally left 
to the courts by whom the establishment was sold, the bidding being restrict- 
ed to the proprietors. The paper was purchased by Mr. Fishback at $456,100, 
a sum which was considered large at the time, but which, considering the im- 
mense business the paper controls at present, is really very small. A stock 
company, with a capital of $500,000, was immediately formed. Mr. Fishback 
retained a controlling number of the shares, and the remainder were divided 
between Mr. W. P. Fishback and Mr. Otto H. Hassleman, formerly of the 
Indianapolis Journal, Mr. K. Holmer, Mr. J. B. M. Cullagh and other gentle- 
men connected with the editorial and business departments of the paper. 

The Democrat is a thirty-six column, folio paper, thirty-one and one-fourth 
by forty-five and a half inches in size, and issues daily, tri-weekly and weekly 
editions. Its circulation, which, its publishers claim, is not exceeded by that 
of any other journal of the West, extends over a vast area, both the daily and 
weekly going into thousands of towns and cities in all the States tributary to 
the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, while a large number of copies of both 
editions are taken abroad — principally in England and Germany — on account 
of its commercial news, to which special attention is given. Its publication 
facilities are of the amplest character, and its editorial and reportorial depart- 
ments, which are ably and well managed, comprise a force of seventeen care- 
fully selected caterers. Politically, the Democrat is Conservative Kepublican, 
being an unflinching advocate of sound Republican principles and an expo- 
nent of advanced thought and progressive politics. It is the chronicler of the 
current events at home and abroad which make up the world's history, and 
strives to fill, in all its departments, the poet's measure of 

' ' A map of busy life, 
Its fluctuatlona aud ita vaat concerns. " 

The job-printing department of the paper, it is claimed, is the most exten- 
sive, west of New York. It is the agent for the American Bank-Note com- 
pany, and specimens of its lithographing and engi-aving adorn the counters of 
nearly every banking institution in the Mississippi Valley. This establish- 
ment occupiee the whole of a large four-stoiy building ou the corner of 
Poiirth and Pine streets. 

THB ST. LOUIS GLOBE. 

The St. Louis Globe needs as little introduction to the great public, being as 
widely and as well known as the Republican, Democrat or the Times. Its pro- 
prietor, Messrs. McKee & D. M. Houser, built up tlie Missouri Democi-at which 
sold for nearly half a million ; and theability thus solidly attested, with the ex- 
perience so acquired, has made the Globe, in less thjfti five months, a pei'maaeiit 
infitatution of the Mississippi Valley. 



176 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

The Globe is of first-class size, a fair quarto, especially admired for its typo- 
graphical beauty, and claims to be unexcelled in the extent, variety or value of 
its news columns, or in the fullness and worth of any of its departments. It! 
first number was issued on the 18th of Jul}-, 1872, and by November, its editions 
had come up to seven, eight and nine thousand for the daily alone, and were 
steadily increasing in the dullest business season, while a leading rival was 
reducing its columns by four. The Globe is the only St. Louis daily, which 
furnishes its regular subscribers with seven issues, each entirely new, per week. 
It appears in a weekly and semi-weekl^', as well as in a daily form, and is read 
in hotel, saloon and car, as well as in the reading rooms and in the homes of 
the people, from Maine to California. 

The Globe's swift and unexpected success, is a new proof of the grand growth 
of St. Louis and the West in population, intelligence and wealth. It does not 
necessarily take from the thrift of any other journal which is conducted in a 
just and energetic manner. 

Politically, the Globe reflects the convictions of its proprietors, which using 
their own strong language are, " that in the prevalence or overthrow of Repub- 
can principles is wrapped up the thrift and glory or the ruin and disgrace of 
the American people." They respect those who candidly hold opposite views, 
yet oppose the latter with all the energy they can command. 

THE ST. LOUIS TIMES. 

It may be said of the St. Louis Times, without boastful n ess on the part of 
its publishers and without any departure from veracity, that its success as a 
newspaper, has had few, if any, parallels in this country; certainly none, when 
we consider the peculiar time and circumstances of its origin. 

A little more than a year after the war, the gentlemen who conceived the 
enterprise, entered upon their work with small capital, in the face of many 
difficulties, and with rich and powerful competitors, jealous perhaps of innova- 
tions, and already long established in this field of journalism. 

The first number of the new paper was issued on the 21sL of July, 1866, the 
counting office of the company' being in a small room scarcely larger than a 
printer's stand, at No. 317 1-2 Pine street, under DeBar's Opera House. Many 
and formidable were the embarrassments encountered, and many were the 
predictions that the project would soon fail for want of support; but the pub- 
lishers, Messrs. D. A. Mahony, Stilson Hutchins and John Hodnett, all orig- 
inally from Dubuque, Iowa, knew no such word as fail. They perceived 
that a vacancy existed at the time in our political journalism, and resolved to 
fill it. Through their persistent energy, the work was accomplished and the 
Times successfully established. 

On the 1st of July, 1867, the office was removed to No. 206 North Third 
street, where it has since remained. On the 6th of December of the same year 
Mr. Mahony withdrew from the paper and returned to Iowa. In September, 
1869, Maj. Henry Ewing of Nashville, Tennessee, purchased a third interest 
in the establishment, and on the 13th of July, 1872, Mr. Hutchins disposed of 



ST. LOUIS, THB PUTURB GREAT CITY. 177 

his interest to Maj. Ewing. The Times is now published by a company of 
which Maj. Ewing is President and Mr. Hodnett, secretary; and was never on 
a better or more promising business footing. It is published daily, weekly 
and tri-weekly, and besides a circulation in the city of St. Louis, comy)aring 
fiavorably with that of any of its contemporaries, has an outside subscription of 
many thousands, extending through Missouri and the surrounding States, and 
reaching far to the South and Southwest. 

In every department it is carefully edited, and thus acquires the character- 
istics of a vigorous originality throughout. Its news summaries are complete, 
yet concise, embracing important intelligence from all parts of the world. Its 
coiTespondence, both at home and abroad, is elaborate, entertaining, and contri- 
buted only by writers of reliable judgment and sterling accomplishments. Its 
local pages are full, accurate and attractive, as well as instructive. Its com- 
mercial columns are under the supervision of competent and well-posted men, 
and furnish an authentic reflex of the current business events of the day. 

It is, in short, a newspaper eminently suited to the times, as its name suggests, 
and is rapidl}'^ finding its way to every quarter of the country, A recognized 
exponent of Democratic principles, it is independent and fearless in their ex- 
pression, and with all other subjects of public interest pursues the same 
straightforward policy : having the fixed purpose to become the best as it is 
the cheapest paper in the West, 

WESTLICHE POST 

Is a German, daily morning paper, with weekly edition. It is published 
every morning, except Sunday, which is -supplied from the same office, with a 
large Sunday paper of sixteen pages, and called the Mississippi Blatter, The 
Post is an able paper, and republican in polities. 

ANZEIGER DES WESTENS. 

Is a German morning daily, with weekly and Sunday editions. It is demo- 
cratic in politics, and edited with great ability. 

MISSOURI STAATS ZEITUNG. 

Is a German morning daily, with weekly edition, and Sontags blatt. It is 
published by a pi'inting company, and is republican in politics. 

EVENING DISPATCH, 

The Evening Dispatch, is published every afternoon, except Sundays, and 
has a tri-weekl}- and weekly edition. It is democratic on politics. 

JOURNAL OF COMMERCE, 

The Journal of Commerce is published every afternoon except Sundays. 
It has a weekly edition, and is republican in politics. 



178 ST. LOUIS, TELB PUTURB GREAT OITT. 

INDUSTRIAL PRESS. 

The Industrial Press of St. Louis, comprises the following publications: 

1. Colman's Kural World, 2. Illustrated Journal of Agriculture, 3. Industrial 
Age, 4. Sower and Eeaper. 

RELIGIOUS PRESS. 

The following list comprises the religious press of the city : 1. Central 
Baptist, 3. Christian Advocate, 4. Cumberland Presbyterian, 5. Herald des 
Glaubens, 6. Old School Presbyterian, 7. Western Watchman, 8. Childreas' 
Advocate, 9. Lutheraner, 10. American Protestant, 11. American Sunday 
School Worker, 12. Church News, 13. Communist, 14. Ford's Christian Keposi- 
tory, 15. Sehre und Wehre, 16. Manford's Magazine. 

LITERARY PUBLICATIONS. 

As the growth and size of St. Louis have for many years afforded a field for 
almost every variety of intellectual efforts, several attempts have been made, 
from time to time, by different aspiring parties, to establish literary journals 
and magazines designed to occupy a certain field of interest and thought. But 
most of them have been short-lived, because of a want, in a great measure, of 
capacity and means to publish and edit them ; but in a still greater measure 
have such publications suffered for a want of a sufficiently appreciative and 
patronizing public to sustain them. The present number of literary pub- 
lications in St. Louis are the following : 

I. THE JOURNAL OF SPECULATIVE PHILOSOPHY. 

This Journal, edited and published by Prof. Wm. T.Harris, is devoted especi- 
ally to the discussions and intei-ests of speculative philosophy. As a publica- 
tion of ability and reputation, it stands alone in the country, occupying a field 
thus far peculiarly its own. It is a quarterly. 

II. SOUTHERN REVIEW. 

This is a large quarterly, edited by A. T. Bledsoe, LLC It is a publication 
noted for its high character and ability, and, like the Journal of Speculative 
Philosophy, is creditable to the literature of the country. 

III. THE INLAND MONTHLY MAGAZINE. 

The Inland Monthly was first published in March, 1872, by Mrs. Charlotte 
Smith, a lady of great force of character and marked ability. As ecKtress and 
proprietress, she has won for it a position and standing, unsurpassed by any 
magazine of equal age. The Inland aspires to occupy a field, not only literary, 
but is designed to stimulate and promote the ideas and interests of the Valley 
of the Mississippi. As such it deserves the highest consideration, as well as the 
most liberal patronage from the people of the West and South. 



8T. LOUIS, THE FUTURE QRKAT CITY. 179 

In the tone and style, of its original contributions, the Inland comparea 
favorably with the first magaziines of the country. It has the most talented 
corps of contributors of any magazine in the Valley of the Mississippi. 

IV. THE WESTERN. 

This is an educational monthly, edited and published by E. F. Hobart & Co. 
It is well printed, and owing to the special and important field it occupies, it is 
attaining high rank as an influential publication in the interests of western 
literature. 

V. THE CENTRAL MAGAZINE. 

This is a new monthly, recently started by Miss Mary Nolan, who is the 
editor and publisher. The character is somewhat miscellaneous, though 
essentially a Catholic publication, and while apparently not designed to oc- 
cupy any especial field of discussion, it commends itself more to the family, 
than to the scholar and the thinker. 

VI. THE ST. LOUIS MAGAZINE. 

This is a new publication, issued by Julia M. Purinton, editor and proprie- 
tor. It is neither pretentious nor masculine in its character. But it is rather 
more feminine than either the Inland or Central. Music, ladies' fashions and 
poetry rule its dominant features. 

VII. THE FREEMASON. 

This publication is issued monthly, and is entirely devoted to the interests 
of masonry. Mr. G. F. Gouley is its editor and publisher, and claims it to be 
the largest masonic paper in the world. 

MEDICAL AND SURGICAL JOURNAL. 

The Medical and Surgical Journal is a pi-ofessional publication, issued 
monthly and is edited and published by Wm. S. Edgar, M. D. and H, Z. Grill, 
M. D. It is a journal of good standing in the medical profession, which it is 
especially designed to subserve. 

MEDICAL ARCHIVES. 

This is a medical publication of character and ability. It is edited and 
published by J. C. Whitehill, M. D. » 

AT HOME. 

This is a monthly just issued. It is got up with , considerable mechanical 
taste, and its publishers, Conklin Bros., announce their purpose to make it a 
worthy literary journal. 



180 . BT. LOUIS, THE FUrURE GREAT CITY. 

THE LA SALLE. 

Still later has a new monthly made its appearance, with the above title. 
What rank it is to take in the literary field, must be determined in the future. 

THE TEMPERANCE MONTHLY. 

The Temperance Monthly, is another new comer, in the future great city, 
and with a commendable air of confidence, its publisher offers it to the piiblic 
on its merits. 

MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS. 

In addition to the foregoing statements, of the press of St. Louis, as far as 
it can well be classified, the following miscellaneous publications, belong to 
the sum total of the number. TheObscanskeListy, Price Current, Bail way 
Register, Sunday Morning, South St. Louis, Western Celt, a weekly paper 
devoted to the interests of the Irish people in America, and to all questions of 
general interest; Abend Schule, Fireside Visitor, Herald, Irving Union, 
American Journal of Education, Post OflSce Bulletin, Western Insurance 
IJeview. 



THE PUBLIC PARKS. 



The county of St. Louis is almost an Island, fronting to the cant about 
thirty-two miles, on the " Father of Waters," with the turbid Missouri on the 
north and west, and the beautiful Maremec, with its bright and crystal waters, 
bounding it on the south. Its soil is highly productive and a large body of 
land, " Florisant Valley." occupying an elevated plateau, and watered by a 
small stream, is unsurpassed in fertility, and in rare pastural and agricultui-al 
beauty, by any tract of equal extent on the continent. The charming diver- 
sity, which characterizes the surface, of St. Louis county, adorned as it is, by 
bill and dale, woodland and prairie, aided by the noblest and most majestic 



8T, L0DI8, THK FaTlTBE ORKAT Cl'lT. 181 

rivers of the earth, which almost encompass, and the smaller streams which 
beautify and irrigate it, would indeed fit the entire county for a Grand 
National Park. 

Mighty rivers are usually attended with vast ureas of botloni lands, but by 
far the greatest poi'tion of the riverfront, of St. Louis county, presents abrupt 
hills and rocky cliffs, giving extraordinary elevation to the general surface of 
its lands, and grand and imjjosing panoramic views from the surrounding rivers 
reaching the centre of the county, where an altitude is attained of about four 
hundred feet above the water level. A few miles below the city of St. Louis, 
■which with its river front of more than thirteen miles, presenting from the 
Illinois shore, a fine panorama, begin the palisades, which extend with in- 
creasing height and importance to the Grand Tower, a lone crag whose base 
is washed on every side by the Mississippi. 

The general contour of the surface of the county is p3a*amidal, its smaller 
streams, rising generally near its apex, and flowing to the difierent points of 
the compass, until they often reach, over the abrupt and rocky banks, the i*e- 
spective rivers. Notwithstanding the unusual beauty and fertility of its lands, 
it is sparsehy inhabited, and the tourist, unacquainted with the fact, will often 
fancy that the forest-capped hill, with its gentle slopes of lawn-like prairie is 
embellished with some stately villa or magnificent and aristocratic mansion. 
The delusion is only dispelled to be again and again renewed with each 
changing prospect. Here a genial climate develops, in rare luxuriance, all 
indigenous trees, plants, vines and flowers, and in no other soil do exotics 
flourish and bloom in greater perfection. 

With such surroundings, the tastes of the people have been easily and nat- 
urally led to the adornment of their noble city. A large number of public 
squares, spacious boulevards and extensive parks, comprising nearly two thou- 
sand three hundred acres, have been created and so well distributed and 
judiciously c@nnected and arranged, as to furnish a grand system; none of 
them too remote for full and free enjoyment to-day, yet ample in extent and 
suitable in location, when St. Louis shall have quadrupled her present popula- 
tion. 

Missouri Park, Hyde Park, Gravois Park, Jackson Place, Carr Place and 
Washington Square are all within the limits of the populated portion of the 
city, and although not yet decorated with much skill or expense, they have 
gi'een grass and growing trees, and will, when the population becomes dense, 
be to St. Louis, what Madison and Union Squares, City Hall Park and Wash- 
ington Parade grounds, are to the city of New York, the lungs of the city ; 
places of recreation and amusement where, on the sward, among lofty trees 
with their graceful verdure and grateful shade, the children of toil may at 
least be reminded of the more extended beauties of nature. 

LAFAYETTE PARK. 

Larger in extent, Lafayette park contains thirty acres. It is nearly square, 
is bounded by broad and imposing streets and surrounded by elegant dwell- 
ings in the midst of extensive and highly decorated grounds. 



382 ST. LOUIS, THE TUT ORE GREAT CITY. 

A few years since, its site was an open common, without treo oi' shrub ; now 
its dense shade, its mimic lake, water-falls and grottoes, its elegant and well 
constructed walks and paths, as well as its bright and numerous parterres, at- 
test the cultivated and artistic taste of its founders as well as the generous soil 
and beneficent climate which have, so speedily caused, the arid waste to blos- 
som as the rose. 

NORTHERN PARK- 

Occupying a prominent position on the bluffs and a commanding view of 
the extensive valley and waters of the Mississippi, the Northern Park, as its 
name indicates, lies in the northern portion of the city, and was the country 
seat of the late Col. John O'Fallon, who carefully, almost sacredly preserved 
its superb trees, which with its wide views and bold outline make it in truth a 
park. Already accessible by well traveled thoroughfares, these romantic and 
admirable grounds, containing one hundred and eighty acres, need only to be 
sufficiently penetrated with suitable drives and promenades to make it a 
charming resort. 

TOWER GROVE PARK. 

ShaVs Botanical Garden and Tower Grove Park, owe their existence to 
the beneficent design of a citizen of St. Louis^ who devotes a princely estate, 
the most enlarged experience, exquisite taste and almost all of his time to 
their development, care and embellishment. An extensive arboreum con- 
nected with the Botanical garden, makes the latter complete. Combined, they 
embrace about three hundred and thirty acres, and are the pride and highest 
source of gratification to the people of St. Louis. The garden and arboreum 
contain almost every plant, flower, shrub or tree, indigenous or exotic, and 
have excited the attention and commanded the admiration of all visitors of 
taste and love of the refined and beautiful. Lying in one group they are all 
to be a gift to the people of St. Louis for their perpetual use and enjoyment. 
The park has been recently improved and opened to the public, it is well set in 
grass and abundantly planted in rare trees, decidious and evergreen, e'er long 
to furnish abundant shade to its well constructed and delightful roadways. 
The Grand avenue entrance to the park is elegant and imposing, and many 
graceful pagoda-like summer-houses and other handsome buildings already 
adorn the grounds. 

LIN DELL PARK. 

In its course from Forest Park to Grand Avenue, Forest Park Boulevard enters 
into Lindell Park, where for three thousand feet, the Boulevard is widened to the 
unusual width of two hundred and twenty-six feet. Lindell Park contains 
sixty acres, and is elegantly and charmingly situated on the greater portion ot 
the only ridge, running east and west between Forest Park and tbe city. 
Crowned with trees of native growth, and embellished with great tast€ in ser- 



ST. lOUlB, THE FUTURE GREAT CITT. 1-83 

pentine drives and walks it commands a fine prospect north and 6outh, and "i 
the city. 

FOREST PARK. 

Immediately west of the centre of the city; in the direct line of its greatest 
growth and progress; in full view of many of the elegant mansions of the 
wealthiest citizens; to be made at once accessible, by four leading lines of 
street railroads and a narrow-gauge passenger steam railway; with the de- 
pots of the Missouri Pacific near its southern boundary ; with Lindell Bou- 
levard and Forest Park Boulevard each about two miles long, the former one 
hundred and ninety-four feet, and the latter one hundred and fifty feet wide, 
running from the Park in parallel lines directly towards the heart of fashion 
and business ; with four gi*and Boulevards bounding the Park on the north, 
south, east and west, the narrowest of which is one hundred and twenty feet; 
just four miles from the court house, lies Forest Park, the centre of the grand 
system of the beautiful Parks of St. Louis. As it is the central, so it is the 
largest, containing thirteen hundred and seventy-five acres. The Park bill 
provides for connections with the larger Parks, by grand Boulevards, and its 
approaches to the city have been secured by munificent contributions of the 
right of way. It lies within parallel lines, one mile in width and two in length. 
With as much natural beauty as distinguishes any other portion of St. Louis 
County, it is especially adapted, by rare and manifiold advantages, to the en- 
joyment and recreation of the denizens of a great city. 

Quite eleven hundred acres are still clothed with its primitive growth, the 
elm, linden, ash, tulip tree, sycamore, black, white, post and water oaks, the 
hackberry, gum and horse chestnut, the english and black walnut all of great 
size and in rich profusion, are the ]»rincipal trees of larger size; while in 
countless numbers among those of smaller growth, are the flowering and bloom- 
ing dogwood and redbud, making in their appropriate season the very forest 
a scene of beaut}'^ and enchantment. 

The wild grape vine of great bulk adds its charm, here and there, oy em- 
bracing in grotesque festoons chisters of smaller trees. 

The river Des Peres in its meandering runs through Forest Park a distance 
of six or seven miles, now through gentle valleys and slopes and, ever and anon 
skirting abrupt and precipitous bluffs ; with little cost and labor, its bed 
may be amplified into bright and extensive lakes. The soil is light, fertile, 
friable and admiral ly adapted to all of the requirements of a grand Park, and 
needs only to be exposed to sufficient light and free ventilation, to cover it 
with a fine and rich sward of the famous blue grass, which is its native growth. 

The surface of Forest Park, most of it wooded, wild and rugged, a part 
softened away into all of the graces of cultivation, presents eveiy feature for 
splendid adornment by landscape gardening, that the most enthusiastic lover of 
suburban scenery can desire. Its general level is more than one hundred and 
fifty feet above that of the rivers, while some points rise much higher, from 
which the city and surrounding country for many miles, presenting beauties 



1S4 ST. LOUIS, THK JfOTURE GREAT CITY. 

and attractions rarely combined, are in full view. It is strange, indeed, that 
this large body of land, now within the corporate limits of a great city, much 
of it in a state of nature; with its grand and majestic trees; its diversity of 
surface; its river and never failing springs; its incompariible surroundings ; 
its proximity and accessibility by easy upward grades from the central and al- 
ready fashionable part of the metropolis of the valley, should have been pre- 
served fi'om the rude hands of the Vandals which have laid low, near other 
cities, the monarchs of the woods, to be, at length, dedicated to the higher 
refinements of civilized life. 

When the great forests of the west shall have been recklessly or ruthlessly 
destroyed, the name of Forest Park, now beautiful and appropriate, will be- 
come significant and poetical. When art with its magic touch, shall have 
traced its paths, and arranged its lofty trees in fanciful and attractive groups ; 
transformed its rugged surface into beautiful slopes, terraced gardens, sheltered 
rambles, wide walks and capacious drives ; collected crystal waters in sylvan 
lakes with little dots of islands, surrounded and adorned with fountains, jet 
d'eaux, grottoes and cascades ; then will it become a vision of delight and en- 
chantment ; but its name will remain, to recall the sublime old forest, whose 
dark and sequestered wilds, the pioneer trod with awe if not with fear; and of 
the trials, dangers and hardships, which the founders of the great Metropolis 
have encountered and overcome. 

ST. LOUIS PARK OF FRUITS. 

With other works of magnitude, begun and in progress by the business men 
of St. Louis, is a great Park of Fruits, destined to extend over one thousand 
acres. From the annual address of its able originator and superintendent Mr. 
C. H. Haven, to the members of the Association, we take pleasure in extract- 
ing the following remarks, showing it to be in truth "the creation of the first 
park of the kind in the United States, of such an extent and usefulness, when 
comple'ted, as will make it a matter of pride as well as profit to all concerned 
in its formation. The originality of, as well as benefit derived from this work, 
consists in possessing, as we now do, in the cultivated grounds of our first or 
Missouri river division, and in determining to have, on the beautiful site of our 
second or Pacific Eailroad division, all the accessories of a park of flowers, 
such as avenues, drives, seats, etc., but distributed among fruits of every descrip- 
tion, instead ofjlowers, while such a park, through the invitations given by our 
members, will be visited by and attract men of capital, and valuable emigra- 
tion from all countries desirous of ascertaining, from actual observation, the 
worth and productiveness of the upland counties of our State, which form the 
neayest back-country to St. Louis for one hundred and fifty miles south and 
west of her; which counties should be the first to be settled, on account of 
the home trade it will give rise to, amounting to several millions of dollars 
annually, and which can never be diverted to any other point. 

Such a parU, we submit, will be of lasting benefit to St. Louis, while it will 
become the favorite resort of our members and their families forever when 



8T. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITT. 



185 



eeekiug bealth atid recreation, or when desirous of obtaining, fresh from our 
vines and fruit trees, their valuable products, or from our cellars the pure 
wines stored therein. 

At present the Park of Fruits contains 400 acres, and it is the purpose of 
the association to increase it to 1,000 acres. There are now 590 stock-holders 
or members of the association, and Mr. Haven is pushing on the improvements, 
with a zeal and enterprise commensurate with the undenaking, and worthy 
the support of all our citizens. 



NAME OF PARK. 


DIMENSIONS. 


AREA. 


DISTANCE AND DIKKOTION 
FROM COURT HOUSK. 


Carondelet Park 


600x2.30 feet. 

600x230 

600x600 ' ' 
1142x1142 

792x330 

.508x336 

372x305 ' ' 

300 feet in diameter. 

300 " 

300 " 
2320x300 feet . 

789x690 

1180x500 6-12 " 
1180x7458 

605x1060 ' ' 


3 17-lfJO acres. 

3 17-100 

8 2,52-1000 
29 956-1000 

6 

3 346-1000 

2 607-1000 " 

1 622-1000 

1 622-1000 < ' 

1 622-1000 
15 303-1000 ' ' 
11833-1000 
15 18-100 " 
276 76-100 " 
15 50-100 
180 
1376 75-100 


4 1-3 miles S S West 


Laclede Park 


3 3-5 miles S lS West 


Gravois Park 


3 1-2 miles Southwest 


Lafayette Park 

Wa^hinffton Square. 


1 l-2jniles Southwest. 
3-8 of a mile W. (7 block.*) . 
3-5 of a mile W. N. W. 
9-10 of a mile North wejit 


Missouri Park 

Carr Square 


Jackson Place 


1 2-3 miles Northwest 


Clinton Place 


1 2-8 miles No^^hwpflf: 


Marion Place 


1 2-3miloa Northwoflf. 


St. Louis Place 


2 miles Northwest 


Hyde Park 


2 1-2 miles N. N. West 


Exchange Square 


1 3-4 miles North 


Tower Grove Park 


3 1-2 miles Southwest 


Benton Park 


1 1-2 miles S.S West 


Northern Park 


a 1-4 miles N. N Weat 


Forest ark 


4 miles West. 








1952 69-100 acres. 





ST. LOUIS AGEICULTUKAL AND MECHANICAL ASSOCIATION. 

This Association, incorporated b}' special Act of the State of Missouri, held 
its first Annual Fair, in October, 1856. Fifty acres of land, lying on the west 
side of Grand avenue, northwestwardly from the center of the city, a portion 
of the tract within, but the larger jjart without the then city limits, were 
deemed sufficient for the future wants of the association. It has since been 
almost doubled in extent, and now barely accommodates its increased demands. 

Thesegrounds were originally embellished with fine trees of natural growth, 
and now handsomely inclosed and ornamented with shrubbery, flowers, rapa- 
cious drives, gravelled walks and a tiny lake, are highly attractive and beautiful. 
Added to these are buildings, costing nearly a quarter of a million of dollars, 
and admirably adapted to the wants of a grand exhibition of the agricultural 
and mechanical products of the mountains, plains and valleys of the great and 
growing west. 

The new Amphitheater is magnificent in its proportions and pleasing and 
ornamental in its architectural design. It will seat twenty-"five thousand per- 
sons and its ample promenades will accommodate nearly, if not quite, as many- 
more. The arena, for equine, bovine, ovine and porcine exhibition, occupies 
a circle within the vast amphitheater, with a circuit of a quarter of a mile, 
Thursday is the great exhibition day of the " Fair week," when the schools 
are closed and business in the city of all kinds suspended, and on that day ea- 



'* 



186 ST. L0U18, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

pecially, the amphitheater is filled to its utmost capacity and presents a spec- 
tacle unequaled in its kind, perhaps, in the world. During the four years of 
the war, no meetings were held, so that during the sixteen ycM'S of its exis- 
tence the association has had twelve exhibitions, each succeeding one surpass- 
ing in interest and attraction, its predecessor in proportion to the agricultural 
and mechanical development of the vast territory dependent on the imperial 
oity of the valley of the MississijDpi, until at the last Fair more than two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand persons visited it during the week, and one hun- 
dred thousand on a single day. The spacious Machinerj' and Mechanical Halls, 
the Cotton, Mineral and Geological Department, ihe Gallinarium, the stables 
for horses and mules and houses for cattle, hogs and sheep, furnish abundant 
accommodation, and are all upon a scale as liberal as the amphitheater itself. 

A grand exhibition hall, circular in form, with an open area in the center 
embellished with a fountain and myriads of flowers, affords abundant space 
for the display of works of art, foreign and domestic, textile fabrics, pomologi- 
cal specimens and the other rarer productions of the farmer and horticulturist. 

The buildings designed for the use of the officers of the association, for the 
newspaper press, the cottage of the superintendent and other structures are 
all highly ornate and beautiful. "When the buildings are filled with their ap- 
propriate subjects for display and use, and the splendid grounds with the 
eager, restless and surging throng of exhibitors and visitors, a scene is pre- 
sented of life and enjoyment, and of marvelous attraction and beauty. 

If the St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical association has had greater 
growth and prosperity, greater numbers of exhibitors and greater multitudes 
of visitors, grander and more imposing features, more vast and varied agricul- 
tural and mechanical products on exhibition, than any other association of a 
kindred nature in the Union, and if its progress has been uniformly upward 
and onward, it is a fair and legitimate deduction that St. Louis is the local 
point of the greatest agricultural and mechanical region of the United States. 

Apart from the natural beauty of the grounds ; the spacious, elegant and 
admirable arrangement of the buildings, the attractive, nay, enchanting allure- 
ments of the exhibition at which the higher works of art, natural or mechanical 
products, well-bred animals from every quarter of the globe apart ft-om the 
joyous re-union of friends, or the oppoi-tunities to form new business or fi*iendly 
associations, amid such rare scenes of beauty; the St. Louis Fair affords higher 
and more important advantages to the city, which gave it birth, and to the 
vast, growing and enormously productive territory, which finde in St. Louis 
its true center of trade commerce and civilization. 

Each exhibitor unconsciously teaches the multitudes, the design, use and ap- 
plication of each new invention, and although the lessons inculcated, may not 
be complete, they carry to their homes some ideas of the vast field of produc- 
tion and invention, and are elevated and enlightened in proportion to their 
acquirements and capacity. 

Besides the vast sums of money which are collected and distributed at every 
flair in St. Louis, "the influence of the Fair in the introduction of better stock, 
in bringing to the knowledge of the public, better farm implements, better 



t;T, LOmS, THE FUTBRE GREAT OITY. 187 

seeds, and belter modes of cultivation, in making one man's labor equal to that 
of half a dozen under the old regime, it greatly increases the quantity and 
quality of farm products, and adds to the value of real estate. In these var- 
ious ways the St. Louis Fair adds every year millions to the actual wealth of 
the western country, and its power of thus creating wealth will continue to 
increase from year to j'ear, as its influence extends to new communities and new 
neighborhoods." 

Twenty miles below the confluence of the two largest and most majestic 
rivers of .the continent, affording with their tributaries, more than 18,000 miles 
of steam navigation; at the central and natural point of exchange for the 
productions of the north and the south ; connected by railroad with a region 
embracing 2,500,000 square miles and rich beyond example in mineral, 
mechanical and agricultural resources ; within the corpoi*ate limits of a great 
city; is located the home of the St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Associa- 
tion, the most cherished institution of the people of St. Louis, and contributing 
more than any other single enterprise, to the development of her commerce, 
manufactures and civilization. 

Its popular name the " St. Louis Fair," has become a house hold word, and 
being held at that auspicious season, when nature has assumed her bravest 
livery ; after the bounteous earth has yielded up her richest harvests ; visitors 
flock in great multitudes in pursuit of pleasure, business or recreation to its 
extensive and well-appointed grounds, to indulge in the charms of social en- 
joyment, to examine the works of the marvelous industries of the age, or by 
comparison of the specimeniS of human labor and skill, to inform them of th» 
best means to supply their wants. 



WATEE AS AN IMPORTANT AUXILIARY TO THE GROWTH OF A 

GREAT CITY, AND THE ADVANTAGE POSSESSED BY 

ST. LOUIS FOR AN INEXHAUSTIBLE SUPPLY. 



A liberal supply of water has at all times been considered one of the chief 
necessities to the growth and prosperity of a large city. In many parts of 
Syria and Palestine large reservoirs and tanks were constructed in the past, 
which at the present time are the only resource for water during the dry 
season, and a failure of them involves drought and calamity. 

The most celebrated of the pools mentioned in Scripture are the pools of 
Solomon, about three miles southwest of Bethlehem, from which an aqueduct 
was carried which still supplies Jerusalem with water. These pools are said to 
be three in number, partly hewn out of the rock, and partly built with 
masonry, but all lined with cement. The largest of them is 582 feet long by 
207 feet wide and 50 feet deep. 

The Romans spared no expense to procure for their city an abundant supply 
of pure water. Their aqueducts, some of which are still in, operation, at one 
time carried to that city 350,000,000 gallons of water daily, or 290 gallons 
daily for each inhabitant. Some of these aqueducts had a length of from thirty 
to seventy miles, and in magnificence and costliness far surpassed the moat 
celebrated works of modern orisrin. 

The aarliest and most liberal provisions for a water supply on our own 
continent were made by the cities of Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, and 
to this must be ascribed in a great measure, the rapid growth of these cities. In 
1860 the amount of water supplied daily to each inhabitant of these cities 
averaged ninety-seven gallons in Boston, fiftj^-two gallons in New York, and 
thirtj'-six gallons in Philadelphia. The works in these cities when designed, 
seemed to be of sufficient capacity to furnish a supply for many years, but their 
growth has been so rapid that the}' already feel the necessity of husbanding 
their resources, and of taking measures to extend their works so as to be 
enabled to meet the increased and increasing consumption. In fact, during the 
severe drought of last year a scai'city of water was experienced in each of 
these cities, owing to the inadequacy of their sources of supply. 

The great advantage possessed by St. Louis in this respect, consists in the 
fact that its source of supply is inexhaustible. The Mississippi in time of an 
ordinary stage carries past the city about 1,500,000 gallons of water per second, 
or enough in six seconds to supply the present necessities of its inhabitants for 
a whole day. It is not only abundant, but is one of the most wholesome 
waters known. It is true that in time of high water it contains a large per- 
centage of sedimentary matter, brought down by the swift current of the 
Missouri river, but of this it is easily freed by settling and filtering. And it la 



8T. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITT. 189 

■worthy of mention here that the old inhabitants of our city are so far from 
being averse to this admixture of sedimentary matter, that they almost regret 
that the new works now in course of construction will furnish them settled or 
clear water. 

The first waterworks in St. Louis consisted of a reservoir on the Big Mound, 
supplied by a small engine from the Mississippi river. It was constructed in 
1829-30, and designed to contain 300,000 gallons. The city of St. Louis then 
numbered 5,852 inhabitants. In 1850, the population being then 77,860, a 
larger reservoir was completed, holding about 8,000,000 gallons. This reser- 
voir has also been out of use for many years. The reservoir by which the city 
is now supplied was finished in 1855, when the city contained 125,000 inhabit- 
ants. The water is pumped into it by three pumps located at the foot of Bates 
street, and having a total capacity of about 11,000,000 gallons per day. One 
of these pumps was procured by the present Board of Water Commission- 
ers in 1868, tlie other two not having sufficient capacity to supply the city 
beyond a contingency. Previous to the year 1860 it had become apparent that 
the existing works would soon be insufficient to supply the city. In fact, the 
area of the city had been extended so much, and in the direction of grounds 
60 much higher than the reservoir, that a large portion of the territory 
included within the new limits could not be supplied. The question of new 
and more extended works was agitated for several years, but without any 
result, until the Governor of the State, under a law passed in January, 1865, 
appointed a Board of Water Commissioners. These gentlemen appointed Mr. 
James P. Kirkwood, the acknowledged head of hydraulic engineers in the 
United States, since his completion of the Brooklyn waterworks, their Chief 
Engineer. 

In October, 1865, Mr. Kirkwood submitted several plans of works to the 
Commissioners. The one adopted by them was subsequently rejected by the 
Common Council, to whom, according to the then existing law, belonged the 
final decision of the matter. The members of the Board of Water Commis- 
sioners resigned, and a new Board appointed by the Governor, having retained 
Mr. Kirkwood's services, submitted new plans to the Common Council for 
approval, after Mr. Kirkwood had modified his former plans so as to bring 
them in accordance with the expressed opinion of the Council. There seeming 
to be but little hope that the conflicting opinions of the membei's of our City 
Council would ever admit of their approving any plan, a new law was passed 
by the Legislature which placed the whole matter in the hands of a commission 
of three members, and authorized them to apply the proceeds of three and a 
half million of bonds, to be issued by the city, to the eonstiniction of the works. 
The new Board appointed as their Chief Engineer Mr. Thomas J. Whitman, an 
engineer of long experience in hydraulic works. Mi*. Kirkwood had declined 
to accept the position again, but consented to act as consulting engineer. 

The plan of their predecessors, with some slight alterations, was adopted 
by the new Board, and after acquiring the necessary land they proceeded at 
once with the construction of the works. A brief description of these works. 



190 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

which 80 readily furnish tho city with an abundance of pure and wholesome 
water, is given below : 

The water is taken from the Mississippi river, at what is called Bissell's 
Point, close to the northern boundary of the city. It first enters an iron tower, 
80 feet high, sunk to the rock, and provided with gates at different heights, so 
that the water may be taken at any desired depth below the surface. In this 
tower are several strainers and screens to free the water from foreign matter 
before entering the pump-well. From this tower a pipe of 5)4 foet interior 
diameter and 300 feet in length, conducts the water to the pumping engines, 
that are to lift it into the settling reservoirs. These engines are two in numbei', 
and are duplicate engines of the Cornish-bull class — steam cylinder 64 inches ^, 
diameter, 12 feet stroke, and plunger 54 inches in diameter and 12 feet stroke, 
each of a capacity to pump 17,000,000 gallons in twenty-four hours. The 
foundations for these engines are of the most substantial character, and to pro- 
vide for the rapidly increasing demand, have been constructed large enough to 
hold three engines, although one engine, working half time, could supply the 
present average demand of the city. To free the water from the sedimentary 
matter, or to settle it, particularly at seasons of high water, four settling 
reservoirs^ each 240 by 660 feet, and averaging in depth about 20 feet, have 
been constructed close to the river bank. The water pumped by the low- 
service engines is, by an appropriate set of gates, admitted at will into either 
of these four reservoirs ; there it is left at perfect rest for twenty-four hours, 
during which time, according to experiments made on the subject, about 
nineteen-twentieths of the sedimentary matter falls to the bottom. During 
the next day the water is drawn off by a system of gates so arranged as not to 
stir up the sediment, and allow the water to discharge at all times near its 
surface ; the last three or four feet of water is not drawn off, but on the fourth 
day is allowed to run out into the river through proper sluice-gates, taking 
with it most of the sediment, while the remainder is washed out with the aid 
of an engine, and the reservoir is then ready for a new supply. Thus, each of 
the four reservoirs passes through the cycle of operation during four days. 
The water, after leaving the settling reservoirs, runs by gravity through a 
covered conduit about one-half mile long, into a small reservoir near the high- 
service engines, called the clear-water well, and from it through a short con- 
duit to the high-service engines. These are twO in number, with steam cylinders 
of 85 inches diameter and ten feet stroke, and pump cylinders 50 inches diame- 
ter and the same stroke. To give an idea of the size of these engines, we will 
state that the walking beam of each engine alone weighs 32 tons, and the fly- 
wheel 36 tons; in fact there are only one or two engines in existence that have 
a larger capacity than these, each of which must be able, according to contract, 
to raise sixteen and a half million gallons to a height of 270 feet within twenty- 
four hours. These engines were built by the Knapp Fort Pitt Foundry Com- 
pany, at Pittsburg, Penn. They pump through a force main five miles in 
length, and of 36 and 30 inches diameter, into the storage reservoir on Comp- 
ton Hill. To relieve the engines and force main from any concussion, a stand 



8T. LOniS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITT. 191 

pipe is now in process of construction, wiiich, when completed, will have a 
height of 242 feet above the ordinary high-water level of the river. It is about 
one-half mile from tho high-service engines, and will, from its summit, present 
a view of the whole city, and of the river for many miles in its course. Before 
reaching the storage reservoir, two pipes of 20-inch diameter, branch off into 
the city and connect it with the present system of distribution, while a third 
feeder of the same size starts from the storage reservoir so as to secure con- 
tinual motion, and thereby prevent the water from becoming foul. 

The storage reservoir covers about seventeen acres of land, and is built near 
the city boundary, at the most elevated point within its limits. The elevation 
of its water surface will be twenty-six feet above the highest street grade, and 
will be ample to supply the upper story of every house in the city. Wo must 
not omit to mention in this connection, that the greatest portion of the 8,000 
tons of large pipe needed in the construction of these works, has been cast in 
this city by the enterprising firm of Shickle, Harrison & Howard. 

Having briefly described the works which supply this great city with water, 
it now remains to consider the quality of the water upon which her citizens 
subsist from day to day. The Mississippi river is not only the source of the 
prosperity of our city, more than any other agency, but as it supplies the water 
necessary for the inhabitants, and consumed in the various industrial processes, 
it is the perennial and essential fountain of individual and commercial life. 
The discolored appearance of the water, as ordinarily taken from the river, 
very, naturally creates the impression that its use must be prejudicial to health, 
although even a stranger must admit its peculiar sweetness and purity of taste. 
The fact, hovvever, is now fully demonstrated, alike by practical experience and 
scientific analysis, that this water is excellently adapted for human use, and 
that, in mingling its yellow flood with the Mississippi, the Missouri has in no 
wise deteriorated, but rather improved the quality and wholesomeness of the 
original stream. Contrary to the popular idea upon the subject, clearness in 
river water forms rather an objection than a recommendation for its general 
use. The Wabash and Illinois rivers are clear, but the water is inferior in 
quality to that of the Missouri, and the people living on the Meramec bottom 
do not U8«.! the water of that river, although clear, but supply their wants from 
other sources. Among sailors, the water obtained from the river at New Or- 
leans is in high repute, and they say that it, and the water of the Nile are the 
best in the world for long sea voyages, keeping fresh and sweet during periods 
when that obtained from other sources is almost unfit for use. One reason as- 
signed for the preservative qualities is, that the Missouri river water, flowing 
down from the snow mountains, is too cold for animalcule to live in it, and 
being free from vegetable matter, and with a current so swift that stagnation is 
impossible, and rarely overflowing the banks except in high floods, there is 
nothing mingling in it that can contaminate, while the confluence of the various 
tributaries only increases the admixture of sand and alluvial without adding 
any elements calculated to deteriorate. The Missouri and Mississippi water is, 
consequently, excellently adapted for human use, while the attraotiveness of 



192 ST. LOUIB, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

perfect clarity can be secured by the cheap and eiraple process of letting the 
sediment settle before use, so that this one objection is easily removed. Nearly 
every person who has once become accustomed to the use of our river water 
prefers it to any other on account of its constant sweetness and freshness of 
taste, and even in the country, the people living on the Missouri river prefer the 
river water for drinking to that which they can obtain elsewhere. It is said 
of Col. Benton, when in Congress, that he had his drinking water at one time 
shipped from St. Louis to Washington. The superior quality of this water has 
been frequently tested, and our fellow-citizen, Mr. Easterly, daguerrean artist, 
whose business demands the purest water, has bestowed some careful labor on 
the subject with very satisfactory results. We present the following interest- 
ing statements prepared by that gentlemen for publication more than two 
years ago : 

"Allow me, as a party interested, to call attention to a few facts that have 
come under my ovvn observation in relation to the much abused water of the 
Mississippi. In the winter of 1844, I made the trip by sea from New York to 
New Orleans, on the packet ship Mississippi. Our commander was Capt. 
Hillard, who was saved from the burning steamer Lexington, on Long Island 
Sound, b}" lashing himself to a bale of cotton. He was a man noted for cool- 
ness in danger, and strictly ti'uthful on all subjects. The captain assured me 
that the water we were drinking was taken on board the ship at New Orleans, 
had made the trip from there to Liverpool with a cargo of cotton, from Liver- 
pool to New York, and was then on its way back to New Orleans. He said that 
they had taken water on board at Brooklyn, New York, but that it was not so 
good. He also told me that the Mississippi water would keep longer at sea 
ihan any water known to seafaring men, and next in quality was the water 
obtained at Brookl3'n. In a later conversation with the mate, he confirmed all 
that the captain had said on the subject. We used ice ini the water most of the 
time, and I confess that to my taste it was as pure as the water from my native 
hills in Vermont. 

" Capt. Hillard's statement induced me to further in vef^ti gate the subject, and 
in the summer of 1847, by way of experiment, I filled a five-gallon stone jar 
from the hydrant, and placed it in a small hall-room in the fourth story of 
Glasgow's row, then over the Mercantile Library Hall. The room was closed 
for two and a half months from the first of June, and the hot sun poured in at 
the east window at will. At the end of this period, the water was found on 
examination, to be perfectly clear and pure to the taste, except that it was 
warm. I drank of it freely and frequently, and no bad result followed. 

" On the 20th of June, 1850, I started on a pleasure trip to the Fallsj of St. 
Anthony, on the steamer Anthony Wayne, the first steamer that ever made a 
landing at the Falls. Between St. Louis and the mouth of the Missouri river I 
filled a five-gallon demijohn with water from the current of the river, placed it 
on the upper deck of the steamer, where it would be most exposed to the 
weather and hot sun, in which condition it remained until we again reached St. 
Looie, which was fifteen days from the time of starting. I then subjected it to 



8T. LOUIS, THB FUTURE GREAT CITY. 193 

the weather and sun as much as possible until the middle of November. I 
then bottled a portion of it, and have it now, subject to the inspection of the 
scientific and curious. It is now nearly seventeen years old, clear, pure and 
sweet to the taste, and has never undergone the process of fermentation which 
some believe necessary to the purification of water. I Avill here state tliut the 
sand was alloAved to settle of itself without the aid of any of the articles some- 
times used for clearing the water, all of which will cause it to taint, except 
alum. 

"In. 1866, I used a saturated solution of alum in the proportion of one fluid 
ounce to eight gallons of water, and, on applying our test for daguerreotype 
uses, found the water sufiiciently pure for aW practical purposes; and to finish 
a daguerreotype on silver plate, we must have pure water, especially- for remov- 
ing the gilding solution, which is the last washing. The test (well known to 
every chemist and druggist in the country), is a few grains of nitrate of silver, 
in a small quantity of water, and if pure no change is perceptible, but if impure 
the water will change color or turn milky. Let the water settle without the 
aid of alum, and the nitrate of silver will change the color to a milky appear- 
ance on account of the lime in the water, but with the alum in proper quantity, 
no perceptible change takes place — a proof that the water is pure, or as nearly 
so as water can be when exposed to the atmosphere. We now use it for chem- 
ical purposes where we once thought distilled water indispensable. 

" It is a well-known fact that all, or nearly all of the spring and well water 
in the West will taint by standing twenty-four hours in a bucket or pitcher, 
while the Mississippi water will get warm, but remain sweet to the taste for 
days and months, in a clean vessel." 

The most recent analysis of our river water, is that made by Dr. Theodore 
Fay, chemist of the Board of Water Commissioners, which is given in the 
following lorm, exhibiting the comparative quality of the water obtained ft-om 
the old and new reservoirs : 

WATEK DBAWN FBOM HYDRANT (OLD SUPFLY) . 

Solid matter separated by filter 232 grains per gallou. 

Hardness 7.05 

OAydizable organic matter 504 grains per gallon. 

Carbonate of lime 5.00 " " 

SETTLEJJ WATSa DRAWN FBOM HYDBANT (.VEW 8DPPLY). 

Hardness 8.75 

Oxy<iizable organic matter 784 grains per gallon. 

Cuibonate of lime 7.17 " 

Anlmalcula in considcrabl e number. 

JJ>r. Fay, in connection with the above, makes the following explanation : 
" The above statement in regard to the difference in organic matter and hard- 
ness is hardly a fair test, on account of the excess of time that the water re- 
mained exposed to the sun, and solution of a portion of the lime used in the 
construction of the reservoirs and culverts, in which many thousands of bushels 
have been used. It is my opinion that we will have as good water fi-om tii© 

/• 



194 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



Mississippi as any in the United States when the clay and sand are removed." 
In view of these considerations, and others which they suggest, the question 
of the water supply for St. Louis is finally and satisfactorily settled. In this, 
as in other essential elements, Nature has prophetically provided for the great 
destiny of our city. 

HEALTIIFULNESS OP ST. LOUIS. 

The statistics recently presented in the able rejiort of Dr. Wm. L. Barrett, 
Health Officer, fully demonstrate the healthfulness of St. Louis as a place of 
residence. The following official table shows conclusively that the death-rate 
here is below that of any of the important cities of the country. 



PRINCIPAL CITIES. 



New York.... 
Philadelphia.. 

St. Louis 

Chicago 

Baltimore 

Boston 

New Orleans. 
San Francisco 



Population, 

United States Census, 

1870. 



927,436 
657,179 
312,963 
299,370 
267,599 
253,984 
184,688 
150,361 



Deaths in 1870. 



27,175 
16,750 
6,670 
7,342 
7,262 
6,096 
6,942 
3,351 



Ratio of Deaths 

per luOO 
of Population. 



29.3 
25.5 
21.3 
24.5 
27.1 
24.0 
37.6 
22.3 



The following official tables also contain some interesting statistics respecting 
population and mortality, etc. 

Table showing the Population^ Mortality and percentage of same hy Wards ; 
the Area, Sewerage and Population according to the number of Acres in 
each Ward. 



Wauds. 



first 

><ci'ond . . 

Thiid.. . 

Fmirth. . . 

Fifth .... 

Sixth 

."seventh.. 

Kiu'hth... 

Ninth..., 

Tenth 

hleveuth 

Twelfth.. 

Total. 



NUiAIBKR OF DEATHS DURING 



39 
48 
50 
4.3 
46 
43 
47 
48 
53 
49 
41 
40 



547 



44 
52 
37 
36 
34 
31 
41 
42 
46 
49 
36 
29 



477 



44 
50 
44 
39 
38 
36 
42 
35 
53 
4'i 
35 
30 



488 



40 
43 
39 
34 
35 
31 
.36 
36 
48 
47 
38 
29 



456 



34 
31 

40 
29 
29 
31 
38 
42 
46 
48 
34 
27 



429 



49 
46 
.50 
48 
39 
45 
48 
54 
64 
63 
49 
41 



591 



86 
07 
86 
60 
67 
61 
60 
61 
67 
82 
05 
63 



848 



61 
51 
46 
45 
48 
46 
53 
67 
75 
64 
47 
43 



646 



60 
5H 
50 
48 
50 
45 
51 
53 
55 
58 
44 
38 



610 



48 

51 

51 

54 

5' 

53 

51 

52 

53 

45 

48 

51 



615 



37 
40 
42 
34 
44 
33 
38 
40 
39 
48 
32 
37 



464 



35 
41 
43 
47 
41 
.39 
47 
41 
39 
35 
41 
43 



o 



540 
578 
.577 
517 
528 
494 
562 
581 
648 
641 
531 
473 



494 6,670 





<u . 


en 


Ol 

P. 


a 

O 


*.^ 




a - 1 


1 

o 


C a! 

S3S 


p 


Avei 

opulat 

Ac 


i£ 


^ . 


< 


c 


34,008 


1..58 


4,884 


1.58 


12,1.55 


2 60 


950 


23. 32 


24,178 


2.38 


580 


41.68 


38,873 


1.32 


850 


45.73 


30,074 


1.75 


.550 


54.68 


20,013 


2.46 


650 


32 31 


18,601 


3. 


480 


38.85 


26,910 


2.16 


210 


132.90 


22,322 


2 41 


420 


53.14 


20,923'3.06 


270 


77 49 


32,786 4.61 


1,000 


32. 7§ 


20, 021 1 2 .36 


1,460 


13 80 


312,963 


2.12 


12,294 


48.27 



No. Acres. 



, 


13 


di 


01 


fl 


^.S 


r» 


S5.* 






a 


5 


67 


4,817 


1,33 


817 



179) 
2.38! 
196; 
410i 
313, 
200l 
165; 
1.53: 

1.59; 



401 
612 
354 
240 
167 
10 
255 
117 
841 



,54 l,39ij 
2,267 10,047 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY 195 

It will be readily obsei'ved, from the above, that there is uniformity in the 
ratios of the increase of population and mortality. In fact, as the city has 
expanded in its material development, its health has improved. This, of 
course, is largely due to the extension and efficiency of the sewerage system, 
and the general improvement of the sanitary condition of the city. These 
^acts are corroborative of an important truth long since established by civiliza- 
tion : that the better people are clad, and fed, and sheltered, the greater is their 
longevity, and consequently the shorter the period required for a generation. 
The increase of food, and clothing, and shelter, also carry with them the pre- 
sumption that civilized men have made rapid improvements over the face of 
the country, by destroying the natural vegetation, reclaiming the swamps, and 
thereby produce a healthier condition of the atmosphere. The growth of 
great cities does not deteriorate the health of a country, and the multiplication 
of population does not raise, but actuall}^ diminishes, the death-rate. A vast 
metropolis, with its countless houses and myriad people, is, after all, not a 
stronghold of death; and although its inevitable visitations are more appalling 
because presented in aggregate form, they are really numerically less than if 
the same diseases were working their way through the same number of people 
ruder and more dispersed. To establish this truth we have not to look lur. 
The ratio of mortality among the Indian tribes is considerably greater than 
in the denser localities of civilized men, where towns and cities exist. 

STEEET EAILWAYS IN ST. LOUIS. 

In 1843, Erastus Wells, now our respected and valuable Eepresentative in 
Congress, from the First District, and Calvin Case, established the first omni- 
bus in St. Louis, the rolling stock consisting of one omnibus. It differed con- 
siderably from the kind now in use, having no glass windows, but curtains in- 
stead, and elliptic springs in place of the present low flat ones, and was built 
in this city, at a cost of $200. The route was from Third and Market, along 
Third and Broadway to North Market street; and the receipts for the fir^t six 
months did not exceed $2.50 per day. In 1844, the enterprising proprietors 
put on another coach, and within five years increased their business consider- 
ably, and had from twelve to fifteen busses i-unning, and for the first two ^-ears 
Mr. Wells drove one of them himself. In 1844, Michael Sutter started a line 
on Second street and Carondelet avenue, running from Market street to the 
Arsenal. During the ensuing year, Mr. M. Kountz established a line on Mar- 
ket street, running between Main street and Camp Spring; the same year, T. 
O.Duncan and John C. Vogei staited a line on Franklin avenue, between 
Broadway and Twenty-fifth street, having purchased for the purpose, from 
Case & Wells, their pioneer omnibus, for $100. In 1846, Lather Case com- 
menced a line on Fourth and Seventh streets, between Green street and Flora 
Garden. In 1850, Calvin Case, Erastus Wells, Eobert MeO'Blenis, and Law- 
rence Mathews, forming the firm of Case & Co., purchased all the lines in the 
city, and established a coach line between here and Belleville, 111., and subse- 
quently one on Olive street, between Fourth and Seventeenth streets. In Jan- 



196 ST. lOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

uary, 1856, the copartnership Avas dissolved, by the death of the senior mem- 
ber, who was killed in the memorable accident on the Pacihc Railroad, at the 
Gasconade bridge. The different lines were owned and operated by the sur- 
viving partners, but separately, until 1859, Avhen the street railway' mania 
reached St. Louis, and the omnibuses were speedily superseded. 

The St. Louis, Missouri, Citizens', and People's Railway Companies were 
formed in the spring of 1859, and the first company that started their ears, was 
the Missouri, on their Olive street line, on July 4, 1859. The first President 
was Erastus Wells, who has filled that position up to the present time. They 
have now nine miles of track. The St. Louis commenced operations during 
the same summer^ and has now fifteen miles of track j D. H. Armstrong was 
the first President. The People's Line commenced running in the autumn of 
the same year; Col. R. M. Renick, President, and has now six miles of track. 
The Citizen's got under way in August, 1859 ; B. Gratz Brown, President, with 
six miles of track. In 1862, the Union Railway started; B. Gratz Brown, 
President, and with six miles of track. In 1864, the Tower Grove & Lafayette 
Company commenced running ; R. M. Renick, President, and seven miles ot 
track. The Lindell Railway Company got under way in 1866; Dwight Dui- 
kee. President, with nine miles of track. The same year the Bellefontaine 
Railway Company went into operation; Mr. Krum, President, and six miles 
of track. The Suburban Railway Company was started in 1860; A. R. Easton, 
President, and tour miles of track. The total length of street railway in St. 
Louis is about 70 miles, and from 160 to 170 car.-* are employed each day, car- 
rying from six to seven thousand passengers, i^ot less than 1,400 horses are 
required in the business of these lines, and over 500 men are constantly em- 
ployed. It is thus seen that the increase in this line of business has fully 
corresponded with the general growth of the city. Twenty-eight years ago 
there was one omnibus running, carrying not more than fifty passengers per 
diem; now we have nine distinct lines, each doing a prosperous business and 
representing a large amount of invested capital. There is something appropri- 
ate and fitting in the fact that the man who was mainly instrumental in lajnng 
the foundation of this extensive business is now one of the representatives of 
St. Louis in Congress. Mr. Wells is a prominent representative of the self-made 
men of the West. His career has been valuable in many ways to St. Louis, and 
his political elevation is an evidence that his fellow-citizens appreciated his 
worth, and his earnest labors in behalf of the city 

STREET IMPROVEMENTS, ETC., IN ST. LOUIS. 

The following particulars have been obtained from the office of the City 
Engineer: Total length of street pavement in vSt. Louis, 174 miles; total length 
of sidewalk pavement in St. Louis (about), 300 miles; total length of wharf 
pavement (11|^ miles river front), 2^ miles; totiil length of water-pipe laid in 
St. Louis, 102 miles; total length of sewers in St. Louis, 117 miles; lOtal num- 
ber of streets, 600. The total length of public sewers in the city is 24^ miles; 
total cost, $1,730,889.08. Total length of district sewers, 92^ miles; total cost, 
«1, 948,000. 



ST. LOmS, THE FUTURE OREAT CITY. 197 



THE ST. LOUIS STEAM FIEE DEPARTMENT. 

ITS ORGANIZATION. 

Like uU other cities, St. Louis had her independent Fire Lepartment, and 
probably, for a long time there was not a better independent department in the 
country ; but as the city increased in population the better element of (he 
department was worked out or swallowed up by that element which lias 
disgraced nearly every independent department in all the large cities through- 
out the country; things in this city went on from bad to worse, until our streets 
became the nightly scenes of riot, bloodshed and confusion among the firemen, 
while property was being destroyed by the devouring elements. So fearful did 
the strife rage between some of the independent companies, that the good 
citizens felt that there must be something done toward changing the organiza- 
tion of the department ; the matter finally attracted the attention of the city 
officials, and in 1857 the City Council passed an ordinance establishing and 
regulating a " Paid Fire Department." The late Hon. John M. Wimer was 
Mayor, and took a deep intei-est in the new organization, he appointed H. 
■Clay Sexton, Chief Engineer of the Fire Department under the new ordinance, 
and the City Council appointed Messrs. Geo. Kyler and John Sexton of the 
Board of Aldermen, and Davis Moore and Henry Almsledt of the Board of 
Delegates, as a "Board of Fire Engineers." This Board held its first meeting 
on the 24th day of August, 1857, and organized b}' electing George Kyler, Chair- 
man, and George VV". Tennillc, Secretaiy. The Board then elected Messrs. John 
W. Bame and Richard Beggs as Assistant Chief Engineers. The new organiza- 
tion was not effected until the 14th day of September", 1857. On this day the 
officers of the Department took charge of the following engine houses, with en- 
gines and other apparatus pertaining thereto, viz : "Franklin," " Washington," 
■" Mound," and " Old Union ISo. 2." The three first were hand-engines, the latter 
was the first Steam Fire Engine ever brought west of the Mississippi river; she 
was built in Cincinnati, Ohio, by Abram Shaw^k, Esq., and purchased by the "Old 
Union Fire Company No. 2" (independent); she weighed eight tons, and was 
brought across the Mississippi river upon the ice, on the 15th day of January, 
1856. With those four companies the new organization started out upon the 
doubtful mission of a reformation of the Fire Department of St. Louis. We say 
doubtful, because at that time the independent organization of the cit}' was very 
strong, and with but few exceptions were opposed to the new organization. The 
*' independents" for a time did all they could to retard the working of the 
new organization, and threatened political annihilation to any and all who fa- 
vored the new organization, but fortunately, before another election came olf, 
the new organization hud proved itself so efficient, that public sentiment began 
to speak out in its fiivor. On the 28th of September, 1857, the Board of Fire En- 
gineers entered into a contract with A. B. Latta, of Cincinnati, for three of his 
third-class Steam Fire Engines, to be delivered in ten, thirty, and sixty days. 
After the receipt of these three fire Kings the old independent department began 



198 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY 

to dissolve like snow before a summer's sun, and the new organization was ao 
acknowledged success, and a fixed fact. The first semi-annual report of ther 
new organization, made March 1st, 1858, makes the following showing as com- 
pared with a like report of the independent organization made from September 
14th, 1856, to Marcli 1st, 1857, to-wit : 

OLD ORGANIZATION. 

Loss by fires from September 14, 1856, to March 1, 1857 §595,580 

" to Insurance Companies on same 383,010 

Loss over and above Insurance §212,570 

NEW ORGANIZATION. 

Loss by fires from September 14, 1857, to March 1, 1858 S244,030 

" to Insurance Companies on same 141,550 



Loss over and above Insurance §103,380 

After this report was made public, showing a difference of over one hundred 
per cent, in favor of the paid department over the volunteer, and steam over 
hand engines, every good citizen was satisfied that the new organization was 
the best and cheapest, although it might cost more in dollars and cents to keep it 
up; and thus died the old independent and hand-engine Fire Department of St. 
Louis. A great auxiliary to the new organization was the establishing of the 
"Fire Alarm Telegraph," which was completed and put in operation by ]\ressrs. 
Gamewell & Co., on the 2d of January, 1858, and a committee on '"Fire Alarm 
Telegraph" was appointed by the City Council, consisting of Messrs. Charles R... 
Anderson and Charles H. Tillson of the Boai'd of Aldermen, and John W. 
Burch and J. H. M'Clure, of the Board of Delegates ; said committee held its 
first meeting on the 2d day of January, 1858, and appointed Mr. James A. 
Gardner, Superintendent of the " Fire Alarm Telegraph." The old organiza- 
tion seeing the success of the new one, soon broke up theii's, and many of the 
best men in the old organization became members of the new one, surrendering 
their property to the city for a nominal consideration (with but two excep- 
tions.) 

The home Insui'ance Companies were so well pleased with the working of 
the new organization, and the efficiency of the three Steam Fire Engines, thai 
they purchased two more of Mi\ Latta, and made them a present to the city, 
and the city purchased another. With these additions the DciDartment felt con- 
fident of their ability to contend successfully against the ravages of the devour- 
ing elements, and the citizens felt satisfied that their lives and property were 
comparatively safe from the ravages of fire; and neither were mistaken, 
as the annual report of the officers of the Fire Department, made on the first- 
of March, 1859 will show, in comparing the new with the old organization.. 
They say : 



ST. LOUIS, THB FUTURE GREAT CITY. 190 



OLD ORGANIZATION. 

Loss by fires from October 13, 1856 to October 13, 1857 (this 

being the last year of their existence) §^1,302,250 

NEW ORGANIZATION 

Loss by fires from March 1, 1858 to March 1, 1859 §211,623 

Showing a difference of five hundred per cent, in favor of a paid department, 
fully equipped with Steam Fire Engines, over an independent and voluntary 
department equipped only with hand-engines. With this showing, it was only 
considered necessary for the future protection of property from the flames, that 
as the city increased in population and expanded in territory, the necessary 
additions should be made to the Fire Department, and all would be well. In 
October, 1860, the city purchased one of Naefie & Levy's Steam Fire Engines. 

There were no change in the officers of the Department from its organization 
up to the 20th of June, 1862, at which time Geo. W. Tennille, Secretary, was 
removed on account of his Southern sympathies, and on, or about the 3rd of 
September, of the same year, H. Clay Sexton, Chief of the Department, was 
removed, arrested and put in prison for the same reason, by order of General 
Schofield. Mr. Charles H. Tillson was elected Secretary, by the Board of Fire 
Engineers, and General Schofield appointed George N. Stephens as Chief 
Engineer. During his administration, which extended to the first Monday in 
January, 1867, the citj- purchased one more of A. B. Latta's Steam Fire Engines, 
and two of Silsby's Eotary Engines. On the first Monday in January, 1867, 
Mr. A. C. Hull, having been appointed Chief Engineer, entered upon the duties 
of his office, which position he held uniil the second Monday in May of the 
same year. Mr. John W. Bame, having been appointed Chief Engineer, took 
charge of the Department on the second Monday in May, 1867, and held the 
position to the second Monday in May, 1869. During his and Mr. Hull's 
administrations there were no engines added to the Department. Under Hull's 
administration the city purchased one Hook and Ladder Apparatus, of E. C. 
Hartshorn, of New York. On the second Monday in May, 1869, H. Cla}' Sex- 
ton, having been appointed to the office of Chief Engineer, assumed the duties 
of the same, and holds the position at the present time. Geo. W. Tennille was 
also appointed Secretary in May, 1869, and still holds that position, in 1871, 
there was an ordinance passed by the City Council, increasing the number of 
Assistant Engineers to three, and John W. Bame was appointed to the office of 
Assistant Engineer on May 3d, of the same year. During the present admin- 
istration of Chief Engineer Sexton, the city has purchased six new Steam Firo 
Engines all of the "Latta" patent, with Ahrens & Co.'s improvement on them. 
They were purchased of C. Ahi-ens & Co., of Cincinnati, Ohio, All of the 
Steam Fire Engines purchased by the city from the commencement of the new 
organization to the present time are still in active service, with three excep- 
tions, viz : The " Old Union " and the two rotaries, " Silsby " patent. 



200 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE OREAT CITY. 

The eqniijments of the Department at the present time are as follows : Four- 
teen fire companies, equipped as follows : One Steam Fire Engine, one Hose 
Carriage, and horses to draw them, two thousand feet of 2|- inch Rubber Hose, 
and eight men to each company; two Hook and Ladder Apparatus and two 
Fuel Wagons, with horses to draw the same. The present officers of the Depart- 
ment are the same who first started it, with the addition of one Assistant Engi- 
neer, Ml'. Jacob Trice. 

The efficiency of the Fire Alarm Telegraph has been increased from time to 
time, as the necessities of the Fire Department required, by adding new alarm 
boxes. It started in 1858, with sixty-three boxes, and it now has one hundred 
and sixty-five boxes. This brings the whole Department up to December 3rd, 
1872, on which day the City Council passed an ordinance appropriating money 
for the purchase of three more Steam Fire Engines, six Hose Carriages, and 
ten thousand feet of hose for the use of the Fire Department. 



JlN exhibit— a comparative TAXATION OF PRINCIPAL CITIES. 

The following interesting exhibit prepared by Capt. Sara. Pepper, President 
of the Board of Assessors, of St. Louis county, will be read with interest, not 
only by our own citizens, but by people all over the United States. The data 
are all taken from the official reports of the cities mentioned, and the calcula- 
tions hare been carefully made. To persons looking out for remunerative 
investments for capital, or for new homes for themselves, this exhibit will prove 
peculiarly interesting: 

In this fast age of steam, the currents of travel and commerce are being 
revolutionized, and population and capital gravitate rapidly to those centres 
possessing the greatest remunerative attractions for labor and business. The 
city that would keep well abreast in the race for expansion and supremacy 
must not rely too much upon its supposed natural advantages, but with zeal 
and united effort quicken and make available all advantages within its reach. 

It is proposed in this connection, to briefly examine the city of St. Louis, aa 
compared with a few other leading centres of trade, to see if she is entitled to 
attract to herself a fair share of the population and business that are ever 
seeking new fields of enterprise^ as well as to hold fast to what she has 
already gained. Expenses of living and of transacting business have an im- 
portant influence in determining location. It is of little importance to the 
merchant how active his business may be, or to the laborer what wages he 
receives, if nothing is left after paying expenses ; both would prefer a loca- 
tion where a surplus remains after expenses are paid. 

St. Louis, located in the heart of the Mississippi Valley, in which is produced 
immense surplus supplies of breadstuffs, meats, fruits and vegetables, acces- 
sible by 15,000 miles of navigable rivers, with her grand network of railroads 
penetrating all portions of this vast valley, furnishing quick and cheap trans- 
portation for all the products of the soil — it must be apparent that at no other 



ST. LOUrS, THE FUTURE GREAT 01X7 201 

place in the world where labor is remunerative, can staple provisions of the 
same quality, be furnished cheaper, than at St. Louis. 

Next to provisions in the cost of famil}* expenses, is that of house rent, or, 
differently stated, the expense of living in one's own house. The house represents 
capital, and it costs the owner as much to live in it as it does the lessee, in 
either case the net rental being measured by the net interest the money would 
produce. 

In furnishing cheap, comfortable and healthy homes, St. Louis offers rare 
inducements. There was a time when this was not the case, and rival cities 
offering greater inducements in this regard were largely benefited thereby. 
When the heavy business was chiefl}" done on the Levee and Main street, and 
choice residence property was drawn within narrow bounds and held at high 
prices; before sewerage and drainage had transformed vast acres into choice 
building sites; before railroad transportation, steam and horse, had equalized 
value at remote points from business centres, by furnishing cheap conveyance 
to and from all points within the city limits, cheap homes were not easily 
obtained in St. Louis. But a new and brighter era has dawned upon her. 
Cheap homes can now be furnished within easy access of business, shop and 
foundry, on finished streets, with gas and water, on, or convenient to, lines 
of street cars. Building lots thus situated, can be bought, and comfortable 
dwellings erected thereon, cheaper in St. Louis than in any city in the United 
States having a population of 100,000, excepting the city of Philadelphia. 

To this fact more than any other may be attributed the rapid growth of St. 
Louis during the last few years, and which is the best guarantee of her futui-e 
\>ro8perity. Cheap homes are the want of the million; they not only reduce 
the expenses of living, but the people will become owners of their own home- 
3teads, and once having an interest in the soil, their local and business 
interests become more closely identified with the city's welfiare, making her 
population more permanent and at the same time contributing to her revenue. 

Persons of limited means, mechanics and laborers, of industrious and saving 
habits, can by small monthly or quarterly payments, in a comparatively short 
period become owners of their own homes, without waiting to provide all the 
money before purchasing. The making of debts is not generally to be com 
mended; but to a moderate extent in the purchase of a home, where full con- 
sideration is received, they are not only commendable but tend to stimulate 
energy, and the money thus paid is better secured against loss than if invested 
in any other manner. In addressing the vSocial Science Association of Phila- 
delphia, Mr. Cochran truthfully said: " People who own the soil naturally feel 
that they have a greater interest in the community — in its welfare, peace and 
good order — and they are fixed more permanently to it as a place of abode ; 
and the laborer or mechanic who is working to secure or pay for a home ia 
inspired with more ambition than one whose abode is in tenement houses, 
which can have no attraction to any man or his family. The system of 
separate dwelling-houses for every family is in itself promotive of greater 
morality and comfort, and the oq)portunity of poor men to secure the owner- 
ship is an honorable incentive to industry and frugality." 



202 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Another important question in determining location, is that of 

TAXATION. 

It is one of the vital, living questions that is always claiming and always 
receiving public attention. No state, no community of people, can claim re- 
pose from its exactions, while all admit and cheerfully acquiesce in its neces- 
sity. Its burdens should be so distributed as to bear equally on all in propor- 
tion to their ability to pay, and the law should, as far as possible, be free from all 
obnoxious features, for no revenue law can be successfully administered unless 
it has the approval of those over whom it operates. A revenue law must 
needs be strong and penal to insure prompt obedience, and where reasonable 
opportunity is given for its observance the penalties are voluntarily accepted 
as proper and necessary. But if its provisions are believed to have an unequal 
applications to persons, or the property to be taxed, or the taxing of property 
which by common consent should be exempted, as cemeteries and property 
held for charitable or public purposes, such provision cannot be enforced with- 
out just protest, and which in time will array such opposition as to secure their 
abrogation. In taxing this character of property, the constitution of the State 
of Missouri is at fault, and a proposition to amend the same in this regard, 
would, doubtless, be favorably received by the people of the State. 

The late revenue law of this State makes no exemption Avhatever of personal 
property from local taxation, as was formerly the case. Persons long accus- 
tomed to the exemption of $300 worth of personal property, small tax-payers, 
who have regarded this slight concession from the taxing power as a kind of 
vested right, will be slow to appreciate the necessity for the change. The 
revenue expected from this source had better be derived by increasing the per 
centum. 

I come now to the direct proposition of contrasting St. Louis with a few 
other principal cities with regard to the annual amount of taxes paid for all 
purposes in proportion to the assessed valuation of the property, and also in 
proportion to population, as based upon the United States census of 1870. 

The assessed valuation of the property of St. Louis for taxes of 1871, was 
$158,272,430, which produced for State, county, school, and city a total revenue 
(»f $3,905,366.23; collected on merchants' license in lieu of tax on property, 
$312,247.26; making total amount derived from tax on property or its equiva- 
lent $4,217,613.49; equal to $13.56 for each of her 310,864 inhabitants. 

The assessed value of the pi'operty of Chicago for 1870, the year before the 
fire, was $275,986,550; the amount collected on said assessment, $6,419,430.57; 
equal to $21.43 for each of her 298,977 inhabitants. There was, in the same 
year, paid in the shape of a special tax, $2,836,852.48 ; making of general and 
special taxes the total of $9,256,333.05. 

The assessed value of the property of Cincinnati for 1871, was $180,371,932; 
amount of revenue required at the rate per centum levied, $4,061,958.86; equal 
to $18.78 for each of her 216,230 inhabitants. 

The ass'^ssed value of the property of the city of New York, in 1872, was 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 203 

$1,104,098,087, which at rate per centum levied, $2.90 on the $100, would pro- 
duce $32,018,844.52; equal to $33.97 for each of her 942,292 inhabitants. 

The assessed value of the city of Philadelphia, for the year 1872, was 
$511,024,682; amount of revenue expected from same, $10,314,870.45; equal to 
$15.30 for each of her 674,022 inhabitants. 

The assessed value of the property of the city of Boston, for the year 1872, 
was $782,724,300; amount of revenue required on said assessment, $7,987,874.31, 
equal to $31.88 for each of her 250,526 inhabitants. 

The assessed value of the property of the city of Baltimore is $216,064,142, 
amount of revenue collected on same in 1872, was $3,074,187.34; equal to $11.50 
for each of her 267,354 inhabitants. 

The system of special taxes is quite similar in the several cities; in very 
nearly all of them, streets, sewers, etc., are paid for by taxing the property on 
the line of the improvements. 

It will thus be seen that whether in proportion to the value her taxable 
property bears to the amount of revenue required, or to her population, St. 
Louis makes a most favorable showing. Many of the cities laying lai-ge claims 
to business and population are taxed on a full valuation of their property from 
5 to 7 per cent. 

The great city of New York, which in addition to her own immense wealthy 
taxes over $35,000,000 of non-resident capital, speaking through her Mayor in a 
late message, says : " Taxation rates must increase yearly. The reformer is 
not born who can hereafter even keep them under three per cent. In five 
years hence tax-payers will look back and comparatively wonderat the present 
complaints. 

It may be safely assumed that no city of importance in the West is more 
lightly taxed than St. Louis, and with judicious management public enterprises 
may be liberally continued withoiit necessarily increasing the public burdens. 

It would seem that the capitalist, mechanic and laborer, remunerated as they 
have been in the past in St. Louis, have reason to hope for still better things 
in the bright promise that awaits her. Sam'l Pepper. 



THE HEAVY TAX- PAYEES OF ST. LOUIS. 

The following list of names, comprise 400 tax-payers in the city of St. Louis, 
who pay on assessed valuations of $50,000 and upwards. The valuations on 
which assessments were made are set opposite the name of each tax-payer 
given. And the aggregate amount of taxable property on which these 400 
citizens pay is $60,103,860, which makes an average of a little over $250,000 to 
each of the foregoing tax-payers. 

The assessed valuation, as given below, is only about sixty per cent, of the 
current value of the property represented. Besides the list does not contain 
the names of most of our merchants, for the reason that they pay a license tax 
on the highest amount of merchandise held by them, between the first Monday 
of March and the first Monday of June of each year. This tax is equal to that 



204 



ST. L0UI3, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



on real estate in lieu of an ad valorem tax on the capital invested in their 
business. Therefore a merchant employing a million of dollars in his business 
but not having $50,000 worth of property outside of it, does not appear in the 
list below. It is on this account that merchants of St. Louis who represent 
large capital do not appear on the list. 



Alexander, B W $237,960 

Allen & O D FiUey 58,810 

Allen, Thomas 1,113,830 

Ames, Henry 118,630 

Ames, Catharine 106,840 

Ames, Henry S, Edgar, Mary 

& Adah S 210,720 

Ames, Lucy V 71,690 

Anheuser, Eberhardt, & A 

A Busch 51,530 

Armstrong, D H 164,850 

Ashbrook's, Levi est 51,490 

Aull, Kobert 95,500 

Backer, Mathias 50,030 

Bailey, Elizabeth S 59,820 

Bailey, Geo 100,320 

Baker, John 245,650 

Baker, Levin H 283,250 

Baker, Kobert 276,900 

Ballentine, Wm 96,090 

Barclay, Mrs. M. M 186,560 

Barlow, S L M 72,920 

Barnes, Rob'tA 277,570 

Barry, .Jas Of 101,640 

Barton, Bates 141,900 

Beach, John H 51,220 

Beardslee, Chas et al 68,150 

Beauvais, Rene 115,210 

Benoist, Conde L 233,080 

Benoist, Ester A 69,270 

Benoist's, L A est 389,670 

Bent, Silas 51,690 

Benton, Wm H 231,610 

Berthold's, B est 426,430 

Biddle, Annie E 172,430 

Biddle, Catherine E 237,960 

Biddle, Edward J 53,810 

Biddle^ Eliza N 84,300 

Biddle, Hannah S 89,860 

Biddle, James...... 101,730 



Biddle, Jas S 65,670 

Biddle, Wm S 91,570 

Bircher, Rudolph 183,250 

Bissell, James 89,050 

Bissell, Lewis 233,440 

Blaine, Annie 67,560 

Blaksley, Henry 166,920 

Blood, Sullivan 57,460 

Blow, Eliza A W & Charlotte 

T Charles 56,000 

Blow, Henry T 182,950 

Bobb's, Mary H est 57,110,, 

Bogy, Louis V 69,130 

Boswell, Jane 112,220 

Boyce, Octavia 702,910 

Brant, Sarah H 216,870 

Bredell, Edward 229,370 

Bridge, Hudson E 270,200 

Britton, Jas H 175,390 

Brotherton, Marshall 137,390 

Brown, Joseph 332,030 

Brown, Wm H 62,820 

Bryan, Edmonia T 103,130 

Bernard, Calvin F & Reilley.. 64,400 

Busehman, Fred 51,860 

Cabanna, Sarpy Carr 113,030 

Campbell, Robert 065,910 

Carlin, Delphy 64,690 

Carnegie, Andrew 54,530 

Carpenter, Jas M 54,890 

Carr, Dorcas.: 110,900 

Causey, Peter F 142,750 

Chambers, Thomas B 88,340 

Charles', Robert est 60,000 

Chouteau, Chas P 177,260 

Chouteau, G J 93,370 

Chouteau, G S 319,150 

Chouteau, Mrs Leiia 97,950 

Chouteau, Noebert S 111,580 

Chouteau, Pierre 252,960 



ex. LOUIS, THF, FL'TLRE GREAT Ciry. 



206 



Chonteau, Pierre jr 

Chouteau, Harrison & Valle. 

Christy's, Andrew est 

Christy, Ellen P 

Churchill, S B 

Clark, Beatrice 

Clark, Chas J 

Clark, Eleanor A , 

Clark's, J J est 

Clark, Jeiferson K 

Clarke, Wm G 

Clayton, Ealph (MD) 

Clemens, Jas Jr 

Coleman, Sarah L 

Coles, Edward 

Coles, Mary 

Collier, John F 

Collier, MD 

Collier, Sarah A 

Collier, Wm B 

Collins, Esther 

Conzelman, G 

Copelin, John G 

Copp, Sa muel 

Corcoran, W W 

Corwith, Henry 

Coste, Felix 

Cotting, Amos 

Crapster, Joh n 

Crittenden, Elizabeth 

Crow, Wyman 

Baggett, John D 

Dameron, Logan D 

Davis, Sam'l C 

Day, F O 

Deaven, Fanny M 

DeBar, Benj 

DeMenil, N N 

DeMunn, Isabel 

DeNoue, Eliza 

DeThury, Ann B 

Dickson, Chas K , 

Dickson, Mary T 

Dillon's, John est 

Dillon's, PM est 



183,090 

150,710 

89,820 

59,200 

160,300 

92,570 

53,079 

93,900 

51,700 

•65,570 

223,810 

89,000 

321,840 

214,600 

168,340 

97,050 

178,730 

203,070 

326,760 

214,730 

265,940 

150,630 

255,660 

70,340 

77,430 

63,270 

60,440 

100,200 

56,120 

181,160 

74,800 

101,780 

370,140 

74,000 

98,860 

79,830 

66,400 

168,830 

102,290 

220,030 

209,840 

125,940 

92,290 

55,080 

243,790 



Dorris, Geo P 172,120 

Dougherty, Jas S 70,060 

Douglas, John T 55,860 

Dyer, C C 86,780 

Dyer, Corinne & John N 94,430 

Eads, Jas B 325,620 

Edgar, Tim B 63,500 

Elleard, Chas W 71,810 

Erskine, Green 175,250 

Espenschied, Louis 87,510 

Ewing, Esther 76,2aO 

Ewing, Wm L 236,740 

Fallon, Wesley 76,880 

Farrar, James S 69,580 

Farrar, John O F 133,290 

Farrington, S S 51,090 

Ferguson, John L 118,520 

Ferguson, Nancy M et al 69,000 

Ferguson, Wm F 127,820 

Field, G B 60,970 

Filley, Giles F 192,470 

Finn, John 77,200 

Finney's, John est 58,690 

Finney, Mary Ann 56,770 

Finney, Thos M 83,890 

Flouriioy, John 62,250 

Forsyth, Eobert 119,910 

Franciscus, Jas M 60,670 

Frost, Eliza G 161,920 

Gale, Daniel B 63,440 

Gamble, David C 92,910 

Gamble, Louisa B 109,260 

Gantt, T T 100,930 

Gardner, Thomas 74,330 

Garrison, Dan K 91,230 

Garteide, Joseph 201 , 1 50 

Gaty, Samuel 264,080 

Gay, Edward J 638,470 

Gay,John H 193,030 

Gay, Wm T 107,510 

Gay, Edward J & Wm T 71,S0<» 

Ghio, John B 134,580 

Gibson, Charles 126,460 

Giddings, Fred S 101,580 

Givene, Jamee 57,130 



206 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



Glasgow, Wm- H 151,830 

Glasgow, Wm H Jr 171,330 

Goodfellow, Mary '. 64,520 

Goodwin, Aaron S W 58,910 

Gordon, Annie E.... 153,750 

Gordon, Annie E & E C 184,030 

Graham, Catharine 549,190 

Grant, U S 73,630 

Greely, C S 78,340 

Greene, Theo P 58,830 

Gregory, William 54,040 

Griswold, W D 101,190 

Grone, Henry 62,880 

Harding, E E 67,310 

Hardy, Jas A 55,730 

Hargadine, W A 66,330 

Harney, John M 276,720 

Harney, Wm S 573,480 

Hart's Jas T est 55,800 

Hart, O A 127,470 

Haycraft, Eliza 111,110 

Heitkamp's, F J est 101,720 

Hepburn, Susan P 79,300 

Hiemenz, Jacob S 62,270 

Hitchcock, Margaret D C 217,260 

Hitchcock, Mary C 258,790 

Hodgraan, Joseph 139,440 

Holmes', Eobert est 85,780 

Hoppe, Charles 54,710 

Hoyles', George est 125,190 

Hudson, Eliza B 64,920 

Hunt, AnneL 1,382,560 

Hunton, Logan 80,000 

Jaccard's, Eugene est 217,050 

Jacobs, George E 77,100 

January, D A 107,940 

January, Jesse C 71,690 

Johnson, John B 53,250 

Jones, Charles 77,180 

Kaiser. Joseph A 72,840 

Kayser, Eloise P 57,940 

Kayser, Henry 91,390 

Lucas, James H : 3,272,300 

Lucas & Hunt 128,330 

McCabe's, E H est 53,270 



McCausland, Robert 75,000 

McCreery's, P E est 207,770 

McCune, John S 365,750 

McDowell, Elizabeth 137,500 

McKnight, John 77,230 

McLaren, Charles 72,480 

McLean, James H 187,140 

McNeil, John 53,870 

McPherson, William M 294,650 

McPherson & Shepley 142,(530 

McEee, Mary 883,010 

McQueen, Wm. N 66,030 

Maffitt, Julia 223,880 

Maguire, John 117,690 

Martin, Meredith '. 92,460 

Mead, Lucien 55,380 

Meier, Adolphus 111,360 

Mellan's, Thomas est 62,280 

Miller, Mary C. G 50,140 

Miltenberger, Eugene 114,500 

Mincke, Geo 99,670 

Mitchell, E.&W 68,950 

Moore, Henry J 79,170 

Morgan, Chas. 55,430 

Morrison, Berenice 222,840 

Murdock, Dickson & Eads 108,190 

Murphy, Joseph 148,890 

Murrin, Sarah E 108,810 

Nicholson, David 353,190 

Nulsen, John C 254,92A 

Obcar, E. G 105,750 

O'Fallon, Benj 306,800 

O'Fallon, Caroline 292,150 

O'Fallon, Henry A 316,290 ' 

O'Fallon, James J 384,060 

O'Fallon, John J 352,820 

O'Neil, Joseph 82,;iS0 

O'Eeilley, Helen E 65,190 

Parks, Eobert M 87,9 lu 

Partridge, Geo 114,440 

Patchin, L W & Mary J) 328.4U0 

Patterson, H L 126,250 

Patterson, Winnefred 175,850 

Paul, Adolphe 254,920 

Payne's Mary est 97,390 



ST. LOUIS, THF. 

Peck, ChasH 145,580 

Pock, Chas H & J W 91,370 

Pendleton, Mary A 122,870 

Peper, Christian 108,510 

Perry's Ann M est 71,500 

Peters, Ann M 65,840 

Pettis, Caroline E 59,140 

Peugnet, Virgitiia T 115,050 

Philibert & Branconier 51,990 

Phillips, Eugenia C 119,370 

Picot, L G & M W Willis 69,680 

Pierce, Andrew Jr 98,750 

Piggott, Austin 52,500 

Pitcher, Henry 59,270 

Plant, Geo pf 97,460 

Plate, Olhansen & Co 55,630 

Polk, Triisten 71,010 

Pomeroy, Geo 77,200 

Pope, Caroline 323,920 

Porter, Marg't B 110,910 

Pratt e, Bernard 278,960 

Price, Enoch 75,2.-)0 

Pri.-o, Thomas L 70,300 

Price, \\m M 88,180 

Priest, J..hnG 58,280 

Provenchore, Ferd 77,820 

Piiliis, T R & Bro 51,220 

Pvind:ill. JM 62,000 

Rankin. John H 76,840 

Rannclls, Chas S 85,280 

Rice's John est 95,730 

Ridgelcy, Stephen 54,100 

Riggiii, John 77,140 

Riggs, Geo W Jr 59,880 

Jiiggs, Lawrason 77,680 

Roe^ John J 170,700 

Hue's John J est et al 84,950 

Roger's W E est 72,110 

Rose, Doet Edward 53,090, 

Russell, Adeline 56,150 

Russell, LucyB 53,570 

J^itherford, Thos S 170,920 

Salorgne, Theod 57,410 

Sanford, Benj C 209,860 

.^arj^y's, Peter A est 62,650 



FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



201 



Schaeffer, Nich : 254,140 

Sehauinburg, Orleans C 91,830 

Schefer, Walter 76,960 

Schnaider, Joseph 52,780 

Schiilenberg & Boeckler 135.390 

Scott, Leanna L 160,340 

Sellew, Ralph 100,020 

Shamburg, Garson 59,710 

Sharp, F C 82,570 

Shaw, Henry 909,280 

Shelton's, John G est 62,960 

Shepard, Elihu H 65,780 

Sheplej-, John R 102,990 

Shickle, Harrison & Howard 52,390 

Shreve's, Henry M est 111,890 

Sickles, Susan E 55,270 

Sire, Rebecca W 57,190 

Slevire, Bernard 85,820 

Slevire, Thos & Chas 53.050 

fcniith & Partridge 52.730 

Smith, Irvin Z 63,H70 

Smith, James 108,420 

Smith, Thos 78,7^0 

Smith, Virginia M A E B 74,140 

Soulard, Benj A 158,550 

Soulard, Hy Ci 311,950 

Speck, Chas 100,350 

Siaehlin, Chris'r 193,130 

Stagg, Hy 56,940 

Stanard, E 78,170 

Stansbuiy, Geo L & Grinsby 54,500 

Stickney.Benj 105,320 

Stoddard, Asa P 78,670 

Strothcr, Theodosia 11],4><0 

Sutton, Jas C 94,160 

Sweringen, Martha J 270,710 

Switzer's, A G est 78.370 

Svvitzer, Wm N 1,394,820 

Tamm, Jacob 98,0S0 

Taylor, Dan G 62,SS0 

Taylor, Geo R 43<).O40 

Taylor, Wm C 133 420 

Tholozan, Adele (U.14() 

Thonnas, Antoinette 97.440 

Thomas, JasS 152,740 



208 



ST. LOUIS, THE FL'TUEE GREAT CITY. 



Thomaf>, John 8 67,610 

Thom|tson, Wm II 57,850 

Thornton & Pierce... 65,110 

Tiffany, Dexter P et al 136,900 

Tiffany, Hannah K 111,810 

Tiffany, D P 85,810 

Tiffanj's, Dexter P est 90,010 

Tilden, John 95,410 

Tifford. Wm li 57,100 

Todd, Albert 128,900 

Todd, Chas 85,090 

Tollo.John F 69,630 

Tower, Geo F 50,460 

Towner, M M 50,250 

Turner, Henry 8 184,780 

Tntt, Thos E 87,770 

Tyler, Mary li 1,027,580 

TJbsdell, John A 154,900 

Uhrif,', Joseph 234,000 

Dlrici, Pvioh'd W 136,150 

Updike & Keillor 66,570 

Valli,A.^lae 64,840 

Valli, Amadie 130,210 

Vandervoort, Mary 97,720 

Van Studiford, Henry 159,970 

Vogel, John 66,310 



Vogel,John C 83,390 

Von Phul, Hemy 186,680 

Waterman, A M et al 105,130 

Waddinjiham, Wm 



60,800 

Wainwrig-ht & Co 74,580 

Walker's Isaac est 249,580 

Walker, Isaac H et al 88,620 

Walker, Thomas A 131,060 

Walsh's Edward est 314,470 

Ward, Patrick 71,000 

Wash, Eliza L 84,610 

Weil, Joseph 224,190 

Wells, Erastus 60,220 

Wetzel, Z¥ et al 73,250 

Whittaker, Francis 57,860 

Whittaker, John & James 61,650 

Whittemore, R. B 66,710 

Wickham, John 65,310 

Wilgus, JohnB 54,040 

Willi, Sam 93,150 

Williams, Oily 75,440 

Winkelmej'er, Christina 255,040 

Withnell, John 123,460 

Woesten, Fred 61,090 

Wood, James 116,720 

Yeatman, Lucretia 85,890 



In addition to the above facts^ the total assessed valuation of the property 
of St. Louis for 1872 is $162,689,570, and the total assessed valuation of the 
County of St. Louis for 1872, is $200_,318,410, which is an increase in one year 
of about §4,500,000 in the gi-owth of the city, and over $5,000,000 in the 
growth of the county of St. Louis. 






ST. LOUIS, THB FUTURE GREAT CITY. 209 



THE ST. LOUIS AND MERAMEC HARBORS. 



PROTECTION FOR OUR STEAM MARINE. 



THE COMMERCIAL INTERESTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. 



Propofiied plan for Boat Harbor, U. S* Ship Yards aud Dry Docks. 



WHEEE TO BUILD OUR lEON STEAMBOATS AND BARGES. 



TaiiglU by an experience of more than a half century, that has been both 
destructive and embarrassing to the commerce of St. Louis, it seems that no 
further time should be lost for not only devising, but making some improve- 
ments that will I'ender the harbor of St. Loiiis a place of security for steam- 
boats, and coramei'ce during the winter season. To prevent any further 
destruction of property by the formation and drifting of ice in the harbor 
seems to be a matter of great concerp, and ought not to. be neglected another 
season. 

As to the necessary improvements to make the harbor a place of security for 
vessels during the winter, is a question for engineers and stearaboatmen to 
determine. It is thought by some experienced steamboatmen to be a matter 
that will require but little expense or engineering skill as only the construe 
tion of a dyke a few miles above the city, from the Illinois shore toward t^© 
centre of the river, would be necessary so as to narrow and deepen the c'^^i- 
nel, and compel the ice to gorge above the harbor, instead of in it as here^^ore. 

If this simple improvement is sufficient, it ought to be made before '"other 
winter comes. Besides the improvement of the harbor it has been \»'*^v' pi'o- 
posed that the mouth of the Meramec be improved for commercia'*'"^ manu- 
facturing purposes. The proposition for the improvement of the *^outh ot the 
Meramec was first made by Dr. Vanzandt, of this city, who is^^^^v aii^e to 
all the advanced interests of St. Louis, and as he has so ably /'^^''issed the sub- 
ject, we cheerfully give place to his own views, as follows: ' 

All who have given the matter a second thought must b -convinced that the 
commerce of the Mississippi riveristo increase regularly.'^ laputly. Ihe Mis- 
sissippi river and its tributaries form a great system of ^'S^'^'® waters, proba- 
bly not less than 20,000 miles long. In the language^ . ^^^^^^^ Col. Benton — 
connected with seas by the head and the mouth, str' ^^°S its arms towards the 
Atlantic and the Pacific, lying in a valley which i^ *^^®-^ ^^^ ^^® ^^'^ of ^ex- 



210 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

ico to Hudson's Bay ; drawing its first waters, not from rugged mountains, but 
from the plateau of the lakes in the center of the continent, and in communication 
with the sources of the St. Lawrence and the streams which take their course 
North to Hudson's Bay; draining the largest extent of richest land, collecting 
the products of evevy clime, even the frigid, to bear the whole to market in the 
sunny South, there to meet the products of the entire world. Such is the 
Mississippi ; and who can calulate the aggregate of its advantages and the 
magnitude of its future commercial results? This great river will never be 
superceded by railroads. The genius of man is not yet exhausted, and the 
obstacle that stands like a sentinel at the mouth of the Mississippi, exacting 
toll from all our river commerce will be removed, and the commerce of the 
Great Valley shall flow unimpeded to the Gulf. Not only are measures already 
adopted for increasing the number and improving the character of our barges 
for freight transportation, but a company has been formed for building iron 
passenger steamers, propelled by low-pressure engines, which will make the 
trip between St. Louis and New Orleans in sixty hours — thus competing with 
railroads. 

St. Louis is the natural, geographical and commercial center of the entire 
system of navigation of the Mississippi Valley, and will continue to be for all 
time. 

Steamers and barges from the Mississippi and all its navigable tributaries 
concenti-ate here. What has St. Louis done for the protection of these boats 
from the destruction by ice or fire ? Absolutely nothing! 

The writer was one of the many sad thousands who stood upon -the levee in 
the wint^' of 1865, when seventeen steamers were either totally destroyed or 
seriously damaged, by the resistless force of the floating ice. The annual 
report of the Union Merchant's Exchange, for that year, thus alludes to this 
\event : 

/'On the fifteenth of December, 1865, occurred one of those terrible steam- 
boh( accidents whish Mve become of yearly occurrence. Several steamers were 
morh^r less damaged, some of them a total loss. By the 18th^ foot passengers 
were ^jssing on the ice, and by the 21st, the ice was strong enough for loaded 
teams, a\^ go continued to the end of the month. The river opened by the 
breaking \^ of the ico, on the night of the 12th of January, and, as always 
happens, de^t^Qy^g^ ^^^ immense amount of shipping." 

This IS the Vord of but aiw winter, and though, perhaps, more severe than 
usual, who canVy. ^^^ ^]^q dose of navigation that we shall not before spring 
suffer still great^gg^g f^om ice than ever before? 

Immediately attK i^j^^gg disasters our river men and underwriters make a 
spasmodic attempt tv.devise some plan to secure our shipping from similar 
disasters in the future>^^|^ ^^^^^ ^^^ nothing whatever has been accomplished, 
no plan suggested, and \f^j. ^^ j^ known, the subject has been dismissed from 
the minds of our river an\^^j^jj^gj.^j^j ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^j^^ aroused from 
their lethargy by another s\^^^^ disaster. 



ST. LOUIS, THE PUTDRE GREAT OITT. 211 

Witnessing that sudden destruction of valuable steamers, an impression was 
made upon my mind that cannot be obliterated. The question in my mind 
then and ever since has been, " How can our steam marine be protected from 
liability to destruction in the winter season by ice and fire?" After thoroughly 
investigating the subject, I submit the following as a plan for a basin and dry 
docks, which may be constructed ready for use at a cost far less than the loss 
to our steam marme during the past ten years. 

PLAN FOR A BASIN AND DRT DOCKS. 

A dam, twenty-five feet high, will give a baain or harbor half a mile wide, 
and about three miles long, covering an area of between 700 and 1000 acres. 
The depth of water in this basin, will be from ten to fifteen feet, over the allu- 
vial bottoms, and in the channel, from eighteen to twenty-five feet. The basin 
to be reached through a canal one mile long, along the bluffs, having two locks 
of 121^ feet lift each. Here would be a safe and convenient harbor, where boats 
would be entirely out of danger from ice, and have ample room to be at safe 
distance from each other, in case of fire; so the loss of one would not involve 
the destruction of several, as haa been the case in several instances, on our 
crowded levee. 

WHY SHOULD THIS IMPROVEMENT BE MADS 

1. It is a necessity now, and the necessity will increase annually. There are 
now enrolled in this city 150 steamers and 245 barges, valued at over 86,000,000. 
Not only are the owners of this shipping who have six millions of dollai"8 
iarested, deeply interested in having a safe winter harbor for these boats and 
barges, but every city and town on the Mississippi and its tributaries is directly 
interested in this great project. Boats are frequently obliged to go into winter 
quarters here that are owned at various other ports, and the owners are inter> 
ested in having them in a safe harbor. Besides this, the loss of , one steamer, or 
a dozen, reduces the shipping facilities to that extent, and it is a loss that is 
seriously felt by the business men wherever those boats have been running. 
We do not know what to do with our steamboats and barges now in the winter 
season, how much greater will be the necessity for a safe harbor five years 
hence, when our steam marine shall have^ increased probably four-fold its pres- 
ent magnitude ? 

2. The time is rapidly approaching when the center of power of the American 
continent, commercially and politically, will be in the Missiftsippi Valley. Then 
the Grovernraent will see the necessity of establishing at this point extensive 
ship-yards for the building of her ocean steamei'S ; for surely there is no other 
point where they can be built as economically and be so easily floated out in 
the spring, on twenty feet of water. 

3. The steamers and barges for our Western rivers will soon be built of iron, 



212 ST. LOUTS, THE FUTURE GREAT OITT. 

and this is the best location in the United States for extensive boat-yards and 
dry-docks, convenient to the iron works at Carondelet, surrounded by an 
exhaustless supply of all the materials needed, with ample water power for any 
desired purpose. 

4. With extensive dry-docks here, boats could be overhauled and put in 
thorough re air during the winter season j whereas now, when a boat is ice- 
bound and tied up along our levee, if fortunate enough to escape destruction 
by ice or fire, and needs repair, she must lose two or three trips in the spring, 
while on the docks, and at the very time when trade is brisk and freighting 
most profitable. 

* 

5. The bluffs on either side of the basin contain excellent varieties of build- 
ing stone, and all the materials required to construct the dam and locks are at 
hand. This improvement is needed now, and the necessity for it increases 
annually. It will cost far less now than ever hereafter. 

WATER POWER. 

6. The water power afforded is an important consideration. The fall in the 
canal will be twenty-five feet. Manufactories of various kinds could be estab- 
lished here, and have a cheap, regular, and exhaustless power. By building 
a second dam, with two locks of twelve and a half feet lift each, and a small 
canal or race on the Mississippi, a fall of from fifty to sixty feet is secured in 
a distance of three or three and a half miles, affording a tcater poicer probably 
uneqiialed in the world. 

7. The counties drained by the Meramec are remarkably rich in iron, copper, 
lead, clays and j^aints, and there is scarcely a limit to the number and variety 
of manufactories that could be profitably established to work up the minerals 
that would come down the Meramec, up the river, and by the Iron Mountain 
Railroad from Southeast Missouri. There are very few portions of the United 
States where a greater variety of timber can be found, or in greater abundance. 
Here should be established factories for furnitm-e, wooden ware, cooperage, 
wagon material, and the thousand articles we are so largely buying from other 
States. 

8. There is not a paper-mill in the State. The water of the Mei-amec is 
remarkably clear, and well-adapted for this purpose. Here also should be 
extensive cotton factories, woolen mills, etc., but why enumerate? With 
twenty-five feet of fsxll in one mile along the canal, and fifty feet fall within a 
distance of three or three and a half miles, the intelligent reader will readily 
see that the facilities for manufacturing- will be unparalleled. 

9. A dam (and locks) will, as before stated, raise the water at that 
point to a height of fifty feet or more above low water mark in the Mississippi. 
This will render the Meramec navigable a distance of more than one hundred 



ST. LOOIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 213 

miles (without any serious injury to the country,) thus affording cheap watoi 
communication to the extensive iron works already in operation along that 
stream, and also for the shipment of the minerals, in which that country 
abounds. 

The Meramec river has laid dormant from the " beginning," and now that 
"The Future Great City" has extended its limits so near its sliores, and a feasi- 
ble plan has been matured, in the consummation of which this river can be 
rendered of incalculable importance to the steam marine of the Mississippi 
Valley, to the boat building interest of the United States, and to the manufac- 
turing interests of this State — the modest Meramec seems to say, " Why don't 
you harness me in the interest of commerce and manufactures?" 

When I review this whole matter, fully understanding the urgent necessity 
for a safe harbor for the protection of our steam marine, directly connected 
with which should be the boat-yard and dry-docks j and when I see what facili- 
ties and advantages are here afforded for all the purposes above alluded to, it 
seems as if a kind Providence had located that river for these special purposes, 
and that it has been revealed to us just when we need it. Should we fail to 
take advantage of this, and allow our steam marine to be destroyed year after 
year, the generation that shall follow us, and enjoy the advantages of the 
improvements here suggested, may very properly censure us for our stupidity. 
The interests of the Mississippi Valley cannot be ignored, and the necessity for 
proper protection in our shipping must be met. 

As indicated above, this is a matter of vast importance to our city, our State, 
and to the United States. Its completion would prove of incalculable benefit 
to our commerce; would bring capital and scores of manufactories; stimulate 
skilled labor to engage in the development of our mines; vitalize the now 
worthless woods of our vast forests; turn the tide of cotton here for manufac- 
ture and sale; and in a thousand ways add to the industry, wealth and produc- 
tive population of the State. With a full appreciation of the necessity of this 
matter, shall we let the disgrace of a failure to make this important improve- 
ment, rest upon the present generation ? 

Having no pecuniary interest, whatever, in this great enterpi'ise, and 
actuated only by a desire to protect and increase our river commerce and stimu- 
late manufactures, I make free to suggest to the Merchant's Exchange and 
Board of Trade tlie propriety of appointing a committee from their membei"8 
to prepare a memorial to our State Legislature and to Congress, demanding 
appropriations for this improvement; and that copies of the memorial to the 
Legislature be sent to every postofiice in every river county in this State, to be 
signed and returned to the Secretary of the Merchants' Exchange; and that the 
memorial to Congress be sent to the principal shipping points in the Mississippi 
Valley, to be signed and forwarded to Congi-ess early in its next session. 



214 8T. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITT. 

The comtnereial destiny of this city, and of the Mississippi Valley is, to & 
considej-able extent, in the hands of the Union Merchants' Exchange and the 
Board o-f Trade of St. Louis — composed of the representative men of the 
"Commercial Metropolis." To these representatives of our commercial in- 
terests, 1 respectfully submit the further consideration of this matter, which, 
in my humble opinion, is paramount in importance to any other that can claim 
their earnest consideration and prompt and energetic action. 

Very respectfully, W».. Yanzandt. 



THE GREAT BRIDGE NOW BEING BUILT OYER THE 

MISSISSIPPI, AT ST. LOUIS. 



" Wbat a glorious future may we not anticipate for our own St. Louis! Wty. sir, I imagine I 
can see the Oriental traveler, on his brief excursion round the world, pause upon the central span 
of the Eads Bridi^e, and, amid a prodigality of gigantic achievements of science and progressive 
effort, still read in the distant future developments of equal or greater magnitude. He stands 
upon a structure which rests upon the deep foundations of the earth itself, and presents in ite 
strength and massive grandeur, in its piers of granite and arches of steel, fit emblems of our moral 
as well as physicals triictures, the steadfastness and wisdom of our institutions, and the solidity of 
our industries. Beneath him flows the great Father of Waters, bearing on its bosom the argosies 
of an empire, while on every hand the evidences of triumphant art command his attention. A city 
of 1,000,000 inhabitants lies before him, and it may be on one of its ascending steppes the capituil 
of the nation rears its peerless dome. Strange wonders, these, of Time's begetting, and of 
progressive revolutions ! The providential mystery which hid this continent from the knowledge 
of Ithe civilized world for thousands of years, begins to clear away under the sunshine of facts 
which surrounds him, and the grand revelation is made that it was reserved for a period when 
mankind should aim to be fraternal, and the victories of peace should be acknowledged the 
crowning glories of ambition." — B. R. Bonnkk. 

Each age and each nation produces it8 great works in some phase of human 
progress. The early Jews built the tower of Babel ; Egypt had the pyramids 
and Catacombs ; Greece her Parthenon and unequaled temples of worship ; 
Rome had her Coliseum ; the middle ages their walletl cities. But modern 
civilization, passing beyond the age of oelfishness, ambition, and idolatry, gives 
to mankind magnificent structures of greater use as the triumphs of the 
senius of the race. 

The greatest work of mechanical art that the world has yet beheld is the 
Crystal Palace of the nineteenth century. It combines in one grand master- 
piece of art, and one glow of associated beauty, the highest civilization aiid 
progress of man. 

The leading feature of the present age is the strife for commercial dominion. 
In this department of civilization is enlisted more capital, talent, and men 
than in any other. All the rapid strides of the race are made in its interest — 
whether in the achievement of art, of science, or of genius. The wild billows 
of the Atlantic have been defied by steam and electricity, and the two great 
continents of kindred shores united by these subtle agents ; and now with otie 
steady grand march does civilization, carried by the tides of men, continue ite 
journey to the West — to the high mountains, and the broad and calmer "^aters 
of the wide Pacific Ocean. With these great movements jcme the ma&bx'r- 
works of mechanics and arts. 

Since the invention of the steam engine, the railway system may be regardeid 
ftB the greatest aid to civilization the arts have produced, on account of the ;apid 



21 (^ 8T. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITT. 

interoommunion of men and ideas, and the exchange of products. But a great 
and valuable railway system without bridges to cross the inland streams would 
be an impossibility ; hence the remarkable developn>ent of genius and art, and 
the concentration of capital, to construct in ample proportions these master- 
fabrics for commercial use. Nor are they constructed as the easy work com- 
mon to the ordinary routine of life. But rather are they, who project great 
works in advance of the resistless moving times, compelled to contend against 
a vast array of ignorance, prejudice, and selfishness. Yes, there is one thing 
common in the history of all great undertakings that have to break a new 
path : they have to combat against frivolous objections and contempt, and, 
even in the best cases, against the unsympathetic attitude of the masses. At 
the same time it must be confessed that these opposing elements have never 
failed to pass into their opposites, as soon as perseverance, talent, and business 
energy on the part of individuals have, in spite of them, realized what has 
once been acknowledged as possible and necessary. In all such cases contempt 
has been exchanged for admiration, doubt has been compelled to give way ; and 
the more rapidly and victoriously the enterprise, which was once so strongly 
doubted or even assailed, progresses, the more surprisingly does the number of 
thoae increase who would fain have it believed that they stood as prophets of 
good by its cradle. Such was the case — to confine our examples to American 
soil — with the Erie canal, with the leveling of Chicago, with the Pacific 
railroads, and finally with that immense structure which, before the face of St. 
Louis, is soon destined to span the Father of Waters. This one circumstance 
might be sufficient to secure the work its proper place among the great feats 
of humanity in modern times. But such is no longer necessary as an argu- 
ment ; the structure has its days of combat behind it — already its creators can 
point with silent finger to the actual progress which it has made, and to the 
point which it has at this moment attained, and allow that which has already 
been accomplished to speak for that which is yet to be accomplished. And it 
speaks irresistibly ; it tells us not only that the completion of a work which in 
its line has no peer, is certain, but it tells us also that, as in the case of the 
Pacific railways, the goal will be reached many a day sooner than the original 
calculations and pre-suppositions led us to expect 

That the trade of the central portion of the Mississippi Valley, which centers 
in St. Louis, and advances every year with such gigantic strides, was not 
sufficiently provided for by the present arrangements for transportation across 
the broad stream which separates Missouri and Illinois, or, to speak more cor- 
rectly, the true East and West of the United States, has been known and seen 
by every one for many years. 

Passing from this general allusion to the struggle which enterprise is com- 
pelled to wage against established conditions, we at once submit a general 
sta^'^ ment of the great Bridge under consideration. 

The plan of the Bridge, as it is now being built, is quite original in many 
particulars, and when completed will, in all probability, be superior to any 
structure of the kind in the world. So great and important is the structure, 
that a complete description of its main work will not be uninteresting to the 



ST. LOOIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 217 

general reader ; for the work itself has its lesson as well as its value, and 
therefore its manner of building, as well as its style of structure, will be of 
great public interest. 

THE PIERS OF THE BRIDQE. 

The locality at the river chosen for the bridge is a scene of the strangest and 
most exciting kind. Along the banks are extensive workshops, heaps of hewn 
stone, beams, iron-work and cement barrels, forges, offices and sheds for sup- 
pliefl, derricks and other arrangements for hoisting, and pile-drivers, whose 
construction alone is a sort of miracle, and finally the lofty bridge-scaffoldings 
composed of thousands of beams, arms, and parts of iron machines over the 
shore piers, which are in progress of construction inside of strong caissons. 
In the midst of the river, 500 feet from either shore, and 520 feet distant from 
each other, we see the same scaffoldings, only more complicated and more 
lofty, and, notwithstanding their colossal size, affordii^g an almost elegant 
spectacle in their wonderful symmetry. Structures of all kinds, and palisades 
that go down a hundred feet into the river, intended to break the current, 
and more particularly the floating ice in winter, surround these wonderful 
constructions that rise from the bosom of the river. 

Like the building yards on shore, and even more than these, they are 
crowded with a perfect bee-hive of engineers and workmen, whose self- 
conscious ability is infinitely increased by the enormous mechanical powers 
which stand here ready for use at every step, in the form of floating derricks, 
steam engines, pumps, and hydraulic jacks. These are the building yards of the 
two piers. Under these scaffoldings and iron constructions the heavy masses 
of stone which are intended to carry and hold the three arches of the bridge 
mostly counterparts of the ponderous structures of the ancient Egj^^ptians, are 
put together. But how much easier was the task of those ancients, who piled 
up their edifices in the familiar element of atmospheric air ! In our case they 
had to penetrate into the deeps, but not, like the miner, into the solia element 
of the earth ; they had to break through a volume of water thirty feet deep, 
and, after arriving at the bottom, to burrow through the sixty and ninety-feet 
thick layers of treacherous, ever-changing Mississippi sand, in order to rest 
the basis of the piers upon the eternal ribs of the earth itself, on the rocks of 
primeval worlds. 

The investigations of years in regard to the undercurrent of the Mississippi 
have shown that no river in the world changes its sand-bed so rapidly and to 
such an extent ; and more particularly the soundings that were made near St. 
Louis showed that at times, when the river overflows, its sand-layers may be 
carried away to the depth of forty feet, and, under extraordinary circum- 
stances, scoured down to the very rock itself. Tb \8 was demonstrated the 
necessity of laying the basis of the piers upon the rock itself, which under one 
pier is ninety feet, under the other one hundred and twenty feet, under the 
ordinary high-water line. Inasmuch, on the other hand, as the law of Congress, 
made in the interest of navigation, prescribes that the height of the arches 
shall be fifty feet above the city directrix, or ordinary high-water line of th© 



218 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITf. 

river, it results that the entire height of the piers must reach 165 and 194 f©»t 
respectively. 

The system by which the base is laid upon the rock is that of sinking. Om 
colossal iron caissons (open below and resting upon the sand itself), which, 
with the increasing weight of the piers built on top of them, and as the 
sand under them is removed to the upper world, sink deeper and deeper, thii 
lowering is etfected. In order, however, to render the caissons — which, in spit-« 
of the thickness of their iron walls and their solid construction, might not bo 
able to withstand the pressure of the growing masonry and the masses of sand 
that press against their side wails — capable of resistance, the atmosphere, by 
means of enormous air-pumps, is compressed in them in such a manner that 
their power of resistance can be increased to meet any exigenc3\ When the 
caisson or air-chamber, as it is called with propriety, strikes upon the rock — 
that is, when the sand-pumps working it have removed the gigantic layers of 
sand through which it had to penetrate, and when the pier that rests on th« 
caisson is separated only by the air-chamber from the rock — then it (the 
caisson) is filled with concrete, which completes the indissoluble connection 
between pier and rock. When the last particle of compressed air in the air- 
chamber has given place to this indestructible compound of cement and stone, 
all that remains to be done is to fill up in a similar manner the perpendicular 
shafts which communicate between the air-chamber and the upper world, and 
the whole structure of the pier in solid compactness, incorporated with the 
rock far below, stands aloft, bathing high above its colossal and yet elegant 
form in the rays of the sun, out of the floods of the river. 

IN THE AIR-CHAMBER. 

During the last few months a visit to one of the air-chambers under the piert 
was one of the principal attractions that St. Louis had to show to visitors. 
The further the piers themselves advanced — that is, the deeper the air-chamber 
sunk with its burden — the greater was the compression of the air necessary to 
render them capable of supporting the immense weight which increased witb 
every inch of sinking, and all the harder was the work inside the caisson. 
When the air-chamber of the east pier, on the 28th of February last, reache-d 
the depth of ninety-five feet under the bed of the river, with a weight of 20,000 
tons upon it, the workman who removed the last of the sand had to work under 
the pressure of three atmospheres ; and it was not possible so entirely to avoid 
all kinds of mischances, as has hitherto been the case, without changing the 
workmen as frequently as possible. In order to afford a more complete un<ier. 
standing of the matter, we must remark that the introduction of the compressed 
air into the caisson can be measured with such wonderful accuracy that the 
sinking can be regulated to an inch. This sinking is accurately calculated 
according to the quantity of the sand removed from beneath the air-chamber^ 
which is nine feet high. The sand itself is removed by means of powerful 
pumps, which pump up the sand in great streams after it has been softened and 
brought in the condition of drifting sand b}' means ol water supplied from » 
hose, and then driven back to the river from whose depths it had beien taken. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 219 

As we have already said, a number of shafts passing vertically down the 
pier effect a chimney kind of a communication between the air-chamber 
and the upper world. In the central and widest of these was a winding 
stair-case, which was lengthened as the pier reached downward, and was 
used for people to pass up and down. The smaller shafts, which also passed 
down the pier perpendicularly, contained the pipes which serve to introduce 
the compressed air, the hose for moistening the sand, the pump which removes 
it, machines for the introduction of materials, and a telegraphic arrangement 
by means of which the workmen from beneath, "where all things hideous are," 
are able to correspond every moment with "those that breathe in the rosy 
light." 

The entrance into the caisson itself was effected by means of an air-lock at 
the bottom of the winding stair-case — a lock which, like the caisson, is con- 
structed of thick iron, and is an integral part of it. As soon as the chamber 
was entered, which was capable of holding six or eight persons, the current of 
air admitted rushed round with such impetuosity that even strong organiza- 
tions entering this kingdom of darkness and night for the first time could not 
disembarrass themselves of a certain feeling of uneasiness. The iron door that 
led to the outer world pressed firmer against its frame, by the force of the air 
streaming in, than could be done by a lock or any other contrivance. The 
stop-cock through which the air streamed in was not closed until the atmos- 
phere in the air-lock had reached the same density as that in the main part of 
the caisson. As soon as this was the case the door leading into the caisson 
opened of itself, and we were ready to enter this subterraneous worlsshop, where 
even the clearest voice loses its sound, and where, deep under the echo of human 
speech — yea, deep under the water's undermost depths — busy workmen pave the 
way for the sinking pier. 

For a while one felt perfectly comfortable in this underworld — a world 
such as no mythology and no superstition ever dreamed of. The transition 
indeed, became apparent by pain in the ears, bleeding at the nose, or a feeling 
of suffocation ; but these inconveniences and seeming dangers, inevitable upon 
such a visit to hell, were insignificant in comparison with the interest which it 
offered. It was undertaken by hundreds and hundreds of visitors, including 
many ladies, and none returned from that depth without carrying along with 
them one of the most remarkable reminiscences of their whole life. Shrouded 
in a mantle of vapor labor the workmen there, loosening the sand ; dim flicker 
the flames of the lamps, and the air had such a strange density and moisture 
that one wandered about almost as if he were in a dream. For a short time all 
this was extremely interesting and delightful, but it was not long before the wish 
to escape again from this strange situation gained the upper hand over the 
«harm which it exercised. Gladly did the visitor, after a quarter of an hour, 
re-enter the air-lock, with an unfeigned feeling of relief, to watch the air 
beginning to escape from this chamber. At once the door behind him leading 
from the caisson closed by the denser air, and fastened as firmly as if there 
was a mountain behind it. The compressed element escaped whistling from 
the air-lock; the air within was more and more equalized with the air without; 



220 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

& few minutes, and they were of equal density ; then the door, no longer 
pressed against its frame by the dense atmosphere, opened to the winding 
stairs, and the visitor came forth taking a long breath, and, to use Schiller's 
words, once more "greets the heavenly light" which shone from far above 
down the shaft. 

THE BRIDGE WHEN COMPLETED. 

At present both the piers may be considered as finished. The east pier has 
been resting with its caisson on the rock since the 28th of February, and the 
filling of the chambers was then rapidly accorapHshed. Its western companion 
had then only three feet more to sink, and this it might have done in a very 
short time, but the supply of granite failed to arrive in time, and so inter- 
rupted the building itself. It is laid down in the plan that the portion of the 
piers above water, and exposed to the action of the air, shalf be built of the 
strongest granite, while the parts extending from the rock vo a certain point 
under the lowest water shall be built from limestone blocks from Grafton 
quarry, in Illinois. When the expected granite arrived, the construction of 
the piers above the surface of the water made rapid progress, and in a few 
weeks they will have reached the prescribed height of fifty feet above the 
water level. Their total height, or, if you prefer it, their total depth, will 
then, as stated above, be 194 and 165 feet respectively — the east pier being the 
highest, because the rock on the Illinois side of the I'iver lies deeper than it 
does on the Mi§80uri side. The hexagonal foundation of the piers is 82 feet in 
length ; their weight amounts to from 28,000 to 33,000 tons. No less solid and 
massive is the construction of the abutments. In their case, likewise, they 
had to go down to the rocks. Upon the Missouri side of the river this 
presented little difficult}', which, however, will be made up for on the Illinois 
side, on account of the nature of the American bottom. On this side the 
works are already advancing, inside a gigantic coffer-dam, towards the surface. 
On the other side they are Just being begun. We know, however*, that in the 
character of this work a beginning is the beginning of a certain, and particu- 
larly of an early, termination. It will therefore not be long before the Illinois 
abutment will rapidly follow its vis-a-vis and the two piers. 

These four piers will form the substructure which now approaches its 
termination with rapid strides. Upon the masses thereof, which are put 
together to last for an eternity, the bridge itself will rest, which is destined to 
facilitate the proudest inland commerce over the proudest of streams. They 
will carry three arches, which, as was already remarked, will measure — those 
extending from, the abutments to the piers 500 feet each, and the span of the 
principal arch between the two piers 520 feet. The possibility of erecting such 
long spans, considering the enormous weight which they will have to bear, was 
at first strongly doubted, and still more strongly contested. Captain Eads, 
however, sustained on the one side by his calculations, on the other by the 
example of the arched bridge at Kulinburg, in Holland, which spans the Leek 
with a span of 500 feet, as well as by the plans of the English bridge-engineer 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 221 

Telford, which Avere made in the beginning of this oenturj, was enabled to 
invalidate and set aside all these objections. Cast-steel is selected as the 
material of these arches Each of them will be double, that is to say, will 
consist of two concentric arches 12 feet apart, and joined together by a network 
of the most massive steel braces. Such double arches will be stretched four 
in each span^ running parallel with each other from pier to pier. Upon their 
iron necks will be laid the real bridge in two stories. The lower of these 
stories is intended for the railways; the upper belongs to vehicles and foot 
passengers. Being fifty feet wide, both will afford space enough to satisfy the 
demands of the liveliest traffic. Meanwhile, underneath, the largest steamers, 
even when the water is at its highest, may dash along ; and while over them 
the East and West exchange their riches, they may, unimpeded, perform the 
exchange between the North and the South. St. Louis, however, will not only 
have the boldest arch bridge in the world, but it will also have the first struc- 
ture of the kind built of steel, the true noble metal of our times. Let us leave 
to Europe her Krupp and her arsenal full of cast-steel cannon — the one steei 
bridge over the Mississippi casts into the shade all that equivocal wealth of the 
old world. 

It remains to say a few words in regard to the shore structures, or, more 
properly, to the approaches to the bridge. The street leading directly to the 
bridge — Washington avenue — is one of the broadest and finest in St. Louis. 
Like the whok of the St. Louis shore, it slopes rapidly when it approaches the 
river. It will be sufficient, therefore, to prolong the bridge, which rises about 
fifty feet above the shore, a comparatively short distance — three blocks — 1,049 
feet into the city, in order that its level may equal that of Washington avenue. 
A viaduct of five arches, of twenty-seven feet span each, under which the traffic 
of the cross streets below may be carried on unobstructedly, will form the 
continuation of the bridge, and of course will be of the same height and 
breadth. At the end of it the high level road will pass into Washington avenue, 
which still continues t-o rise, whereas the low level road, with its railways, will 
run into a tunnel, 4,800 feet in length, which passes under a large portion -of 
the city, and terminates at the spot where, the great St. Louis Central Railroad 
Depot will be erected — where at present the Pacific railroad crosses Eleventh 
street. The tunnel will be fifteen feet wide and seventeen feet high. By 
means of soundings and borings it has been ascertained that there are only 
layers of clay to be tunneled through, and therefore the latter portion of the 
enterprise will offer no particular difficulties. With the approach to the bridge 
over the flat marshy ground on the Illinois shore, the company itself has nothing 
whatever to do. Dykes and trestles, branching off according to the conve- 
nience of the different railroad companies to north, south, or east, will complete 
the connection with the bridge. The upper carriage-way will be carried out 
upon solid constructions as far as Fourth street in East St. Louis, from which 
point the Missouri traffic will divide up in all directions. 

And now, what will this gigantic work — measuring from the Illinois abut- 
ment to Washington avenue, in St. Louis, 2,230 feet — cost ? We put down the 
•etimates for the different parts, as well as for the whole structure : 



222 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Supergtructure (piers and abutmentfl) « -* $1,540,080 00 

Superatruotare (arches and roads for traffic) m.,..»* ~ 1,460,418 30 

Approaches ........~ ~ 620,397 24 

Tunnel ~ ...m.^.. 410,477 55 

Expropriations «...-. 639,900 00 

Railroad « « - 26,680 90 

Total expense of bridge $4,496,953 09 

Of this capital, three millions ($1,200,000 in St. Louis, the rest in New 
York) have already been subscribed, and the outlay up to the present moment 
is $1,700,000. At the same time the financial management has hitherto been 
so successful, and the different contracts made so advantageously, that the 
progress of the bridge will certainly not be interrupted by any pecuniary 
difficulties. No less certain is it that advantage will be taken of the work as 
soon as it is completed. The data which have been made and collected with 
extreme care in regard to this point by one of the directors, Dr. William 
Taussig — who must be considered one of the most energetic promoters and 
patrons of the great national enterprise — lead to the following results : 

At least thirteen railroads will have their terminus on the Illinois shore of 
the Mississippi in East St. Louis. And at least eleven railways will soon leave 
St. Louis itself, cutting the State of Missouri in all directions. Of only three 
of all these have we any statistieal reports, and these relate only to the freight 
traffic of the year 1867. They show that during that year 767,400 tons of 
freight were carried over these lines. The most modest estimate of the traffie 
of twelve railways, which will be Ktie total number finished and in operation 
before the completion of the bridge, ca»not place it below a million of tons. 
The contracts already made with the difi'erent railway companies, and those 
still to be negotiated, secure to the Bridge Company an average tariff of 65 
cents a ton, which would yield a yearly revenue from freight alone of $550,500. 
The remaining traffic (horse-cars, coal carts, farmers' wagons, and other freigij.t 
conveyances, along with cattle transport), according to present estimates;, may 
be reckoned at $129,647, and passengers on the railways $112,000, so that alto- 
geth-er the total revenue would amount to $892,147. From this sum $40,000 
must be subtracted for annual incidental expenses, and there will remain over 
a sum equal to eight and a half per cent, on a capital of ten millions. 

It is expected that the bridge will be inaugurated in the last days of next 
year. However, if we may draw a conclusion from the past favors of fortune 
upon the work, the latter part of the summer of 1871 will see the first train of 
cars pass over the steel and granite structures of this unrivaled bridge. Then 
it will not only be a source of pi"ide to every Missourian in particular and every 
American in general, but its massive and yet magnificently elegant forms will 
be a source of astonishment to the ordinary spectator and of admiring appre- 
ciation to the professional engineer. Then likewise will be brilliantly verified 
the words with which the architect closed the report which he laid before the 
company in the spring of 1868, and which are as follows : 

" It is safe in stating that rarely has an enterprise been inaugurated which 
appeals so strongly to the support of our citizens of all classes, which promises 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTUKE liREAT CITY. 223 

■o much to add to the welfare and prosperity of the city, ana which offers such 
ft safe and remunerative return for the lahor and capital invested in it." 

At the present time the west pier is sunk to the rock, and the air-chamberu 
of hoth piers, and the shafts in them, have been filled up with concrete ; and 
the masonry has been carried up to about six feet above low-water lines. The 
caisson for the east abutment is being built at Carondelet, and will be launched 
about August 10th of this year. 

The west abutment has also been built up to al)0ut twelve feet above low. 
water, and by February Ist of next year all the masonry of the piers will be 
ready for the superstructure. The contract for the superstructure has been 
awarded to the Kingston Bridge Company, of Pittsburg, Pa., and that com- 
pany is now working in the most urgent manner to fill their contract, which 
obliges them to furnish and raise the superstructure of the bridge within seven- 
teen months. A notable feature of this contract consists in the fact that it has 
been let at prices below those estimated by the Chief Engineer. 

This constitutes a brief outline description of the great St. Louis Railway 
and Passenger Bridge, which is now in process of construction. 

A very brief classification of the approved bridges of the day, and an 
allusion to specimens of the various kinds, will, perhaps, enable the casual 
reader to receive a better impression of the magnitude of the St. Louis bridge. 
There are four prominent stylcB of bridges, which are generally adopted by 
the engineering profession when they aim to erect something that will endure 
to remote generations — the tubular, the suspension, the lattice, and the arch — 
all constructed of iron, in one or more of its forms. The tubular^ invented by 
Robert Stephenson, although materially aided by Fairbairn, will always, we 
think, be regarded a^ one of the great ideas of the nineteenth century. It is a 
straight, hollow, rectangular tube. The Britannia bridge is ttie grandest 
specimen ; for its longest span or reach, between supports, is 459 feet. But 
long as it is, it was lifted in one piece 100 feet high, to its present postion- 
The Victoria bridge has no span of equal length, nor was it elevated in the 
same way. 

The suspension, in its crude forms, is of ancient date. It is found in all 
lands, but until later years it has never received the indorsement of engineers 
as the reliable support of railway trains; and in this respect it can hardly be 
said to -have thoroughly disarmed sound criticism, when we claim we are build- 
ing something that is truly permanent. It possesses some qualities that will 
always render it popular. It can be constructed more easily in many positions. 
A much greater span can be obtained than by any other known method, and 
the cost is comparatively less. Perhaps this last feature can be understood 
when we remember that the Niagara bridge, with a span of .821 feet, was built 
for less than the yearly interest on the sum expended on the Britannia bridgo. 
Its general construction is well known. In Europe, the prominent specimens 
are the Menai, by Telford, with a span of 580 feet, and the Freybnrg, in Switzer- 
land, with a span of 870 feet. In this country, Ellet and Roebling have ideut*^ 
6ed themselves with the Wheeling, Niagara, Cincinnati, and other bridges. 
Bli^t constructed the Wheeling bridge, 1,000 feet span, which failed to witk- 



224 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

stand tbe winds ; yet Mr. Ellet was a great man. Mr. Koebling may be 
regarded as the great exponent of the suspension bridge in this country. His 
reputation may well be envied ; for while the great engineers of Europe were 
declaring it was impossible, he went on with the Niagara bridge ; and now, 
after eighteen years' successful usage, it has caused the engineers of the old 
world to reverse their theories. 

He built the Cincinnati bridge, and if, in future times, the suspension shall 
have become recognized as a thoroughly safe, permanent structure for railway 
trains, to .Mr. Roebling, more than any other, will the credit belong. 

The lattice bridge has been and is now a very popular type of bridge. The 
name will readily convey a correct impression of its general construction. In 
some respects it is preferable to the tubular. It is less costly and is less rigid, 
which some claim to be an advantage. As fine a specimen of this kind, per- 
haps, as can be seen anywhere, is at Cologne, over the Rhine. Its longest 
reach is 330 feet. It is, however, liable to oscillation. 

But yielding everything to the suspension and the lattice that can with reason 
be claimed for them, it is questionable whether they possess the elements of 
perpetuity equally with the arch. Wo know arch bridges have endured for 
centuries ; we do not yet know how long a railway suspension, tubular, or 
lattice bridge will continue. 

The first cast-iron arch bridge was built in 1779, with a span of 100 feek 
Many other iron arch bridges have been successfully constructed. They have 
always been highly esteemed for their strength and durability. The great 
drawback, perhaps, has been an inability to construct them with a span bo 
wide as to compare favorably with those of other styles. In England, the 
largest is the Southwark, with a span of 240 feet and a rise of 24 feet. Note 
this fact, and remember the length of the Britannia, 459 feet, and the length of 
the Cologne, 330 feet^ and then the importance of the St. Louis bridge, with its 
span of 520 feet, will appear. 

Its form is as enduring as any tested by the experience of ages. Its si^e 
surpasses that of any, when we consider the true comparison, the length of 
span. Its m.aterial, cast-steel, is the best in the world, ranking with wrought- 
iron in the ratio of two to one. 

The importance of the St. Louis bridge is still further increased when we 
consider its foundations, their depth, their mode of construction, and the 
attendant difficulties. 

Other engineers of great eminence have proposed the erection of bridges of 
greater span than this, but it rarely occurs tfeat the location and conditions 
of the case justify, as in this one, such bold grasp of mind on the part of the 
engineer, with the no less accompaniment of a proper manifestation of public 
spirit on the part of capitalists to carry out his design. 

Mr. Latrobe, a noted engineer of Baltimore, has expressed his opinion upon 
the construction of a bridge at St. Louis. He favored the use of piers higher 
than those of the present plan, requiring a stationary engine to draw the cars 
from either side to the center in passing over. He also advocated the use of 
spans 400 and 500 feet in length. 



ST. LOUTS, THB FUTURE GREAT CITY. 22& 

That modern engineers are anticipating something altogether superior to the 
past achievements, the following remarks of Mr. Roebling are evidence. 
He says : 

"It was left to modern engineering, by the application of the principle 
of suppenPion, and by the use of wrought-iron, to solve the prijblem of span- 
ning largo rivers without intermediate supports. Cast and wrought-iron 
arches, of 100 feet and more, have been quite successful. Nor can it be said 
the limit of arching has been reached. Timber arches of much greater span 
have stood for years, and have rendered good service in this country as well as 
on the continent of I'^mrope. It is worthy of notice, however, and to be cited 
as a curious professional circumstance, that the best form of material, so pro- 
fusely applied by nature in her elaborate constructions, has never been used in 
arching, although proposed on several occasions. This form is unqiiestionably 
the cylindrical, combined in small sections, as is illustrated by vegetable and 
animal structures. Where strength is to be combined with lightness and ele- 
gance, nature never wastes heavy, cumbrous masses. The architects of the 
middle ages fully illustrated this by their beautiful buttresses and flying 
arches, combinations of strength and stability, executed with the least amount 
of material. 

"The wrought-iron pipe, now manufactured of all sizes and in such great 
perfection, offers to the engineer a material for arching which cannot be 
excelled. A wire cable, composed of an assemblage of wires, constitutes the 
best catenary arch for the suspension of great weights ; and, as a parallel to 
this, if the catenary is reversed, the best upright arch for the support of a 
bridge may bo formed by an assemblage of wrought-iron pipes, of one and a half 
or two inches diameter or more. Arches of 1,00U feet span and more may be 
rendered practicable and safe upon this system. I venture to predict that the 
two great rival systems of future bridge engineering will be the inverted and 
upright arch — the former made of wire, and the latter of pipe, both systems 
rendered stable by the assistance of lattice work, or by stays, trasses, and 
girders." 

It has already been stated that the bridge to be built at St. Louis is to be 
made of cast-steel ; and in the meantime, extensive experiments have been 
going on to thoroughly test the strength of the metal, and no possible precaution 
will be neglected or effort omitted to make this bridge a complete and perfect 
sufcess. Although not so great in length as the Victoria bridge over the St. 
Lawrence, which is nearly two miles long, nor the bridge over the Nebudda, in 
India, which is one and a half miles long, nor the bridge from Bassein to the 
main land, which is over three miles long, yet its magnificent spans and stately 
piers place it far above these bridges in character and structure. And when 
oaice built it will be grander than the Colossus at Rhodes, grander than the 
Pharos at Alexandria. It will vitalize the commerce of the Mississippi Valley, 
and unite the great railway chains between New York and San Francisco, tlie 
Lakes and the Gulf. When completed, it will place the name of its builder, 
Capt. James B. Eads, with those of Telford, Smeaton, Stephenson, and other 



226 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

distinguished engineers of the -world. Mr. Eads already stands prominent aa 
one of the most enterprising and public-spirited citizens of St. Louis ; and 
should this bridge enterprise, in which he is more prominent than any other, 
prove successful, his character and reputation will become the public property 
of the country, even as the bridge itself will be. Almost proverbial for the 
invariable success attending everything he undertakes, and with a world-wide 
reputation for practical ingenuity and indomitable energy, we hail his promi- 
nent identification with this work as an assurance of its successful completion. 
To him, and to the enlightened, public-spirited citizens who have pledged their 
capital and influence to sustain the enterprise, will justly belong the glory thct 
will surely attach to the St. Louis Bridge. 



EAST SAINT LOUIS. 



ITS PAST mSTOKY— GROWTH— PEESENT STATUS AOT) FUTURE 

PROSPECTS. 

On the Eastern bank of the Mississippi River, directly opposite the city 
whose future greatness and prosperity we have heretofore predicted, and 
which prediction is fast becoming a reality, stands the young and thriving city 
of " East St. Louis." 

Up through the floods and soft alluvial soil she has risen — little by little — 
each year overcoming barriers and difficulties that were considered almost in- 
surmountable ; and now having gained the mastery, stands as a powerful ad- 
junct and ally — though not a rival — of the great city on the western bank of 
the river. So intimately associated are the two cities, and so necessary to 
each other's existence and prosperity, that we cannot do full justice to the one 
without mentioning the other. Indeed, we cannot truly prognosticate the 
growth and future greatness of the older and larger of the two, without also 
calling attention to the younger and less pretentious city, through which, as 
an entrepot, much of ita trade and commerce must flow. 

We have known the place hitherto, as simply a terminus for the railroads. 

The few restaurants, saloons and boarding-housew at the depots were deem- 
ed the natural appendages of the railroads, but for many years no one thought 
of ware-houses, elevators, iron mills or manufacturing establishments or a 
Continental stockyard. If a tbought was given to the place where the rail- 
roads terminated, beyond the interest mentioned, it was of an historical char- 
acter; for, as "Bloody Island," it was known far and wide, and the tragic 
scenes enacted on its soil were the themes of frequent discourse, by old resi- 
dents of St. Louis and strangers in transit. The character of this neighboring 
" province" is not yet clearly understood by the busy inhabitants of St. Louis, 
nor have they noted the many improvements going on constantly in the new 
city. 

Be it known then to all. that the old lines are wiped out; — the familiar 
haunts for fishermen and sportsmen are no longer to be found; the localities 
known as " Bloody Island," " Illinoistown," " Papstown," and fey whatever 
other names they may have been known, are the centres of trade and manu- 
fe,ctures, now crossed and recros.sed by wide and handsome streets bearing 
ohristian names. The old names have passed into 

HISTORY. 

There are a few of the old inhabitants of St. Louis living who remember 



228 EAST ST. LOUIS. 

when there was no '' Bloody Island." The " Father ofWaters," covered the 
entire space of the island and frequently extended its dominion to the Bluffs 
beyond. Dr. Piggott, a very respectable gentleman, now living in St. Louis, 
at the advanced age of eighty years, informs us that when he was a boy, there 
was no island visible. Then he remembers that a small sand-bar appeared, 
and grew from year to year, until it became to be dignified by the name of 
"Island." Its first inhabitants were Indians, who came down the river in 
canoes and encamped on it, as soon as it became large enough. Here they 
would remain until they received their annuities from the government officers 
at St. Louis. This statement is corroborated by Dr. Peck, in his " Annals," 
who remarks that " several years after the settlement of St. Louis no "Bloody 
Island" or Duncan's Island existed, but directly opposite the "old market" 
square the river was narrow and deep, and persons could be distinctly heard 
from the opposite shore." 

The Indians left no stains of blood on the Island, that we have any account 
of; but it remained for their white brethren to choose this barren spot as the 
place where they could, unmolested b}" law, settle their disputes according to 
the code of honor. These duels, in the early times, were frequent, and often 
bloody and fatal. Some of the contestants were famous men of that day, such 
as Thos. H. Benton and Gov. Peters, while others, but little known, have 
grown famous. As civilization and Christianity progressed, the duello became 
unpopular, and "Bloody Island" has long since ceased to be regarded as in any 
degree sanguinary. 

That part of the present city of East St. Louis, on the east side of Cahokia 
creek, running north and south, was formerly divided into three town plats, 
namely: old Illinoistown on the south, St. Clair in the centre and the town 
of East St. Louis on the north. Illinoistown had thehonor of being the oldest 
settlement on the river next to Cahokia. Indeed, it is quite probable that 
French settlers located at this point almost simultameously with those who 
began the settlement at Cahokia. There were cabins in those early times — 
before the founding of St. Louis — scattered all along from Illinoistown to 
Cahokia, at different points and several trading posts. " Illinoistown," for 
many years, maintained the dignity of a village and trading post, though its 
progress was very slow. 

Its first impetus to growth was, when the citizens of St. Louis, alarmed by 
the encroachments of the river upon their harbor, took measures to construct 
the dvke across from the Island to the main land bevond Cahokia creek. 
The inhabitants awoke to the importance of this undertaking, and though not 
able to render much assistance, that we have ever heard of, the}- gladly assent- 
ed to the improvement, and saw in it a means of protection from overflow and 
thereby a chance for a start in the world as it proved to be. 

The various railroads, beginning or terminating on the Island, have proba- 
ble contributed more than any other cause towards uniting the Island to the 
territory beyond the creek, and in filling up the low and overflowed space, 
have rendered it suitable for residences, places of business and streets. 

Each road-bed is of itself a dyke and serves the double purpose of a railway 



EAST ST. LoniH. 228 

and security and protection from encroaching floods. With thirteen or more 
railroads crossing eacii other, and thusgridironing this once over-flowed tract, 
one can see how secure the foundations of the new city are becoming, and liow 
easily the spaces between the diti'erent roads can be filled in time and brought 
to at least on equal grade, and made useful for business purposes, for which in 
itd old and jiurLially present cundilion it is entirely unfit. 

INCORPORATION. 

By an act of the Illinois legislature, passed in February, 1865, the city of 
Bast St. Louis was incorporated, with full powers and privileges usually per- 
taining to a city. The corporate limits, as fixed by the charter, bound the 
city, on the north, by a line east atid west, immediately north of Bloody Island, 
on the north-east, by the southerly line of Illinois City — excluding it, oi> tiio 
south-oast, by the norlh-wesierly line of the commons of Cnhokia — (ixcludiiig 
them also, and by the southeasterly line of Tenth street of East St. Louis pro- 
per, and its straight continuation across the common fields to the old bed of 
Cahokia creek, arid from thence by a line due west to the middle of the main 
channel of the Mississipj)i, and on the west by the line of that channel which 
is the boundary of the city of St. Li>uis, and also the line dividing the states 
of Missouri and Illinois. 

These limits, as we have before mentioned, include the old town of Illinois, 
oommonly known as'' Illinoistown ;" the town of St. Clair, at one time known 
as " St. Clair City," the larger part of the platted town of East St. Louis pro- 
per, and the peninsula called " Bloody Island;" the latter — ^not long since — 
was subdivided by the owners, the Wiggins Ferry Co., as first, second, &c., 
Perry Divisions of East St. Louis. 

The territorial extent of the city is about three square miles. Jis river front 
about two miles in length, is unexcelled anywhere in the Mississippi Valley. 
Along itsentire length,. the i>ed of tlie river does not exceed 1800 feet in width, 
at any place narrow enough al all times to prevent the formation of bars whicli 
might obstructor endanger the city's harbor. The Wiggins Ferry Company, 
some years ago, at an enormous outlay of money, constructed, along the river 
front, a magniticeiii wharf nearly a niile long. They are constantly extending 
it — the rock being brought by barges from Carondelet, Alton and the recently 
made available and more convenient quarries at " Falling Springs." 

CAUi)KIA CRKKK. 

The city id penetrated, as we have already staled, nearly centrally, on a 
course about parallel to the Mississippi, by Cahokia creek, a small stream, 
which at one time, by a special law — unrepealed on the statute books — vvas 
declared a. navigable stream for miles above the city. Its pi-esent depth, to- ^ 
gether with the many railroad bridges crossing it, have destroyed its availa- 
bility as a highway, yet its usefulness in furnishijig a never-failing supply of 
water for manufacturing purposes, is appreciated, and will invite the erection 
of m.ore mills and other factories within it-s neighborhood. In times to come. 



230 



EAST ST. LOmS. 



It may be veiy advantageously used as a main drain of a system of sewerage. 
Several plans have been proposed, purposing to turn to one side or the other, 
the course of (Jahokia creek, before i1 roaches the city, but none as yet has 
met with the approval of those who would undertake it, were &uch a plan prac- 
ticable, and we doubt whether East St. Louis can afford to favor such an un- 
dertaking. Unless the plan of turning the creek from its present self-chosen 
course be a part of a grand scheme — the ol)jcct of draining the whole Ameri- 
can Bottom and securing it against floods — the advantage, derived by East St.. 
Louis, would not be commensurate to the inconvenience its absence might 
occasion. , 



DIVISIONS, STKEETS, *C. 



The city is, so to speak, composed of two almost distinct parts — one east,, 
and the other west of Cahokia creek. The part west, as will have been seen, 
contains the city harbor and the several railroad depots ; the part east contains 
the older settled portion of the city, the several railroad machine shops, iron 
rail mills, etc., and is the mart for the greater portion of the trafficing done 
within the whole limits. Both parts arc connected with dykes — the one already 
referred to, built many years ago, and the other quite recently — nearly four 
hundred ^-ards north of the old one, and running parallel to it, known as 
<;jhri8ty avenue or Bowman's dyke. Jt is an extension of a street by that 
name, issuing opposite the middle of Carr street ferry-landing, and over it is 
operated the only horse railway at this time in use in the city. Another- 
avenue of communication is being opened between these two sections of the 
city, about opposite Spruce street, in St. Louis. 

Both ]jarts of the city are well provided with wide streets, some of which 
are already macadamized, while others are in process of completion, A clause 
in the present city ("barter prevents the laying out of streets wnthin the city, 
and outside, within a scope of one-half mile, unless in conformity with the 
existing general plan. A few disconnecting streets, established years ago, 
previous to the incorporation, are now undergoing the process of straighten- 
ing, and will add much to the beauty of the city and to the comfort and con- 
venience of the citizens and all who have occasion to use them. All alleys in: 
the Ferry division have very wisely been made wide enough to permit the lay- 
ing of tracks upon them, to offer the best possible advantages to shipping to 
and from the neighboring railroad depots. 

POPULATION. 

According to the United States census of 1870, the number of inhabitants 
living within the corporate limits of the city was upwards of 8,600. Since 
that time several manufacturing establishments have gone into operation, em- 
ploying many workmen who have come from various parts of the world- 
Business houses have also been opened, bringing men of capital and influence 
to manage them. These additions of permanent residcntB with their families 



EAST ST. LOUIS. 23] 

have swelled the population to more than 10,000, and have aided greatly in 
giving tone and character to the place. 

The old French inhabitants now form but a small portion of the popula- 
tion, but many of them are citizens of wealth and influence who have con- 
tributed largely to building up the city, while others with small means live 
contentedly with such employment as they can get, smoking their pipes and 
talking of the good old times. The Germans, in large numbers, and Irish, to 
a larger extent, have become permanent residents of the place, and take an 
active part, both in business and municipal affairs. A fair proportion of the 
population is of American origin, from all states east, west, north and south. 
All who have come, from whatever country or section, have found a cordial 
greeting, and with energy, strong muscle and whatever means they niay 
possess, seem determined to conti'ibute their share towards building up the 
place, and to prosper with it. 

THE RAILROADS. 

No less than thirteen important roads have their beginnings or endings in 
the city. They cross and re-cross each other at every point, and the music of 
the out-going and in -coming trains is continually heard in the streets, day and 
night. 

The names of these different railroads are : The Ohio and Mississippi, the 
Chicago, Alton and, St. Louijt, the Toledo, Wabash and Western, the South- 
eastern or Evansville and St. Louis Air Line, the Vandalia, the Indianapolis 
and St. Louis, the Cairo Short Line, Rockford, Rock Island and St. Louis, the 
111. and St. Louis, the 111. Central, the Pekin, Peoria and Jacksonville, the 
Caii'o and St. Louis Narrow Guage, the Pittsburgh Coal R. R. and the Bast 
St. Louis and Carondelet railroad. 

Nearly all of these roads have machine shops and other works, employing 
a large humber of hands. Most of these workmen have families, and in most 
instances they are the owners of their own firesides. 

The Ohio and Mississippi railroad has, perhaps, the most extensive repair 
shops and machine works in the city. The company manufacture their own 
locomotives here, and employ in this branch of business, alone, over two hun- 
dred men. The Chicago and Alton railroad has large repair shops but does 
no manufacturing. The St. Louis and Southeastern road also has shops j and 
some other roads are about building shops for repairing and manufacturing 
machinery necessary for use. ' 

Each railroad has a convenient and comfortable passenger depot with car- 
houses, freight depots and engine houses attached. Pour of the railroads have 
excellent restaurants for the accommodation of passengers inside the depot*. 

MANDFAOTURINfl ESTABLISHMENTS 

Besides the machine and repair shops, connected with the different railroads, 
which we have already mentioned, there are many other manufacturing 
establishments and places of industry of great importance to the city. Prom- 



232 ' BAST ST. LOUIS. 

inent among tbem are the following: The "East St. Louis Eail Mills," of 
which Mr. Gerard B. Allen, of St. Louis, is president. It is the oldest iron 
manufacturing establishment in the city. It has been in operation about ten 
years, and has, during that time, given employment to a large number of 
hands and has been of great benefit to the place. The mills do a large amount 
of work for the railroad companies, in the way of re-rolling old rails as well 
as in the manuflicture of new ones. The original purpose of the company 
embraced the manufacture of iron bars, rails, rods and other forms for the use 
of artisans, together with the re-rolling of old rails. The working up of pig 
iron into marketable articles is becoming an important branch of the business, 
and will no doubt lead to the enlargement of the works. 

THE ST. LOUIS IRON AND BOLT COMPANY 

will, when fully ready for operation, become an important industrial enter- 
prise. It will employ a large number of workmen, most of whom are skilled 
in the ti-ado and come from foreign cities. 

Other companies, for the manufacture of iron, are contemplated, and at no 
distant day will be found in successful operation. 

The American Coke Go. and the Illinois Patent Coke Works are two exten- 
sive establishments for the production of coke — an article of fuel entering now 
very largely into the manufacture of iron and steel, and in fact coming rapidly 
into general use. In the whole system of political economy practised by the 
American people — no article is of more practical value than coke. The refuse 
dust of coal — commonly called "slack" — is carefully saved, ground up, if neces- 
sary, to a finer powder, then put into a washing pan and cleansed. By this 
process, all the slate and other mineral substances are separated from the coal. 
Then the fine dust is put in a ci-ucible furnace, where the hydrogen gas is 
consumed — and while in a half liquid, or lava state, the coke is pulled out by 
the men, with iron hooks. The large flakes are broken up into lumps con- 
venient for handling, and as soon as cooled, the coke is ready for market and 
for use. The large amount of coal used in and around East St. Louis and the 
number of coal mines in the immediate vicinity of the city, necessarily yield 
a very large supply of dust and fine coal for the manufacture of coke. The dust 
can be purcliased at a low rate, consequently the manufacture of coke must be 
profitable. The works of the two companies will be enlarged in a short time. 

The city has two excellent flour mills, within its limits, each one turning 
out from three to five hundi-ed barrels of flour per day. A large brewery has 
been in operation some time, manufacturing, each year, an abundant supply of 
the popular Teutonic beverage. 

There are also places for the manufacture of furniture, tin ware, boots and 
shoes, and three or four flourishing bakeries. 

STORES, SHOPS AC. 

There are, in the city, seven establishments devoted exclusively to the sal© 
of dry goods and clothing. Most of these stores are large and elegant. They 



EAST ST. LOUW. 23S 

carry heavy stocks of goods and do a good businesa. There are sixten regu- 
lar grocery stores — keeping on hand everything needed in the domestic 
economy. 

Besides the above mentioned, are three hard-ware and stove stores three 
furniture stores, three feed stores, two telegraph offices, and offices for the 
various Express companies. Two banks supply the people with money suffi- 
cient for the carrying on business and carefully guard their deposits. 

The citizens generally read the St. Louis daily ])apcrs, but two weekly pa- 
pers of their own—" The East St. Louis Gazette " and " The Peoples' Gazette " 
are well patronized. These establishments arc well supplied with presses and 
printing materials, and do a good job business. 

The city will soon need a daily paper of its own, and whenever the tmie 
comes for such an enterprise, we believe the citizens will see that it is well 
sustained. 

Shops of all kinds may be found in the city, aside from the regular stores, 
where the wants of the people may be supplied. There is no lack of eating 
houses and restaurants. The people could exist with a fewer number of saloons 
and drinking houses, but as a general rule the saloons in the city are well-kept, 
orderly and within the bounds of the law. 

There are seven or eight hotels, most of them comfortable and well-kept. 

A new hotel is about to be erected, in a popular thoroughfare of the city, by 
a company having an ample ca})ital. It will be commodious, and in all its ap- 
pointments in keeping with the wants of the public and the progress of the 
city. 

SCHOOLS AXD CHURCHES. 

The excellent public school system of Illinois is in vogue here with an ac- 
tive and intelligent Board of Directors to carry its provisions into effect. 
Four public schools have already been established, and others will be opened 
whenever they are required. There are also three private schools, well sus- 
tained. 

The St. Aloysius Academy was started some time since, under the auspices 
of the Catholic church. Anew institution is springing up under the direction 
of the Baptists, which l)ids fair to be prosperous and powerful for good in a 
few years. This college enter])rise was inaugurated about one year ago, un- 
der the direction of the Illinois Educational Association, of which Hon, John 
B. liovingston is President and Rev. J. M. Cochran secretaiy. Mr. Lovi-ng- 
ston donated to the association, property in East St. Louis, to be used for the 
benefit of the college as a site for the buildings'and a nucleus for the building 
fund. The secretary is actively at work, soliciting aid from the Baptist 
denomination, and all others who desire a school of a high grade established; 
and hopes, during the present year, to commence the erection of the college 
buildings. When in active operation, this institution will afford the people an 
excellent opj)ortunity of giving their children a classical and scientific educa- 
tion, without sending them away from home. 



234 EAST ST. ijoms. 

The following religious denominations are established in the city, the most 
of which have comfortable places of worship. Catholic — two churches — 
Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, German Lutheran, Evangelical Lutheran, 
Episcopalian, one each. There are also two colored churches — one Baptist 
and one Methodist. These several churches sustain, for the most part, flourish- 
ing Sabbath schools — where large numbers of children are insti'ucted in the 
scriptures, in vocal music and in the rules of tiie church. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

Under tiie provisions of a most liberal state law passed at the last session of 
the legislature, authorizing cities to create and tomaintian public libraries and 
reading rooms, the city council of East 8t. Louis, by ordinance created the 
East St. Louis^Public library and reading room, an institution which, if properly 
and will not lail to improve greatly the social attraction of the community. 
The city council, by that same ordinance, appointed the tirst board of managers, 
and from the columns of the East St. Louis Gazette, we clip the following in- 
formation as to what has been done in furtherance of the subject. At the first 
meeting of these managers, the board met and appointed as President, Wm. G. 
Kase; Vice-President, Lorom Mitchell, and Secretary, William O'Neill j Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means, Harry Elliott, H. C. Fairbrother and Loron 
Mitchell J Committee on Library and Heading Eoom, E. L. McDonough, 
Charles C. Schuetz and P. C. T. Breenj Cominitte, on Books and Do- 
nations, Luke H. Hite, William O'Neill and R. C. Fairbrother. The Board 
will immediately procure a suitable hall, and if any money can be obtained 
from the Council, in anticipation of the taxes, procure books and have the 
Library in operation in a month. A code of by-laws and rules and regula- 
tions were adopted. 

The history- of East St. Louis would not be complete without a brief sketch 
of 

THE WIGGINS FERRY COMPANY. 

This mammoth corporation — so intimately blended with the progress of 
East St. Louis — may with truth be said to have had its origin as far back as 
the year 1795 — 77 years ago-^at which time. Captain James Piggott — its found- 
er — was authorized by the then authorities, to establish — and did establish — 
a ferry between St. Louis and the Illinois shore. 

The Indian canoe formed the sole means of ti'ansit across the river in those 
premitive times. 

In 1816 or 1817, Mr. Samuel Wiggins bought the ferry, at which time a very 
inferior one-horse boat constituted the " ferrv." 

From this time until 1828 horse boats only were used, in which year, 1728, 
the tirst steam ferry boat was brought out — and was called the St. Clair. 

From the period when the whole business was done by an occasional canoe 
crossing the river, to the present day — the owners have kept pace with the 
inci'case of population and the demands of business. 



-lABT BT. Lotns. 235 

They now have eight boate of large capacity admirably constructed for the 
trade of great strength and power. They also have the transfer boat Lewis 
V. Bogy, the Tug H. C. Crevcling, and several barges — all of which are con- 
stantly engaged in transferring passengers and freight. 

They have another Tug the " Saml. C. Clubb," not yet completed. 
Thus we see the little acorn which, in 1795, had only a few canoes — and in 
1832, only had one small steamboat — matures in 1872 and for several years 
prior thereto — into a good siised oak, with a fine and large fleet fully equiva- 
lent to sixteen large boats — and its landed properly enhanced to the value 
of millions. 

Had it not been for this corporation, which expended money by the hundred 
thousand, and years of labor, in raising and constructing the magnificent wharf^ 
now forming the western boundary of this city, both the city of East St Louis, 
and the harbor of St. Louis, would bo in a sad plight to-day. Its great efforts 
saved the Island, or Third ward, from being washed away, and prevented the 
river from widening at this point, thus preventing the growth of many shoals 
and sand-bars. 

It is true, that the adoption of this policy has greatly enriched them by creat- 
ing, re-claiming, and preserving large tracts of valuable land, which otherwise 
would never have existed, or been tumbled into the river, nevertheless, it was 
evincive of great and far-seeing sagacity, whieh we may be permitted to say has 
always, up to the present, characterized the management of this company, to 
persist in such a course, despite the sneers of many, who predicted a failure. 

The management is fully alive to the impoi-tance f)f holding out inducements 
to all manufacturing enterprises, to locate on their lands, which are admirably 
adapted to the purpose, by reason of their proximity to the railroads, to the 
river and to inexhaustible beds of coal, and invite proposals having that end in 
view. They also design, as we learn, to utilize a portion at least, of their im- 
mense wharf property, by fostering elevation and other enterprises adapt-ed to 
mich a locality. 

Under the intelligent and untiring supervision of James J. Sc-anlan, Esq., as 
President and Samuel C. Clubb, Esq., as Superintendent, the onward march of 
this company cannot be otherwise than successful. 

One feature connected with the Feriy companj' must not be omitted. Nearly 
forty-eight years ago. May 7th, 1825, Capt. Jno. Trendley was employed by Mr. 
Samuel Wiggins. From that day to the present he has been in the constant 
employ of the company, and the old veteran is still active and persistent in 
the discharge of his duties. 

The Directors of the company are, viz : 

James J. Scanlan, 

m. mullikin, 

Sam. C. Clubb, 

Francis M. Christy, 

Wm. Wiogins. 
The OflS cere are : 

Jambs J. Scani^n, President, 

M. MuLLiKiN, Vice President. 

Sam. C. Clubb, General Superintendent. 

Henry L. Cl.4lrk, Sec'y and Treasurer. 

Wm. Wiggins, Assistant Secretary. 

John Trendley, Local Agent. 



386 , XAST ST. LOCTS. 

THE PE0FESSI0N8. 

The city is not likely to suffer for the want of doctoi*s, lawyers and olergy- 
men. Though not an unhealthy place, several first class physicians have set- 
tled here, to administer to the necessities of any who may need the.ir services. 
The physicians are all good, consequently the town is remarkably healthy, 
and as our medical friends are well circumstanced in life, they make no com- 
plaints. 

The lawyers, of whom there are half a score, or more, find plenty to do in 
making deeds to purchases, giving advice to business men, and in settling the 
disputes, which always will arise in the best regulated communities. 

The insurance companies, both life and fire, are well represented, and seem 
to find enough to do to keep their agents all busy. 

The sewing machine men are active, too, in the introduction of their favor- 
ite inventions. They seem determined to keep all the housewives busy, and 
all the people decently clad. Several agencies are in active operation and 
many machines are sold. 

THE rLLINOIS AND ST. LOUIS BlilDGB, 

Which is 80 near completion, will mark a new era in the history of East St. 
Louis, as well as in the history of the great city on the opposite side of the 
river. The shore piers and abutments are properly a part of the young city, 
of which we have written. The approaches to the bridge will change, in a 
great measure, the grounds and streets in its vicinity. To this end the several 
railroads will contribute by so changing their tracks, as to centre in a common 
road-bed near the entrance and all use one. track for crossing. With street 
cars and a continuous and uninterrupted foot way over the bridge, the raar- 
keta, the great wholesale stores and the fashionable bazaars of St. Louis, will 
be brought close to the doors of the citizens. Laboring men — the struggling 
mechanics, clerks and others of St. Louis who now go out in the western su- 
burbs, five or six miles for cheap houses, will find it to their advantage to buy 
lots and build houses on the East St. Louis side; for the expense of crossing 
the bridge is only a trifle and more than half the time spent in the travel can 
be saved by the shorter distance. 

The description of the great bridge given in another part of this work must 
suffice for the present purpose. 

THE LEADINO MEN. 

In every town, of any considerable size, there is always a leading man — 
some one with brain, energy and pluck, who is willing to assume the respon- 
sibility and lead others on to the achievement of grand results. It is well for 
East St. Louis that there is such a man among them. For many years, Hon. 
John B.Bowman has borne a conspicuous part in the growth and develop- 
ment of the place. Acting as the representative of large moneyed interests, 
he Las not only succeeded in greatly enhancing them, bat through these in- 



BAST ST. LOUIS. 237 

terests lias contributed largely to the building up of public enterprises and the 
general good of the people. With a clear head, a strong will and an unflinch- 
ing purpose, Mr. Bowman has undertaken and carried out schemes for the 
public good, whicli most men would shrink from. Most of the surveys in 
and around the city are the works of his hands j and the laying out of streets 
and alleys, has been under his personal supervision. Mr. Bowman is at pres- 
ent acting Mayor of the city, taking the place of Hon. Dennis Ryan, who was 
elected in 1870, but who died while in office. Mi*. Bowman served in the 
same oflftce two or three terms previous to the present incumbency, and as the 
fii'st mayor of the city elected in 1865. 

In personal influence and clear, practical, business sense, Hon. J. B. Lov- 
ingston is second to none, lie represents, also, large interests, and wisely 
directs them. He is a leader in benevolent movements and in educational 
matters. 

.Mr. J. W. Conlogue, widely known as one of the most skillful and success- 
ful railroad builders, has identified himself with East St. Louis, as his home 
and theater of future activity. He was attracted there by the superior oppor- 
tunities the situation and surrounding circumstances offered. Mr. Conlogue 
has just completed the East St. Louis and Carondelet railway as a most valu- 
able connecting link between the great system of railways centering on both 
sides of the Mississippi — at East St. Louis and the great city on the west 
shore — the future inland metropolis of the continent. Mr. Conlogue is yet in 
his prime — aad his presence in East St. Louis will, in the future, as in the past 
be marked by practical success and accomplished works for the public good. 

Mr. Samuel Gaty, so well and favorably known in St. Louis, by his long resi- 
dence and successful business cai-eer, is almost considered one of the leading 
citizens of East St. Louis, on account of the large landed interests he repre- 
sents and controls in the city. 

In social, educational and generally progressive movements, as well as ii\ 
political affairs, we find Mr. Thos. Winstanley, H. Oebike, Mr. St. John, Mr. 
L. H. Hite, Mr. F. Withram, Judge Manners, Mr. Wider, Mr. O'JSTeill, Mr. Jarrot, 
and many others, bearing an active part. In fact, East St. Louis has no lack 
of good, men, with vigorous minds and energy, sufficient to lead the people in 
any enterprises they may see tit to inaugurate. While we mention the namea 
of some as they occur to us, we would not be unmindful of others, who in a 
greater or le^s degree, have done, and still do much for the city's prosperity 
and for the welfare of tli« people. 

MAYORS OF EAST ST. LOUIS. 

The mayor of the city, by the terms of the charter, is not eligible to two 
successive terms. The following is a list of the several mayors of the city, 
since it was incorporated. 

Time. Name. Term. 

1 Elected in 1865 Jno. B. Bowman 2 years. 

2 " "1867 Jno. B. Lovingston 1 " 

8 " "1868 Jno". B. Bowman .-1 " 

i " "1869 Vitftl.JaiTOt 2 •* 

fi •• ^"1871 Dennis Ryan 2 •• 



288 KAST 8T. IiOUIS. 

STREET EATLBOADS. 

One horse-railroad has been in operation for more than a year last past, 
and is doing a profitable business. It runs, as before noticed, across the city, 
from east to west, over the upper dyke, from its western terminus on Front 
street, near the Ohio and Mississippi depot, to its eastern end at the East St. 
Louis Bank, at the corner of Missouri and Collinsville avenue. The road ia 
owned by the East St. Louis Railway Company. Thos. Winstanley, as vice- 
president and superintendent, has charge of and directs its operation. It will 
gooa be extended, to connect east with the national stock-yards, on the nortii- 
east limits of the city, and west, with the Washington avenue line, in St. Louit>, 
of course over the great bridge. One fare will be charged, including toll, to 
any place on Washington avenue, St. Louis. 

The charter for another and competing street railroad, was obtained, and a 
temporary organization effected. It will soon make its appearance, with a 
feir prospect of success. 

Thk East St. Louis and Carondelet Railroad deserves especial mention 
in this chapter, as it is to serve an important purpose in the trade and com- 
merce both of East St. Louis and St. Louis, Mo. It will be used almost exclu- 
sively in the transportation of freight, from the other railroads to Carondelet, 
where a connection is made with the Kirkwood and Carondelet branch of the 
Mi^ouri Pacific railroad. The charter for the road was obtained from the 
Illinois legislature in 1852, but nothing was done towards building it till 
March, 1872, when the enterprise was taken in hand by J. B. Bowman and J. 
W. Conlogue. The latter gentleman, as managing director, with his great ener- 
gy and skill in railroad building, had the direction of the work, and pushed it 
to a successful completion, in August, 1872. The main line is eight miles and 
a half in length with a branch t* Failing Springs, three and a half miles long. 
From this last-named place, stone is obtained for building the stock-yards, and 
for other public uses. A large part of the business of this road will be the 
ti'ansportation of coal to the furnace and iron mills of Carondelet, and of ore 
and pig metal hence to the mills and manufactories of East St. Louis. 

the grain elevator. 

To accommodate the immense grain trade which Illinois has with the city 
of St. Louis, it was thought wise, five or six years ago, to build an elevator for 
the purpose of handling grain in bulk, at East St. Louis. 

The elevator was built and has been a profitable enterprise, but so rapidly 
did the trade in grain increase, that aROther was needed and is already filled 
to overflowing w^ith the great staple. And still another has been called for 
and is in the course of erection. 

The Wiggins Ferry Compant received its charter from the legislature of 
Illinois in March, 1819. The grant for exclusive privileges, was to Samuel 
Wiggins, his heirs and assigns. Since that time^ several amendments have 
been made to the charter and other privileges granted. This company, there- 
fore, has had almost the exclusive monopoly of the transportation between 



EAST ST. LOUIS. 239 

Jflaet St. Louis and the great city on the opposite side of the river, and will 
hold control until the completion of the bridge. The company is wealthy in 
lands, in boats and in the stock which it has issued. Though a slow way of 
crossing the river, it is a sure and safe one, and the people, so long accustomed 
to the fair and honest dealing of the officers and employees of the company, 
will reluctantly give up the ferry boats, oven for something bettor. The com- 
pany runs eight or ten boats each day back and forth across the river, making 
trips in the day-time every five or ten minutes. There are three regular ferry 
landings on the East St. Louis side, all of which are constantly crowded with 
teams, carriages and foot passengers, awaiting transportation. How much 
business is done by this company can be imagined, when we present before 
the mind, one city with nearly four hundred thousand inhabitants and its rail- 
roads, seeking a constant communication with the East, and another city often 
thousand inhabitants and thirteen railroads, seeking constant communication 
with the West; the many furnaces and mills and the thousands of families in 
the great city to be supplied with fuel; the same great population cohstantly 
demanding supplies which must cross the river; and the vast west with its 
teeming population, to receive in tnis way its supplies also. The mind is 
hardly able to comprehend this vast interest and as one stands 

ON THE LEVEB 

In East St. Louis, any fair day, with all the ferry boats running, it is a 
bewildering sight to see the great coal wagons, full to running over, moving 
down to the landings ; — and the farmers' wagons, loaded down with the pro- 
ducts of the soil ; — the immense omnibusses of the " Transfer company," rushing 
on with fearful speed; — carta, wagons, carriages and all sorts of vehicles, be- 
sides foot passengers innumerable, all pushing to the same place — all aiming 
at the same object — a passage across the river. 

The amount of Coal which croases the river, from East St. Louis, each day, 
to supply the St. Louis market, has been estimated at 500 car-loads, or 150,000 
bushels. This vast amount of fuel passes through the city of East St. Louis. 
When it reaches the St. Louis side of the river, it has increased four or five 
cents in value por bushel. This leads us, therefore, to consider the advanta- 
ges which this young city — East St. Louis — possesses, as 

A MANUFAOTURINQ POINT. 

The coal fields are all around the city. The railroads penetrate them at 
every point of the compass. The coal produced from the mines is of that 
quality, also, which is generally desired for manufacturing purposes, and can 
be delivered to any part of the city at a cost from one-third to one-fourth le^s 
than it can be delivered to the manufacturing establishments of St. Louin. 
Land for building sitresis cheap. Labor ought to be cheaper than in a crowd- 
ed city, as house rents are lower and food is cheaper. These facilities will, we 
doubt not, be taken advantage of very shortly. The example already set by 
Mr. Allen, Mr. Filley, Mr. Meier and other capitalists of St. Louis, will ha fol- 



240 EAST ST. LOUIS. 

lowed hy many more; and instead of two iron mills, there will be a dozen or 
more,workii)g rip the crude wealth of Iron Mountain another exhatistless iron 
field, into iiseibl articles of labor and merchandise. 

There is no reason why places for the manufacture of farming tools and 
agricultural machinery, cannot be established and made profitable in East St. 
Louis. Men of capital, who have not hesitated to invest their money in es- 
tablishments of the kind mentioned, in prairie towns, whose growth is uncer- 
tain, and whose facilities are infinitely smaller, would do well to look at this 
place and it.s advantages. Coal can be contracted for the year round, 
delivered at the furnace door, convenient to any of the main railroads, at from 
$1 50 to $1 75 per ton. 

THE ST. LOUIS NATIONAL STOCK YARDS OF EAST ST. LOUIS. 

The close proximit}- of St. Louis to the great pastoral region of the Central 
plain of the North America, very naturally fits her for the central stock mar- 
ket of the country. And the appreciation of this important fact, led enterpris- 
ing capitalists of the east, to project the establishment of an immense stock 
yard, in the vicinity of St. Louis. 

About two years ago the question of constructing grand stock yards near East 
St. Louis was agitated, the location selected, the ground purchased and the 
workof building begun. The vast numbers of cattle coming into the city of 
St. Louis every week, from Missouri, Texas, Kansas, the Indian Territory and 
elsewhere being transported across the river for re-shipment east and north, 
suggested to several gentlemen interested in the cattle trade, the importance of 
having a place where the animals could be temporarily quartered and fed until 
arrangements for their further transportation were effected. Farmers and 
drovers from Illinois wishing to make St. Louis their market, alwa3's found it 
inconvenient to drive their stock to the city, without {)revious arrangements 
being made for sale. Often have thej^ brought droves of cattle, swine and 
horses to the St. Louis market, and been compelled to sell them at a sacrifice 
because there was no suitable place for shelter and feeding. 

The honor of originating this enterprise, properly belongs to Col. A. M. 
Allerton, of the firm of AUertons, Dutcher & Moore, of New York. Under his 
experienced leadership, a company of live-stock men, was oi'gauized. 

Col. Allerton, besides being a gentleman of high social position, is a thorough 
business man, and widely known over tlie country f<)r his enterprise and integ- 
rity, and will, therefore, be a desirable acquisition, as a leading citizen of St. 
Louis. 

Chicago before the construction of the Union stockyards was situated simi- 
larly to St. Louis to-day! Cattle \Vere driven through the streets endangering 
the lives of the inhabitants and causing delay to other travel, &c. — Now 
they arrive and depart in cars. — At that time, Chicago had five different 
stock yards which were called: Cottage Grove, Lake Shore, Michigan Southern, 
Pittsb'argh and Fort Wayne and the North Western, all of which were not doing 
one third as much business as the " Union" are doing at the present time. — 



EAST ST. LOUIS. 241 

Tho increase has been caused by their being concentrated at one point, which 
ie decidedly to the interest of the commission man, to the owners of stcck, and 
also to those Avho desire to purchase, because they can tell at once how much 
stock is in the market, and know at what price they can purchase. 

St. Louis now labors under the same disadvantage that Chicago once did, as 
the present receptacles for stock are so located and scattered, that it takes 
several hours before one can ascertain what is in the market. 

It is surely to the interest of all stock men to have one place to do all. 
their business, thus saving much loss of time. Parties interested in the stock 
business, and in tact citizens generally should know'that the " St. Louis Na- 
tional Stock yards," arc located at East St. Louis, not to exceed a distance of 
15 or 20 minutes from the Court ^House, (after the bridge is completed,) where 
such accommodations will be furnished that have never existed near any city 
in the United States, and the city of St. Louis will reaji all the benefits to be 
desired without any of the nuisances, such as the driving of cattle, swine, sheep • 
and last, biU not least, herds of loose mules, occasioning in many instances loss 
of life and damage to property, to say nothing of the cartage of offal, which is 
very unpleasant to the senses, particularly in warm weather. 

The St. Louis National stock yards, will also be prepared to accommodate 
the packing and slaughtering houses at a merely nominal rent, as they have 
ample grounds and plenty of water, with the facilities for shipping to any point 
at all times. 

It is thought by competent judges that within the next three years the busi- 
ness will equal that now done at Chicago, and will most likely exceed it, as the 
accommodations to be furnished will be so superior to those that now exist, that 
it cannot but be a success. 

The establishment is called " The St. Louis National Stock Yards," and is 
situated on a tract of 400 acres of land purchased of Messrs. Bowman and 
Griswold, adjoining the East St. Louis city limits on the northeast. Being 
contiguous to the city and so closely connected with her interests, one of her 
prominent citizens also being a stockholder, we treat it as one of East St. 
Louis's own institutions. The following named gentlemen were the stock- 
holders who organized the company : Wm, H. Vanderbilt, Horace P. Clark, 
Augustus Schell, James H. Banker, A. Boody, A. B. Baylis, Samuel F.Barger, 
Allertons, Dutcher & Moore, T. C. Eastman, Alex. M. White, Isaac H. Knox, 
John L. Macaulay and Levi Parsons, of New York, J. N. McCullough and H. 
H. Houston, of Penn., Andrew Pierce of the A.& P. P.P., and J. B. Bowman, 
of East St. Louis. 

Col. AUerton has had active charge of laying out the grounds and construct- 
ing the buildings. Everything is on a grand scale and the j'ards and buildings 
will have immense capacity. Alleys and avenues have been laid off and will be 
paved, like the streets of a city. The yards or sheds for the accommodation 
of cattle are situated on the avenues like rows of houses. 

The three avenues, when completed will have 289 yards, capable of holding 
10,000 or L5,000 horned cattle. Each yard will accommodate from twent}" to 
one hundred and fifty cattle^ with troughs for drinking and mangers for feeding. 



242 EAST ST. LOUIS. 

The yards are to be paved with the Belgian pavement — the stone to be taken 
from the Falling Springs quarries. Messrs Himrod & Co., the operators of one of 
these quarries, have a contract for paving the yards and avenues and have already 
comj^leted a large portion of the work. The sht. op and hog houses, are very com- 
modious buildings, situated on the west side of the grounds. The hog house is 
1122 feet long and one hundred feet wide and will comfortably accommodate 
20,000 hogs. The sheep house is smaller being 512 feet long by 100 feet in width. 
Its capacity is from 6,000 to 10,000 sheep. The stables for horses are elegant 
«nd roomy. 1,000 horses and an equal number of mules can be Avell provided 
for. Barns for hay and bins for corn are conveniently situated near the 
yards and stables. The establishment is provided also with several immense 
Fairbanks' scales, one of these costing $2,500 and having a capacity of 120,000 
abs. 

The yards, pens, stables and other buildings will receive water from hydrants 
'fed by pipes underlying the whole surface of the grounds, which in their turn, 
receive their water from immense reservoirs. The water is forced into the 
■reservoirs from Cohokia creek, by means of steam pumps. 

It is in comtemplation also to have one artesian well to supply the hotel 
and drinking fountains with the purest of water. The stock yards will, in 
addition to these immense works, have a very fine hotel, four or five stories in 
height, for the accommodation of stock men and all those who may visit the 
place. The building of this edifice has already commenced — the contract hav- 
ing been let to Messrs. N. L. Milburn & Sons, of St. Louis, for 8102,000. The 
entire cost of the building when comi^leted will be about §115,000. 

Anotiier large building is being constructed for the use of the company — to 
'hQ an office building — and will cost 340,000 or more. 

1 The yards will be in readiness to receive stock in three or four months, and 
all the buildings in the course of the spring of 1873, will be open for business. 

With the completion of the great bridge and the opening of the National 
stock yards for business, a new impetus will be given to industry and com- 
merce on the East St. Louis side of the river. All the great transactions in 
cattle, horses, sheep and swine will take place at the stock yards, and we pro- 
phesy that the slaughter-houses also, and the pork packing establishments wilb 
before many years, all be near the stock yards. This will necessitate the 
building of mechanical shops of various kinds and dwelling houses for the large 
number of workmen that must be employed to carry on these operations. 

The organization of the stock jaxd company, as recently perfected, consists 
of the following gentlemen : A. M. AUerton, of the firm of Allerton, Dutcher 
& Moore, New York ; Azariah Boody, President, Toledo, Wabash and Western 
Radway, New York ; Augustus Schell, Vice-President, Lake Shore and Michi- 
gan Southern Pt. R., N. Y; J. B. Dutcher, New York Central and Hudson 
Eiver railroad, New York ; T. C. Eastman and A. M. White, capitalists, New 
York; H. H. Houston, Pennsylvania raih-oad, Philadelphia j N.Mc Cullough, 
Pittsburgh and Ft. Wayne railroad, Pittsburgh ; Oscar Townsend, President 
Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati and Indianapolis railroad, Cleveland j John 



EAST ST. liOUIS. 243 

B. Bowman, of East St. Louis, and Andrew Pierce, President of the Atlantic 
and Pacific railroad, St. Louis, Mo. 

Col. A. M. Allerton, is President, and E, M. Mooi'e, Esq., Secretary and Assi- 
tant treasurer. 

All the railroads terminating at East St. Louis, will be connected with the 
stock yards by a i-ailroad now being built by the company, and a street raih-oad 
for the accommodation of visitors and the general public will soon be con- 
structed running from the main street of the city to the hotel on the grounds. 

OTHER PROJECTS. 

The East St. Louis Gas works company, was organized several years ago, 
but not until within the past six months, has anything definite been done, ex- 
cept the subscription of stock. The company is now, however, nearly ready 
for operation and it will not be long before the streets will rejoice in the rays 
of pure gas-light. 

A water works company is also organizing, and the determination of the 
citizens is, to bring a good supply of the Mississippi fluid to every man's door. 
This can be done without involving a great public expense, and with small cost 
to the individual citizen. 

It is expected that the company will be fully organized and ready to put 
their plans into definite shape early in the Spring of 1873. 

The city has yet no public park. There arc, however, two small public 
squares, which serve the purposes of recreation to the citizens. A public park 
has been talked of and property owners have made liberal offers to the city, 
as an inducement for the inauguration of such an enterprise. On the east of 
the city, several fine tracts have been sjioken of, for park purposes, and will, 
no doubt, be selected at some future time. When the present city limits are 
moi'e densely populated, and when the smoke and steam from many furnaces, 
factories and workshops render the city air unpleasant and unhealthy, the 
people will have a park to air themselves in. It will come in due time. 

THE LUMBER TRADE. 

One great interest of the city is, sometimes, overlooked, when the many 
important enterprises are spoken of. The lumber business has for many years, 
been a source of great profit, to those engaged in it, and has been a means of 
bringing other kinds of trade to the city. It requires an immense amount of 
capital and labor to carry it on successfully. There are, within the city, some 
eight or ten yards, each of which is doing a large and increasing business, as 
nearly all the lumber sold, within a radius of seventy-five miles, is purchased 
at this point, the small dealei'S, in the different country towns, being supplied 
here, the prices being considerably below those of St. Louis. The principal 
dealers are Messrs. John B. Lovingston & Co., Howe & Rablin, who have a 
saw and planing mill in connection therewith ; Butterfield, Hice & Co., S. 
Mayo, Cavey, Herdman & Co., Schulenburg & Boechler, Pearce & Co. and 
Francis Wittram. 



244 EAST ST. LOUIS. 

The latter died in office, June, 1872, and the Hon. J. B. Bowman was elected' 
as active mayor for the unexpired part of his term, and is now mayor of the- 
city. 

EAST ST. LOUIS ELEVATOR. 

This spacious elevator is situated below the bridge piers, where the water 
affords a good landing, for the largest boats, the year round. Their facilities 
for shipping are unexcelled, being in connection with all the railroads. The 
capacity of this elevator, with improvements, now in course of erection, will 
be fully 850,000 bushels. 

CONNECTICUT LAND COMPANY. 

The Connecticut Land Company of East St. JJouis is a corporation for the- 
purpose of facilitating the transfer of real estate, within the city limits. It 
was originally formed by some gentlemen scattered over the country, but who 
were all owners of property in the town. And while the corporation, or 
company afford many valuable facilities for the rapid exchange or transfer 
of its real estate, it happily indulges in none of those mercenary functions that 
corporations usually possess. 

CLOSING. 

This brief sketch of a city, which, at no distant day, promises to rank sec- 
ond only to Chicago, in its own State, and to become by virtue of its prox- 
imity to St. Louis — only 1800 feet distant, divided by the "Father of Waters,"" 
but united by bands of iron and steel, such as the great Eads bridge, and 
other bridges soon to be built from shore to shore, between St. Louis and 
East St. Louis, within the next decennium — an integral part of it; — we can- 
not forbear to say^ that our opinion of, and faith in the realization of that 
future, which we believe to be in store for it, is, in no small degree, based up- 
on the fact, that the municipal authorities of East St. Louis, have quite 
recently fixed the general grade of its streets and highways above the height 
of floods, such as inundated its then unprotected territory in 1844, 1851 and 
1858. Permanent, solid and safe embankments surround the city on all sides, 
or are in course of construction. Its principal streets are gi-adually raised to 
that higher grade upon which alone its business facilities can be developed and 
maintained. The security afforded by this change has ushered into existence 
a new era for the city, and will bring with it an influx of business, capital 
and enterprise, which would forever have remained foreign to its confines but 
for this security against inundation, such as in times happily gone by, pre- 
cluded every idea and excluded every project for making useful and avail- 
able the many and rich oT)t)ortunitiAs ntherwise iiheront to the lnr>Alit.v oi 
East St. Louis. 



k-JSSfTC.' 



#*' 



MISSOURI AND HER RESOURCES. 



Missouri is the great central State of the World's Eepiiblie. Geograpliically 
•considered, nearly equal portions of the American Union stretch out from her 
borders towards the North, South, East and West. Its dormant and latent 
■energies being once awakened, and developed, Missouri must become the Em- 
pire State of the Center, as New York is of the East. Its climatic position 
is altogether propitious, the surface not being greatly elevated, and the State 
lying between the temjjerate parallels of 36deg. 30min. and 40deg. 30mm. N. 
latitude, and between the meridiauc of 89deg. 2min. and 95deg, 52min. W. 
longitude. 

The greatest length of the State, from East to West, is 320 miles, and its 
width, from North to South, 280. These dimensions embrace an area of 67,- 
380 square miles, equal to 43,123,200 acres of land ; being about one-third 
larger than England, and possessing twice the productive capacity of that 
wonderful country. Missouri is larger than any State east of the Mississippi, 
and possesses as much fruitful and arable soil as anj- of her sister States, 
whether East or West. Not less than 36,000,000 acres of land in Missouri are 
well adapted to furnish all the products of a temperate clime. 

No State is better supplied with fountains and streams, as well as with great 
rivers. It is bounded and bisected by the Mississippi'and Missouri, two of the 
largest and longest rivers in thcAvorld; rivers whose fountains are more than 
three thousand miles away, fed by the Avaters of the Itasca, or the eternal 
storms that breed and brood about the cliffs and canons of the Eocky Moun- 
tains, whose affluents water a score of States and Territories, and whose ac- 
cumulated floods are poured into a torrid sea. One thousand miles of these 
gi-eat rivers lie within or upon the boundary of Missouri. The principal 
streams flowing into the Mississippi from this State are the Salt, Meramec, 
White, and St. Francois, the two latter being more properly rivers of Arkan- 
sas; and the main affluents of the Missouri are the Osage, Gasconade, LaMine, 
Chariton, Grand, Platte and Nodaway. 

Nature has given to Missouri vast resources in agricultural and mineral 
wealth, also abundant facilities for commanding and managing the internal 
commerce of the West. St. Louis, her commercial capital, is near the conflu- 
ence of the two great rivers. There she stands, like the Apocalyptic angel, 
■" with one foot on the land, and the other on the sea," beckoning to her the 
white-winged messengers of commerce from every ocean, and stretching out 
her iron fingers to grasp the internal trade of half a continent. 



246 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

The geographical and mineralogical features of Missouri are not only pecu- 
liar, but such as add greatly to the value of its products. What is known a& 
the " Ozark range " — not of mountains, but of hills — passes through the south 
half of the State from west to east; sometimes appearing merely in the shape- 
of elevated table-lands, and then again broken into rough and rugged hills. 
Most of the latter, however, are rich in metals or minerals, such as iron, lead^ 
zinu, copper, coal, etc. Much the larger portion of this hilly region, too, is 
susceptible of cultivation ; and for raising sheep, or the culture of the cereals, 
fruits, and especiall}' grapes, no better land can be found anywhere east of the 
Eocky Mountains. As ihe first settlers in Missouri generally sought the nch 
alluvial and prairie soils of the northwestern and central portions of the State, 
the vast and fruitful region lying in the southwest, south, and southeast was 
neglected, and deemed almost worthless. Large quantities of this land, so rich 
in minerals, and readily yielding fine crops of grain and fruit, have, within a 
few years^ been sold for 12 J cents per acre. That time has passed, however, 
and thousands of enterprising immigrants, both farmers and miners, are making 
for themselves pleasant and profitable homes in the south half of Missouri. 

The soil along the river bottoms of Missouri is rich as the famed valley of 
the Nile. Only a little less fruitful, and much more easily put into cultivation, 
are the millions of acres of rich prairie land in the northwest and central por- 
tions of the State. The capacity of this State for producing food for both men 
and animals is something enormous. Whenever there is a full development of 
the State's resources, Missouri will furnish happy homes for five millions of 
people ; one-half making bread, not only for themselves, but to feed two or 
three millions of miners, mechanics, merchants, and professional men ; and the 
whole State receiving every year many millions more for her exports than she 
pays for imports. 

Looking at the two grand districts of Missouri a little more in detail, and 
beginning with the extreme southeast, we find an extensive bottom-land along 
the Mississippi, extending from Cape Girardeau south to the Arkansas river. 
It includes many swamps, which are rendered almost impenetrable by a dense 
growth of trees. The most extensive of these, called the Great Swamp, com- 
mences a few miles south of Cape Girardeau, and passes south to the mouth of 
the St. Francois, penetrating far into the State of Arkansas. This peculiar 
feature gave to Missouri its southeastern " pan-handle," or projection south of 
36° 30^ the once charmed parallel between freedom and slavery. The early 
settlers in the region below Cape Girardeau, and south of the proper boundary 
of the State, could not reach any settlements in Arkansas, on account of the 
swamps, and prayed to be attached to Missouri, where they were in the habit 
of trading and getting their corn ground. 

Turning northward from the swamp region, and following up the course of 
the Mississippi, we find a belt of high lands reaching all the way up to the 
mouth of the Missouri. The highest part of this range is between St. Gene- 
vieve and the mouth of the Meramec, where the ridge rises from three to four 
hundred feet above the waters of the Mississippi. This ridge of high lands is 
the Ozark range, before alluded to, cut asunder by the Father of Waters, 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 247 

extending westward through the State, not losing its rough and rugged char- 
acter until it is lost in a ridge of high prairie. 

In the country north of the Missouri, constituting about one-third of the 
State, the country is more level, but suflSciently undulating to secure good 
drainage ; and the soil is generally excellent, a large portion of the country 
being a rich prairie, watered by numerous streams, each with its belt of timber. 
Altogether the richest soil and most productive, portions of Missouri are to be 
found in the western and northwestern counties of the State. The Platte 
country, in the northwest, and Clay, Jackson, and Lafayette counties, in the 
west, have long been famed for their wonderful yield of hemp, grain, and stock. 

THE CLIMATE 

Of Missouri is peculiar. Being situated about half way between the great 
Southern Gulf and the semi-arctic regions of the !North, with but slight barriers 
on either side, she is subject, like all Western States of the same latitude, to 
frequent changes of temperature. But notwithstanding the great and sudden 
transitions as indicated by the thermometer, Missouri may be considered a very 
healthy State. Pulmonary diseases very rarely originate here. In most parts 
of the State plowing and putting in crops commence in March, and the forests 
are in full foliage early in May; while in the extreme southern counties cotton 
is raised, and young stock manage to live through the winter with little or 
no care. 

Taking the State with all its advantages — its fruitful soil and healthful 
climate, its vast wealth of metals and minerals, its facilities for transportation 
by rail or river, its present wealth and prospective greatness — and there is 
scarcely another State in the American Union that affords such attractions and 
inducements either to the capitalist or the. emigrant. 

HISTORY. 

Although the life of Missouri^ as a State, has only extended through half a 
century, yet it has been the busiest and most progressive half century in the 
annals of the world, and its characteristics have been stamped upon the history 
and fortunes of the State. Missouri had its origin amidst the first great 
political troubles and disputes of the American Republic. A compromise gave 
legal existence to the State, and this compromise was finally washed out in the 
blood of a civil war. The fraternal strife which for four years trans^grmed the 
most beautiful country and the grandest political empire in the world into a 
great battle-field, gave a full share of its bloody fortunes to Missouri. Some 
of the fairest portions of the State were almost depopulated, and whole sections 
passed through the ordeal of blood and fire, and when the desolation had gone 
by^ presented nothing but unpeopled and smoking ruins. But after the night 
oame the day, and the horrid wounds inflicted by civil war began to be healed 
by the angel of peace. It was sharp and painful surgery that cut away the old 
excrescence, but it left the body politic healthier, and all the people happier 
and more prosperous than ever before. 



248 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE aRBAT CITY. 

Under the old regime, the States of Illinois and Indiana, although far behind 
us in natural resources, were outstripping Missouri in the march of empire. 
Although the great advantages of the State brought many immigrants in spite 
of the sj'stem then in vogue, yet our sister States across the Mississippi were, 
at the commencement of the war, far in advance of us as regarded population 
and material wealth. This state of things is being rapidly changed by the 
multitudes of immigrants from the Eastern and Middle States and the Old 
World, who are seeking homes on our rich prairies, in our fruitful valleys and 
extensive forests, or in our exhaustless mines of iron, lead, and zinc. 

POPULATION. 

The present population of Missouri may be safely put down at nearly, if not 
quite, 2,000,000. The first census of the State, when it was admitted into the 
Union in 1821, showed a population of 70,647. From that date the number of 
inhabitants very nearly doubled each decade up to 1860, when the population 
of lyiissouri, including white, free colored, and slaves, amounted to 1,172,797. 
The war drained the State, not only of material wealth, but of multitudes of 
people ; but the return of peace, and the increased and ever-increasing tide of 
immigration, will bring the State up to three millions before the year 1880. Of 
the present inhabitants of Missouri about one hundred thousand, or one in 
fifteen, are colored. Considering the condition these people have been in for 
generations past, they have conducted themselves with great propriety since 
their formal emancipation in 1865. A large majority of them are not only 
making an honest support for themselves and families, but, by their industry 
and frugality, accumulating a decent competence. On the south side of the 
Missouri river especially, there is a large German element in the population. 
Wherever these people make homes in the country, and plant vineyards or 
cultivate small farms, you may look with confidence for present prosperity 
and future wealth. Every town or neighborhood in Missouri that has been 
planted by Germans is now actually wealthy, or has the elements of certain 
prosperity in the future. 

EDUCATION. 

But let us pass from these general views of a great State and its varied 
resources to some of the details which constitute the grand result. When we 
speak of the wealth of a State, we should not so much consider its rich mines, 
its fruitful soil, its genial climate, and its natural channels of commerce and 
communication, as its people. The people are all that give real wealth to any 
country. Without inhabitants, the fairest lands upon which the sun shines 
would be of no more value than a barren beach or a rocky clifi". But, then, 
the people must have intelligence in order to give value to the country they 
inhabit. Savages make a land poorer instead of richer by their presence. 
And just in proportion as a community rise in the scale of civilization, 
intelligence, refinement, and moral worth, their lands and bouses go up in their 
money value. 



ST. LODIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 249 

In this matter Missouri made a grand investment at the very start, and her 
flchool fund has been bo well husbanded and increased by legislation that she 
has now a system of public instruction that may challenge comparison with 
that of any State in the Union. It is not meant by this that the educational 
machinery of the State is everywhere in perfect working order, but that the 
foundations of the system are laid deep and secure ; and if any child of Mis- 
souri grows up in absolute ignorance, it will be because it refused the light that 
is oifered almost " without money and without price." 

The following items will serve to indicate the present working of the common 
school system in Missouri : Number of children in State between five and 
twenty-one years, 584,026 for the year 1869; number of children in public 
schools, 249,729. It would be safe to estimate that 150,000 students were in 
the numerous colleges, seminaries, private and parochial schools, during the 
same year. Number of teachers in public schools, 7,145 ; number of public 
schools in the State, 5,307 ; number of public school-houses, 5,412; value of 
public school-houses, §3,087,062. 

The richly-endowed Industrial College, incorporated with the State Univer- 
sity, at Columbia, offers not only an academic but an agricultural education to 
all who desire to become scientific as well as practical farmers. Other incor- 
porated and leading institutions of learning in Missouri are : North Missouri 
"Normal School, at Kirksville ; William Jewett College, at Liberty; Grand 
River College, at Edinbui-gh ; Plattsburg College, at Plattsburg ; McGee Col- 
lege^ at College Mound ; Christian University, at Canton ; Washington Uni- 
Tersity and St. Louis University, both at St. Louis ; St. Paul's College, at 
Palmyra ; and Bethel College, at Palmyra. 

MANUFACTURES. 

No great community, living in a fertile and productive countrj'', can be long 
or largely prosperous unless it shows a certain amount of independence, or 
rather an ability and disposition to supply most of its ordinary wants. A 
simple monopoly is always an evil, tending to enrich a few and impoverish the 
multitude. Before the war, the Southern States made cotton and sugar^ and 
looked to the North almost entirely for breadstuffs. Since the war they have 
learned to produce a large portion of their food supplies, and, as a result, will 
soon be more prosperous than ever before. 

Missouri has a food-producing capacity sufficient to sustain thirty or forty 
millions of people. But it is by no means her policy to devote all her energies 
to raising corn, wheat, and pork, trusting entirely to other States and foreign 
countries for the ten thousand articles and implements demanded' by the j)resent 
civilization and the various industries connected with it. 

Missouri has illimitable quantities of the raw material, and wonderful facili- 
ties for generating the necessary power to transform that raw material into 
the thousand forms suited to the wants of civilized men. Until lately we have 
done but little in the way of manufactures beyond making wheat into floui*, 
corn into whisky, hemp into bagging and rope, tobacco into shapes to suit 
smokers and chewers, and iron into stoves and heavy castings. But a new era 



250 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE SREAT CITY. 

has dawned upon the State. We have discovered that we can make a thonsand 
articles of primary and pressing need just as well as they can be made in New 
or Old England. In the single article of iron, the capital invested in its manu- 
facture has quadrupled within the last four or five years. Capitalists from 
abroad, who have studied our resources and facilities for manufacturing iron, 
have become satisfied that Missouri must soon become one of the largest iron- 
producing States in the world ; and they are adding millions to the working 
capital employed in this branch of industry. 

The time is approaching when we shall not have to import our railroad iron 
from Europe, much of our pottery and queensware from other States, our glass 
and hardware from the good city of Pittsburg, and many of our woolen and. 
cotton goods from New England. When that time comes, Missouri will have 
achieved her great destiny as the Empire State of the Mississippi Valley. 

CREDIT OP MISSOURI, 

A country possessing such vast stores of material wealth as Missouri, 
although much of it is still undeveloped, should have proper credit and con- 
sideration in all bureaus of finance throughout the world. A State that could 
oe sold under the hammer to-day for more than a thousand millions of dollars 
should have her bonds as good as gold. They are nearly so, in spite of the 
heavy railroad debt incurred before the war. This debt is being rapidly can- 
celed, and very soon Missouri 6's will stand at par or a premium. It may not 
be improper to add in this connection, that the assessed value of the taxable 
property in Missouri in 1868, with such addition as the assessors themselves 
allow to be correct in estimating the real cash value of property, amounted to 
$1,177,000,000, and this vast amount will be increased to at least $1,250,000,000 
the present year. 

STOCK-RAISING. 

Perhaps there is no one of the great Western States of the American Union 
better adapted to stock-raising than Missouri. Abundant crops of grain and 
corn are almost as certain as the return of the seasons. The climate in most 
parts of the State is mild enough to preclude the necessity of much shelter or 
long feeding in winter. Small streams, with their meandering branches and 
bubbling fountains, lie like a net-work all over the State ; and some of these 
streams are so impregnated with salt as to supply stock with all the}^ need of 
this article. 

The following exhibits the number and value of horses, mules, cattle, sheep, 
and hogs, in 1868 : 

VALTJB. 

Horses 375,400 $19,203,427 

Mules.. 86,299 4,822,988 

Cattle 933,617 12,109,234 

Sheep 1,385,805..! 1,951,078 

Hogs 1,952,532 3,734,006 

Total. ..4,733, 463 $41,880,733 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



251 



VALUE OF LAND IN MISSOURI. 

It is doubtful whether any other State in the Mississippi Valley can furnish 
good land at so moderate a price as Missouri. On the south side of the Mis- 
souri river there are more than a million of acres (much of it good land) still 
to be given away as homesteads. In the same portion of the State there are 
millions of acres, mostly lying south of the Osage river, that can be bought for 
from fifty cents to five dollars an acre. Much of this land is equal to any in 
the whole country for vineyards, fruit, and sheep farms. In the extreme 
southeastern quarter of the State there is an immense body of the richest land 
in the world, which can be restored to use by drainage, and that, too, at a mod- 
erate cost, compared with the value of the land to be redeemed. Not only can 
a large portion of the land in the south half of Missouri be obtained very 
cheaply, but even the finely cultivated farms along the valley of the Missouri 
and all over the rich prairies of the western, central, and northern portions of 
the State, can be purchased lower than the same kind of land and improvements 
in Illinois. No country in the wide West offers stronger inducements to the 
enterprising and industrious immigrant than Missouri. If he is a farmer, our 
fruitful soil awaits the hand of the cultivator, to whom it will return " thirty, 
fifty, or an hundred fold." If he is a miner or mechanic, his hands shall find 
plenty of work, with liberal pay. 






■■*■■ 



>.;. 'r S.-E- -v.^»-; »-i-.'< -• 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF MISSOURL 



BY PEOF. G. C. SWALLOW, 

rOBMKE STATS GEOLOGIST. 



COLTTMBIA Mo., Septembtr SO, 1870. 
L. U. Reavts, Esq. : 

My Dear Sir : Your note requesting me to make out chapter on the Mineral Resources of 
Missouri for the new edition of your work, was duly received. I have attempted to comply with 
your request; but numerous previous engagements have rendered it impossible for me to make 
it as perfect and complete as I would wish. 

Permit me to suggest that your article on this subject, in the first edition, is too valuable to be 
omitted in the future editions. Our minerals and our soils are the foundations of the argument, 
and upon these you can scarcely say too much. 

I heartily wish you entire success in your great work, hoping ere long to congratulate you in 
the Mound City, when it shall have become the Business Metropolis and the Political Capital of 
the nation. 

Very truly, your obedient servant, 

a. C. SWALLOW. 



There is no territory of equal extent on the continent which contains so 
many and such large quantities of the most useful minerals as the State of 
Missouri. In making this remark there is no desire to underrate the mineral 
resources of other States or of the adjacent Territories, but to announce the 
fact that some good fortune has set the boundaries of this State around a por- 
tion of country filled with an unusual amount of the mineral substances useful 
in the arts and manufactures, and that several of those most useful are found 
in such quantities that the supply is virtually inexhaustible. There are some 
that no demand for home consumption or for foreign supplies can exhaust 
within the time allotted for the rise, progress, and decay of nations. 

Only small portions of the precious metals have been discovered in Missouri ; 
nor is it desirable there should be. It is true that deposits of silver and gold 
concentrate populations very rapidly and yield many large fortunes ; but 
history does not show that countries producing silver and gold have been per- 
manently prosperous. Gold built up California very rapidly, and it is now 
filled with a great and prosperous people ; but gold does not keep them there, 
nor does it induce the present immigration. The beautiful climate and 
wonderful agricultural resources are its present attractions. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 253 



Mexico and Pern have large and numerous deposits of precious metals ; but 
they have never secured permanent prosperity, though peopled by what were 
the best races of Europe. 

Spain has had vast quantities of gold and silver, both at home and in her 
foreign possessions, from the earliest antiquity ; but the most prosperous 
nations of ancient and modern times have imported nearly ail the gold and 
silver they have used. Gold mining has yielded many colossal fortunes, as to 
Croesus in ancient times, and to many familiar names of later date ; still the 
great mass of those engaged in gold mining have lived poor and died poor. 
These results might be expected from the very nature of the business. Nine- 
tenths of all the labor spent in the search for and in mining gold meets with 
no reward, while some of it has been rewarded with signal success. All who 
engage in this business, therefore, have high expectations, and many spend 
their gains lavishly, live fast, and, if not successful, often become dissipated 
and worthless. Almost all other pursuits yield a reward which may be calcu- 
lated with some degree of certainty, which gives stability and permanence and 
leads to regular habits and progress. These results become very marked in 
national character when examined in the light of history. Great Britain and 
Spain give a striking illustration. Scarcely three centuries have elapsed since 
the united crowns of Castile and Aragon ruled a more prosperous people than 
the thrones of Albion and Scotia. Spain extended her rule over the fairest 
portions of the New "World and held the commerce of both hemispheres. 
Galleon after galleon, deeply laden with the precious metals from the mines of 
Mexico and Peru, filled the treasury of the government and the pockets of her 
people. England, on the other hand, was opening her mines of iron and coal 
and pushing her manufactories by all the appliances of science and art. 

Spain has squandered her gold and become a mere pensioner on Cuba. But 
England now holds the commerce of both Indies, and the world pays a golden 
tribute to her iron and coal. 

If Missouri will work up her iron and coal she may become as powerful and 
rich as England. She has more territory and better soil, more and better iron 
and quite as much coal. 

People who work iron partake of its strong and hardy nature. They move 
the world and shape its destinies. The region tributary to St. Louis has far 
more of the very best varieties of iron ore than can be found available for any 
other locality in the known world ; and the facilities for working these vast 
deposits are unsurpassed. The country is well watered ; timber is abundant ; 
and all is surrounded by inexhaustible coal beds. These facti alone will make 
St. Louis the great iron mart of the country. 

SPECULAR OXIDE OP IRON. 

This is one of the most abundant and valuable ores in the State. Iron 
Mountain is the largest mass observed. It is two hundred feet high and covers 
an area of five hundred acres, and is made up almost entirely of this ore in its 
purest form. The quantity above the surface of the valley is estimated at 



254 ST. LOUIS, THB FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

2€0,000,00C tons. But this is only a fraction of the ore here, as it descends to 
unknown depths, and every foot of the descent will yield some 3,000,000 tons. 
Veins of this ore cut the porphyry at the shut-in, the location of the first iron 
furnace erected in this region. Fine beds of this ore were also found at the 
Buford ore-bed at the Big Bogy Mountains, at Eussell Mountain, at the James 
iron-works, and other localities in Phelps county ; and in sections two, three, 
ten, and eleven, of township thirty-five, range four, west, in Dent county, on 
the Southwest Pacific railroad, and in several other localities in that county 
There are several important deposits in Crawford, Phelps, and Pulaski counties. 

SILIOIOUS SPECULAR OXIDE 

Is found in very large quantities in Pilot Knob, where it is interstratified 
with slates and porphyry, as in the famous Iron Mountain near Lake Superior. 
The iron of Pilot Knob has been worked for many years. Its quality is as good 
as its quantity is great. 

MAGNETIC AND SPECULAR OXIDE 

Exists in large veins in the porphyry of Shepherd Mountain. It is very pure, 
and large quantities have been worked. 

There is iron enough, of the very best quality, within a few miles of Pilot 
Knob and Iron Mountain to furnish one million tons of manufactured iron per 
annum for the next two hundred years. All these ores are well adapted to the 
manufacture of pig metal, and the most of them are suitable for making blooms 
by the Catelau process, and steel by the Bessemer. 

BOG ORE 

Has been discovered in beds several miles in extent in the swamps and 
cypresses of Southeast Missouri — in Scott, Mississippi, Dunklin, Pemiscot, 
and New Madrid counties, in quantity sufficient in itself alone to make 
Missouri the great Iron State. 

HEMATITE ORES 

Of good quality are very generally distributed over the southern part of the 
State, where it is often found in very extensive beds. Large deposits have 
been discovered in Cooper, St. Clair, Green, Henry, Franklin, Benton, Dallas, 
Camden, Stone, Madison, Iron, Washington, Perry, St. Francois, Eeynolds, 
Stoddard, Scott, and Dent counties. The beds discovered in Scott, Stoddard, 
and Perry counties are very extensive and of good quality. The beds in the 
tertiary rocks of Scott county are not so good. In these beds of hematite 
alone Misssouri has more iron than can be smelted in the present and 
succeeding generations. 

SPATHIC ORE 

Has been discovered in very extensive beds in the tertiary rocks of Scott 
county, where the ore is very pure. The coal measures of Missouri contain 



8T. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 255 

many beds of spathic ore ; and it is found in greater or less quantities through- 
out the entire area of 27,000 square miles covered by these rocks. These beds 
of ore are similar to many worked extensively in England and Pennsylvania ; 
and, in the absence of the vast beds of other ores of better quality, they would 
attract more attention and be mnde productive. 

Were it possible to exhaust the more available deposits in the State, the 
spathic ores of the tertiary and coal rocks could supply all the demands for 
iron for a long period. 

In a chapter so limited it is impossible to mention all the hundreds of locali- 
ties already discovered, to say nothing of the areas not yet explored. There 
are already recorded in the reports of the geological survey fifty-six workable 
beds in Green, Phelps, Maries, and Crawford counties alone, and good ore is 
still more abundant in the counties of the Southeast. 

In other States there are many very extensive iron deposits, which will 
naturally gravitate toward St. Louis. Among them there are some very 
valuable in the Indian Territory, which our railroads will make available. 

But the most extensive iron bed yet observed is on the Missouri river, crop- 
ping out in the bluffs on both banks of the river for a distance of more than 
twenty-five miles. These beds are on the river, and many million tons could 
be rained and put on boats for less than one dollar per ton ; and the expense 
of carrying to St. Louis, down stream, would be very small. 

Other localities might be mentioned, but we have shown the position of 
enough of the various varieties of iron ore to supply any possible demand of 
any possible manufacturing city for the next thousand years, and all is so 
located as to be tributary to St. Louis. 

The simple fact that such quantities of iron ore do exist so near and in 
places so accessible, will compel this young and vigorous city to become the 
Iron Mart. The iron furnaces at Iron Mountain, Pilot Knob, Irondale, Moselle 
works, James works, St. Louis, and Carondelet, fifteen in all, with a capacity 
of 130,000 tons, and two rolling mills with a capacity of 40,000 tons, and the 
numerous foundries and machine shops, are the growth of a few years — a mere 
beginning of the great work of utilizing our iron ores. These will increase in 
a rapid ratio until a hundred furnaces pour forth the molten metal, a score of 
mills roll it into rails and bars and plates, and a hundred foundries mold it 
into the ten thousand shapes and forms demanded by human industry. Then 
shall we see the millenium of iron men, and our people be prepared to appre- 
ciate the value of our iron beds ; and they will appreciate the justice of your 
noble tribute to the pioneers of iron in Missouri. 

COAL, 

Mineral coal has done much to promote the rapid progress of the present 
century. Commerce and manufactures could not have reached their present 
unprecedented prosperity without its aid; and no people can expect success in 
those departments of human industry unless their territory furnishes an abun- 
dance of this useful mineral. Previous to the geological survey it was known 



256 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

that coal existed in many counties of the State, but there was no definite 
knowledge of the continuation of workable beds over any considerable areas ; 
but since the geological survey commenced, the southeastern outcrop of the 
coal measures has been traced from the mouth of the Des Moines, through 
Clark, Lewis, Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Boone, Cooper, Pettis, Henry, St. Clair, 
Bates, Vernon, and Barton, into the Indian Territory, and every county on the 
northwest of this line is known to contain more or less coal, giving us an area 
of over 26,000 square miles of coal beds in that part of the State. We have 
proved the existence of vast quantities of coal in Johnson, Pettis, Lafayette, 
Cass, Cooper, Chariton, Howard, Boone, Saline, Putnam, Adair, Macon, Carroll, 
Ray, Callaway, Audrain, and it is confidently expected that the counties to the 
northwest will prove to be as rich when fully examined. Outside of the coal- 
field as given above, the regular coal rocks also exist in Ealls, Montgomery, 
Warren, Callaway, St. Charles, and St. Louis, and local deposits of cannel and 
bituminous coal in Moniteau, Cole, Morgan, Crawford, Callaway, and probably 
other counties. Workable beds of good coal exist in nearly all places where 
the coal measures are developed, as some of the best beds are near their base, 
and must crop out on the borders of the coal-field. This is found to be the fact 
where examinations have been made. All of the little outliers along the border 
contain more or less coal, though the stratas are not more than forty or fifty 
feet thick. But, exclusive of these outliei*8 and local deposits, we have an area 
of twenty-six thousand eight hundred square miles of the regular coal measures. 
If the average thickness of workable coal be one foot only, it will give 26,800,- 
000,000 tons for the whole area occupied by coal rocks. But in many places 
the thickness of the workable beds is over fifteen feet, and the least estimate 
that can be made for the whole area is five feet. This will give over 134,000,- 
000,000 tons of good available coal in our State. Such were our estimates of 
the coal in Missouri in 1855. Since then new beds have been opened in the 
area above designated and large ti'acts discovered in other parts of the State, 
along the whole line of the southeastern outcrop of the lower coal strata, 
from the mouth of the Des Moines to the Indian Territory. Along the lines .of 
all the railroads in North Missouri, and along the western end of the Missouri 
Pacific, active and systematic mining has opened our coal beds in a thousand 
localities, and developed a series of facts which render it absolutely certain that 
our former estimate falls far below the real quantity in the State. Prior to 
1855 no eoal beds had been discovered on the Missouri river between Kansas 
City and Sioux City, save one or two thin beds in the upper coal measures, and 
practical men were slow to believe the geojogist could detect the existence of 
coal beneath the surface. But some brave men at Leavenworth City have sunk 
a shaft to one of the lowest coal beds, 700 feet beneath their city, and more 
than 600 feet below the Missouri river at that point. The success of this enter- 
prise proves the deductions of science that our lower coal beds, which crop out 
along the eastern boundary of our coal-field, from Clark county to Vernon, dip 
beneath the siirface and extend to the west as far at least as Leavenworth, or 
beyond the western boundary of Missouri. 

This and other similar developments prove to a moral certainty that our esti- 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 257 

mate of the coal in the State at 134,000,000,000 tons is much too small. But 
since that is enough, we need not make new figures. But it is not the coal of 
Missouri alone which is tributary to St. Louis. The 12,000 square miles of coal 
measures in Kansas, as much more in the Indian Territory and Arkansas, and 
still larger areas in Iowa and Illinois and Kentucky, are so located as to form 
around St. Louis a circle of fuel at once accessible and inexhaustible. Coal is 
but one remove from the diamond ; but that slight difference makes it vastly 
more valuable — the motive power of the world. Could all the millions of men 
on the earth live a thousand years, and put forth all their strength for that 
whole period, the power exerted would sink into insignificance when compared 
with the latent power inherent in this circle of coal-fields. What crown, then, 
can be more fitting for this Queen City than this circle of coal-fields, gemmed 
with mountains of iron. 

ECONOMICAL VALUE. 

In our efforts to appreciate the value of so vast a deposit of this most useful 
mineral and its influence on the growth of St. Louis, we should constantly beac 
in mind the position of these beds, beneath the soil of one of the richest agri- 
cultural regions on the continent, within a State whose manufacturing and 
commercial facilities and resources are scai'cely inferior to any, and adjacent to 
the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, and the Pacific, the Korth Missouri, and the 
Hannibal and St. Joseph railroads. 

With all these advantages of location, the certainty that these coal beds can 
furnish 100,000,000 tons per annum for the next thirteen hundred years, is a 
fact of the first importance to your city and its wonderful future. These coal 
beds contain nearly all known varieties of bituminous and cannel coals, such 
as are suited to almost all manufacturing purposes. 

LEAD OBE. 

The most important deposits of lead in Missouri are galena^ or the sulphuret 
of lead. Carbonates of tin occur in considerable quantities, and sometimes 
small portions of other ores of this valuable metal are found. Our lead mines 
have been worked with great success for the last half century. It is true that 
the amount of mining done and the success at vario'ds points have been some- 
what variable, as is always the case in mining operations when conducted and 
carried on by men who have but little capital and practical knowledge of the 
work, as ours have been in some considerable degree at least. Many of our 
mines have been neglected for various reasons ; some oh account of disputed 
titles ; others from the general depression of the business ; and others on 
account of the late military troubles. But there is no good reason to suppose 
our mines would be less productive now than at any previous period. Few or 
none have been exhausted, and many are now worked with greater success than 
at any previous time. All the facts encourage a more extended effort to work 
and more fully develop some of the neglected mines and open new ones. 

Our space will not permit a detailed account of the lead mines of the State. 



258 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

There are more than five hundred localities, old and new, that promise good 
returns to the miner. Two hundred and sixteen have been catalogued in my 
report on the Southwest Pacific railroad. 

The Eastern Lead Region comprises a large portion of Franklin, Washington, 
Jefferson, Crawford, Phelps, Dent, Madison, St. Francois, Perry, St. Genevieve, 
and some parts of the adjoining counties, giving an area of some five thousand 
square miles. 

The Southwestern Lead Region comprises a large portion of Newton, Jasper, 
and small tracts of the adjoining counties, making an area of about two 
hundred square miles. 

The Osage Lead Region contains a considerable portion of Cole, Moniteau, 
Morgan, Benton, Camden, Pettis, Cooper, and Miller, and some of the adjoining 
counties — an area of about one thousand five hundred square miles. 

The Southern Lead Region comprises portions of Taney, Christian, Webster,* 
and probably other counties not yet survej'ed on the south. The extent is not 
known, as that part of the State has not been fully examined ; but there is at 
least one hundred square miles in the counties above named. 

In the Eastern Lead Region 5,000 square miles. 

" Southwest'n " 200 

" Osage " 1,500 

" Southern " ~ 100 



Li all these an area of. - 6,800 square miles. 

It is not to be supposed that these areas, large as they are, contain all the 
lead lands of the State. 

We have not yet examined a single county south of the Osage and the Mis- 
souri, save in the swamp country, without finding in it more or less of this 
valuable mineral ; and besides, nearly all these counties are underlaid by the 
true lead-bearing rocks of our State. We have, then, six thousand eight hun- 
dred square miles in which lead deposits in workable quantities have been found 
and successfully worked, and at least fifteen thousand square miles more of 
lead-bearing rocks, where we may reasonably expect to find valuable deposits 
of this mineral. Detailed descriptions of many of our lead mines may be found 
in the State Geological Eeports. 

Some have supposed our mines are like those in Illinois and other points on 
the Upper Mississippi, and that they would soon be exhausted. But the mines 
of Missouri are entirely different in man}' respects. 

1. Thev are in entirely different formations. The lead mines in the South- 
west and in Cooper coiinly are in the lower carboniferous rocks, the same as 
the lead-bearing rocks of England, which have been worked so long with so 
much success; and the mines in the Eastern, Southern, and Osage lead regions 
of the State are in the calciferous sand-rock and Potsdam sandi^tone — rocks 
much older than the Galena limestone. 

2. The lead-bearing rocks of Galena have a thickness of only about 100 
feet, whereas the lead-bearing rocks of Missouri are more than 1,000 feet in 
thickness. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 259 

3. The veins on the Uppei* Mississippi do not pass through into the forma- 
tions above and below the lead-bearing limestone ; they stop when they come 
to the sandstone. In Missouri the veins cut through the sandstone above and 
below the lead-bearing limestones, as at the Mount Hope mines. 

4. In Wisconsin and Illinois there appear to be no true veins, whereas in 
Missouri there are many veins like the true veins of Cornwall. 

These and other marked differences indicate the more permanent character 
of the Missouri mines. That they belong to the same class as the more perma- 
nent mines of England and Wales, is clearly shown by the following charac- 
teristics, which they possess in common with the best mining regions of the 
world. No one who is familiar with the geological features of the principal 
mineral regions of the globe can fail to observe the striking characteristics 
which our mineral region has in common with many of the most important in 
other parts. 

1. Proximity to igneous or eruptive rocks. It is a well-known fact that 
nearly all the great mining regions of Great Britain, Eussia, Hungary, Ger- 
many^ Norway, France, South America, Mexico, and this countrj^, are in regions 
adjacent to igneous rocks, like the mineral region just described. There are, 
however, some productive localities which are far removed from any known or 
exposed igneous rocks. The localities occupied by the Kupfer ScMefer, at 
Mansfeldt, the lead region of the mountain limestone in England, the Upper 
Mississippi lead region, those in the southwestern part of this State, and some 
others, seem to be exceptions to this rule. ' The mines in the most of these 
exceptional regions, though often rich and vastly productive for a time, have 
not proved so extensive and durable, as their mineral deposits seldom occur in 
true veins. 

It may be remarked that some portions of the mineral region of Southeast 
Missouri are somewhat removed from Iron and Madison counties, the principal 
center of igneous action in this State; but we have good reason to believe that 
igneous rocks underlie this whole mineral region at no great depth, since they 
come to the surface in a few places, even on the outer borders of it, as in 
Crawford, Washington, St. Genevieve, Wayne, Shannon, and Texas counties. 
This fact being understood, this whole region, in its relation to igneous and 
eruptive rocks, is the peer of the most favored mining districts in the world, 

2. The sedimentary rocks have been more or less fractured, tilted, and meta- 
morphosed by those intrusive or igneous rocks, as shown by the metamorphic 
slates at Pilot Knob and in several places in Madison county. The same results 
have been produced on Lake Superior, in Cornwall, and in many other rich 
localities. 

3. The several kinds of igneous rocks have been forced to the surftice at 
several successive periods. This is true of our region, of Cornwall, and of 
other favored mining districts. 

4. The ores occur in true veins, as in Cornwall and nearl}^ all the best minei* 
in the world. 

5. Gossan, a porous oxide of iron, occupies the upper part of manj' veins, 
especially those of copper, in this, the Cornwall, and many other districts of 



"260 ST. LODIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

great, mineral wealth. This cap of gossan — '' chapeau de fer" of French 
miners, and '' eiserne hut" of the Germans — is common in the best mining 
regions of Europe, Asia, and America — in France, Cornwall, Colorado, Mon- 
tana, and Missouri. The German couplet expresses the popular opinion among 
miners : • 

" Es ist nie nicht Gang so gut, 
Der tragt nicht einen eisernen Hut." 

No vein is deemed so good 
As one that has an iron hood. 

6. Large eruptive masses of iron ore characterize many of the best mining 
regions, as in the Ural Mountains, Norway, Sweden, Lake Superior, and Mis- 
souri. These mountain masses are not always in the immediate vicinity of the 
other ores, but they are intimately connected with the disturbing forces which 
have produced the mineral veins. 

7. As a general rule, the true veins of this region do not possess such well- 
marked and extensive selvages as this variety of lodes usually do ; but, like the 
true veins of Cornwall, their gangue is usually connected with or cemented to 
the wall-rock. 

8. In many of the best mining regions there are two sets of veins — one 
running nearly north and south, and the other nearly east and west. One set 
is usually more productive than the other. 

In Missouri there is an approximation to this. The true veins of Franklin 
county usually run north and south, but there are others which run east and 
west, as on Mineral Branch, or Lead Eun, near the Bourbeuse. These east and 
west veins contain some galena and tiff, but they have not been sufficiently 
explored to prove their value. 

In Cornwall the east and west veins are the most productive, whereas in 
Brittany the north and south veins are the richer. 

Beside these eight most important characteristics of the best mining districts, 
our mining region has others in common with them all ; but I will not enlarge 
upon this part of the subject further than to mention a few particulars in which 
this region is strikingly like that so renowned in Cornwall : 

Igneous or eruptive rocks play a conspicuous part in each region. Both have 
granite knobs and ridges ; both green stone and syenitic trap dykes. Both have 
metamorphic slates, the " killas " of the Cornish miners. Both have intrusive 
masses of porphyry, or porphyritic dykes, the ^' eleraus" of the Cornish minerSv. 
Both have true veins, in which the vein- stone is usually cemented to the 
wall-rock without any selvages. Both have veins with gossan caps. Both 
have veins containing copper, iron, lead, zinc, cobalt, nickel, and silver. Both 
have about the same varieties of the ores of copper and some other metals. 
Both have about the same elevation above the ocean. Both have similar topo- 
graphical developments. 

The lead mines of Arkansas and the Upper Mississippi send their products 
to St. Louis. The English mines also send their tribute, as will the ten thousand 
lead veins of Colorado and Montana. 



ST. LOCIS, THE FUTURE GKEAT CITY. 261 



COPPER. 



This metal is found in many localities in the State. Several varieties of 
copper ore exist in the Missouri mines. The copper mines of Shannon, Madi- 
son, and Franklin counties have been known for a long time. Some of those 
in Shannon and Franklin were once worked with bright prospects of success, 
and some in Madison have yielded good results. 

Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Benton, MarieS) 
Green, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds, and Wright counties. 
But the mines in Franklin, Shannon, Madison, Crawford, Dent, and Washington 
give greater promise of yielding profitable results than any other yet discov- 
ered. When capitalists are prepared to work these mines in a systematic 
manner, they may expect good returns for the money invested. 

ZINC. 

Sulphuret of zinc is very abundant in nearly all the lead mines in South- 
western Missouri, particularly in those mines in Newton and Jasper, in the 
mountain limestone. The carbonate and the silicate occur in the same locali- 
ties, though in much smaller quantities. The ores of zinc are also found in 
greater or less abundance in all the counties on the southwestern branch ; but 
the distance from market and the difficulties in smelting the most abundant of 
these ores, the sulphuret, have prevented the miners from appreciating its real 
value. It often occurs in such large masses as to impede very materially the 
progress of mining operations. For this reason black-jack is no favorite with 
the miners of the Southwest. Many thousand tons have been cast aside with 
the rubbish as so much worthless matter ; but the completion of the South- 
western railroad will give this ore a market value and convert into valuable 
merchandise the vast quantities of it which may be so easily obtained in Jasper, 
Newton, and other counties of the Southwest. Considerable quantities of the 
sulphuret, carbonate, and silicate also occur in the eastern lead regions. At 
Perry's mine^ at Mount Hope mine, and at a locality near Potosi, these ores 
exist in some considerable quantities. 

Little has been done to test the value of the ores of zinc in these and other 
localities in the State ; but a beginning has been made with promising results. 
There is an extensive vein of calamine in Taney county, which will doubtless 
^■ove very valuable. 

COBALT 

Exists in considerable quantities at Mine La Motte. It has been found in one 
other locality. It will doubtless be discovered in other places. 

NICKEL 

Is also worked at Mine La Motte in considerable quantities. 

MANGANESE. 

The peroxide of manganese has been found in several localities in St. 
Genevieve and other counties. 



262 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITr. 



SILVER 



Occurs in small quantities in nearly all the lead mines in the State, in com- 
bination with the ores of that metal. 



GOLD, 



Though often reported in large quantities in sundry localities, has never been 
worked to any considerable extent in any part of the State. 



TIN. 



Ores said to have large quantities of tin have attracted much attention, and 
much money and labor have been spent in efforts to mine and reduce them ; but 
the results are unknown to the writer. Flattering reports have been made of 
the yield at some localitie 



PLATINUM. 

Some parties have reported platinum in small quantities in the dykes of 
Madison county. 

MARBLE. 

Missouri has numerous and extensive beds of marble of various shades and 
quantities. Some of them are very valuable, and will become a very important 
item in our resources. 

Fort Scott Marble is a hai'd, black, fine-grained marble, with veins of yellow, 
buff, and brown. It receives a fine polish, and is very beautiful. It belongs to 
the coal measures, and is found in several places in Kansas near the Missouri 
line, and doubtless extends into Missouri. There are several beds in the St. 
Louis limestone, in St. Louis county, which have attracted some attention as 
fine marbles. Some of them are very beautiful and durable. 

The fourth division of encrinital limestone is a white, coarse-grained, crys- 
talline marble of great durability. It crops out in several places in Marion 
county. One of the best localities is in the bluffs of the Mississippi, between 
McFarland's branch and the Fabius. The lithographic limestone will furnish a 
hard, finegrained, bluish-drab marble, that would contrast finely with white 
varieties in tesselated pavements for halls and courts. 

The Cooper marble of the Onondaga limestone has numerous pellucid crys- 
tals of calcareous spar disseminated through a drab, or bluish-drab, fine, compact 
base. It exists in great quantities on the La Mine, in Cooper county, on Lee's 
creek, and in some other places in Marion county. It is admirably adapted to 
many ornamental uses. There are many extensive beds of fine variegated 
marbles in the upper Silurian limestones of Cape Girardeau county. They crop 
out in many places extending from Apple Creek, on the northern boundary of 
the county, to Cape Girardeau, and thence along the bluffs facing the swamps 
to the southwest. Cape Girardeau marble is also a part of the Trenton lime- 
Btoue located near Cape Girardeau. It is nearly white, strong and durable. 

There are several beds of very excellent marble in the magnesian limestone 
series. In sections thirty-four and thirty-five of township thirty-foui*, range 



ST. LOUIS, 'IHE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 263 

uhree, east, are several beds of semi-crystalline, light-colored marbles, beauti- 
fully clouded with buff and flesh colors. They receive a fine polish ; are durable 
and well fitted for man}- varieties of ornamental work and building purposes. 
But one of the most desirable of the Missouri marbles is in the third magnesian 
limestone, on the Niangua. It is a fine-grained, crystalline, silico-magnesian 
limestone, light drab, slightly tinged with peachblossom, and beautifully clouded 
with deep flesh-colored shades. It is twenty feet thick, and ci'Ops out in the 
bluffs of the Niangua for a long distance. This marble is rarely surpassed in 
the qualities adapted to ornamental architecture. 

There are also several other beds in this and the other magnesian limestones. 
Some are plain, while others are so clouded as to present the appearance of 
breccias. The beautiful Ozark marbles are well known. Some of them have 
been used in ornamenting the Capitol at Washington and for other purposes. 
Wherever the magnesian limestones come near the igneous rocks we may 
expect to find them so cUanged as to present beds of these beautiful variegated 
marbles. 

LIMESTONES. 

There is a great variety of excellent limestones in all parts of Missouri and 
in many localities in the adjacent States, which will furnish any quantity of 
the best materials of that class for building purposes. Some of these lime- 
stones have been much used, and others will supply the increasing demand as 
the means of transportation are extended to interior localities. 

HYDRAULIC LIMES 

Are abundant in numerous localities. Some of them have been tested with 
good results. The middle beds of the vermicular sandstone in Cooper and 
Marion counties are hydraulic. 

The upper beds of the lithographic limestone in Marion, Ealls, and Pike 
counties possess marked hydraulic properties ; and several limestones in Cape 
Girardeau county appear to be hydraulic. 

The upper beds of the Chouteau limestone in Boone, Cooper, Moniteau, 
Pettis, and other counties, are in the highest degree hydraulic. They resemble 
the hydraulic strata at Louisville. The upper and lower strata of the Hudson 
river group have the same properties. The same is true of some portions of 
the magnesian limestone series as developed in some parts of South Missouri. 
From some of these sources we may confidently expect an abundant supply for 
tome consumption and all demands for exportation. 

GYPSUM. 

Though no extensive beds of gypsum have been found in Missouri, there are 
vast beds of the pure white crystalline variety on the line of the Kansas 
Pacific railroad, on Kansas river, and on Gypsum creek. It is also found in 
several other localities accessible to St. Louis by both rail and boat, as at Fort 
Dodge in Iowa, and on the Republican and Blue rivers in Kansas. 



264 ST. LOUIS THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



CEMENT. 

All of the limestone formations in the State, from the coal measures to th© 
fourth magnesian, have more or less strata of very nearly pure carbonate of 
lime, which will consequently make good quick-lime. But few, if any, of the 
States have such an abundance and so general a distribution of this important 
article of domestic use. 

CLAYS, 

Suitable for potters, are worked in many localities in the State. There will be 
no lack of this material. 

Kaolin has been discovered at a few places, and worked at one or two. 

Brick clays have been discovered and worked in nearly all the counties where 
there has been a demand for them. The argillaceous portions of the bluff for- 
mation make good brick, as shown in the brickyards of nearly all the towns on 
our large rivers where this formation abounds. The brickyards of St. Loui& 
are supplied from this source, 

FIRE-BRICK 

Are manufactured from the fire-clays of the lower coal series in St. Louis 
county. These bricks have the reputation of possessing fine refractory prop- 
erties. There are many beds of fire-clay in the coal measures. Some beds of 
the Hudson river group in Ralls and Pike counties, of the Hamilton group in 
Pike and Marion, and of the vermicular sandstone and shales on North river ,^ 
Bcera to possess all the qualities of the very best fire-clays. The quantity of 
these clays is great, almost beyond computation. No possible demand could 
exhaust it. 

FIRE-ROCK 

Has often been observed. Some of the more silicious beds of the coal measures- 
are very refractory, as many have discovered. The upper strata of the ferru- 
ginous sandstones, some arenaceous beds of the encrinital limestone, the upper 
part of the Chouteau limestone, and the fine-grained, impure beds of the mag- 
nesian limestones, all possess qualities which will enable them to withstand the 
action of fire. But the second and third sandstones are the most refractory 
rocks yet examined. They are used in the furnaces at Iron Mountain and 
Pilot Knob. 

PAINTS. 

There are several beds of purple shales in the coal measures which possess- 
the properties requisite for paints used in outside work. Numbers ten, thirty- 
one, and fifty, of this formation have shades of a bright purple color, and a firm 
taxture j but number ten possesses the best qualities. Yellow and red ochres 
are found in considerable quantities. Some of these paints have been thor- 
©nghly tested by the Hon. Geo. S. Park and others, who have found thenv 
flre-proof and durable. These beds are on the Missouri river. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 266 



ROAD MATERIALS 

In any desirable quantity may be obtained in the drift formation and in the 
creeks and rivers of all parts of the State, 

GRANITE. 

There is an abundance of coarse reddish granite in several counties. Some 
of these will make admirable stone for heavy, massive structures. 

SANDSTONES, 

Of various shades of buff, red, and brown, occur in all the geological systems 
of the State. Many of them are firm and durable, and they present colors 
suited to various styles of architecture. 

This brief and general view of the deposits of useful minerals in the country 
tributary to St. Louis shows that Nature has been lavish of the materials 
necessary for the growth and stability of a great city. If, in connection with 
these vast and varied mineral products, we take into the view the well-known 
facts that Missouri and the adjacent States possess soils of wonderful fertility, 
and in varieties suited to all the staple crops and fruits of the temperate zone ; 
that the whole region is intersected by rivers and creeks, and watered by count- 
less living springs ; that it is groaning beneath boundless forests of nearly every 
variety of the best timber on the continent; that numerous railroads and ten 
thousand miles of river navigation center here ; that we are in the great high- 
way of the moving populations of both hemispheres, we shall have more of 
the causes and conditions of growth, wealth, and permanence than have ever 
surrounded any city of ancient or modern times. 



MISSOURI AS A WINE-PRODUCING STATE. 



BY L. D. MORSE, M.D.. 

PRESIDENT MISSISSIPPI VALLEY GRAPE GROWERS' ASSOCIATION. 



It is a little over twenty years since grape culture was commenced as a 
business in Missouri, since which it has steadily increased, and rapidly so 
within the latter half of the period. During the last five years the increase 
has been at the rate of about 300 acres per year. Within the period last 
named, several companies have been formed for producing wine on a large 
scale. The Cliff Cave Wine Company, in the south part of St. Louis county, 
has about twenty-five acres of vines, sold a large quantity of grapes last year, 
and made 3,000 gallons of wine. The Augusta Wine Company, of St. Charles 
eounty, has 22,775 vines, and made last year 8,000 gallons of wine. The 
Elufi'ton Wine Company, of Montgomery county, has 59,834 vines, and made 
last year from the portion in bearing 13,490 gallons of wine. The Missouri 
Smelting and Mineral Land Company, of Stanton, Franklin county, is engaged 
in grape growing as a portion of its business, and has about seventy acres of 
vines planted, nearly all of which are in bearing this year. 

In addition to the foregoing, we have the American Wine Company, of 
St. Louis, started several years earlier. It does not depend upon raising grapes 
for wine, but buys largely, and claims to have made last year over 100,000 
gallons of still wines, and half a million bottles of champagne. 

The vineyards of the town of Hermann yielded last year over 150,000 gallons 
of wine, and about 85,500 pounds of grapes sold, the total. value of both being 
estimated at $157,557. 

In the Eeport of the Department of Agriculture for 1868, partial reports from 
nineteen counties are given, the average footing to 1,508. Statistics obtained 
last year by the Mississippi Yalley Grape Growers' Association, entirely 
reliable so far as they go, indicate that there are about 3,000 acres of vineyards 
in the State, and the entire value of the grape product of the State this year 
will not be less than $3,000,000. 

SUPERIORITY OF MISSOURI GRAPES AND WINES. 

It is not 80 much, however, the number of acres planted during the last leyr 
years, as it is the more or less favorable results from those in bearing, and 
the comparative quality of the fruit and wines produced therefrom, which tend 
to determine the question of superiority of our State above most others. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE (JKEAT CITY. 267 

What little statistical information has been gathered thus far on this subject, 
and the very imperfect statements and incori*ect figures given in the various 
reports, including that of the U. S. Agricultural Department, make it impossible 
to give reliable comparisons; but even this last named report shows that the 
average produced per acre in Ohio was 3,745 lbs. grapes, or 320 gallons wine ; 
it was in New York 4,571 lbs. grapes, or 416 gallons wine; and in Missouri 
6,900 lbs. grapes, or 483i gallons wine. A more reliable proof of the 
superiority of Missouri's grapes over all others, we find by comparing the 
strength of the must by Oechsle's must-scale, which always comes out in fiwor 
of Missouri, even against the most celebrated wine localities of the Union. 
This is due to climate and soil. Eev. Chas. Peabody, who has given much 
attention to the investigation of this subject, says : " The two important 
natural conditions demanded by the grape are climate and soil. Given these 
two, all the rest will eventually follow from the application of the skilled 
industry of the vine-dresser. In this portion of the Valley of the Mississippi, 
we find these two elementary conditions, climate and soil, existing together. 
That the soil and climate of Missouri and the adjacent parts of other States, 
especially those on its eastern and western boundaries (Illinois and Kansas), 
are eminently adapted to the growth of the grape, is a point too well estab- 
lished to need discussion here. The fact is well known and universally 
acknowledged throughout the entire district, and perhaps I may venture to 
add, throughout the United States. Compared with other sections of the 
United States (at least all those east of the Rocky Mountains), so far as their 
capabilities have been tested, our advantages for the production of wine are 
certainly superior." 

We have not the space to show by the isothermal lines^ ascertained by years 
of actual observation, that our mean temperature during the various seasons 
comes nearest to those most celebrated places in France where the grape is 
known to succeed, and must confine ourselves to but few data, of which the 
following tables, extracted from essays read before the Mississippi Valley 
Grape Growers' Association, will afford a ready comparison : 

p. Aug. Sept. Oct. Av'ge 

^'^^' deg. (leg. deg. deg. 

Cleveland 70.3 64.0 51.3 61.68 

Cincinnati 74.2 66.0 53.2 64.47 

St Louis 76.5 68.7 65.4 66.86 

For the highest development of the wine properties of the grape a mean 
temperature of no less than 65'' Fahrenheit is demanded during the season 
of ripening. In the tables above alluded to we find the following : 

, Average of n 

April, May July, Aug. 

and June. atid Sept. Six months, 

deg. in. deg. in. deg. in. 

Kelly's Island, O., 1867 ...^ 67.3 3.18 72.0 1.54 64.6 2.36 

BL Louis, Mo « 63.7 3.96 75.1 1.66 69.4 2.80 

Marseilles, Prance 63.4 72.1 67.7 

Besides the high temperature, a diminished rain-fall during the same season 
18 essential to the perfection of the grape. Dr. Stayraan, of Leavenworth, 



268 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Kansas, in an able discussion of these meteorological influences, comparing the 
averages of Illinois, Missouri and Kansas with those of New York, New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania, for 1867, finds a difference of 4.14° more heat and 
6.45 inches less rain for the months of July, August and September, and for 
the whole period 7.20*^ more heat and 10.38 inches less rain in favor of the 
Western States. 

Wherever Missouri wines have been tested, in comparison with those of 
other States, either at home or abroad, they have almost invariably taken the 
highest rank. At the meeting of the American Pomological Society, held in 
St. Louis in September, 1867, there was a large exhibition of American wines, 
including twenty varieties, from various States. The committee on Catawba 
wines, using a scale of 100 to designate degrees of excellence, rated the best 
Missouri sample at 95, and other samples from this State at 90, 84, &c. The 
highest from any other State was Illinois, 83 ; the best, from Ohio, was rated at 
70. These were still wines. The sparkling Catawba of the American Wine 
Company, of St. Louis, were rated one and two degrees higher than samples 
from the celebrated Longworth Wine House, of Cincinnati. The committee 
was composed of two gentlemen from Ohio and one from Washington. 

At the Paris Exposition, the American Wine Company's champagne was 
awarded honorable mention, and diploma sent them on account of its fine flavor, 
although the French jurors remarked it had too much of the fruity taste. The 
German jurors, accustomed to wines of high bouquet and flavor, were very 
much pleased with the American wines which possessed these qualities. The 
American committee, consisting of the Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, Alexander 
Thompson, William J. Flagg, and Patrick Barry, said : " From what com- 
parison we have been able to make between the better samples of American 
wines, on exhibition at the Paris Exposition, with foreign wines of similar 
character, as well as from the experience of many European wine-tasters, we 
have formed a higher estimate of our own ability to produce good wines than 
we had heretofore." AVines which have since repeatedly been sent to Germany 
from Missouri have been highly spoken of, and were pronounced very superior 
wines by the best connoisseurs. It is also a notable fact that the trade in 
native wines has assumed such proportions in St. Louis, that even her 
importers of foreign wines, who have heretofore strongly disfavored any 
others, feel now compelled to buy and keep always on hand the Catawba, 
Concord, and Norton's Virginia. 

There are several other varieties that are destined to take high rank, but 
have not yet been made in suflSciently large quantities to become well known. 
There are about seventy-five varieties of native grapes in cultivation and on 
trial in the State. About one-third of this number may be considered as well 
tested, and more or less successful. 

Our Concord wine is becoming more and more popular, and should take the 
place of imported clarets. It suits the uncultivated taste better than either 
elaret or Catawba. The Norton's Virginia, as it becomes better known, is 
more and more esteemed for its valuable tonic and astringent qualities. As a 
medicinal wine, it is not excelled probably by any wine, native or imported. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 269 

Catawba has generally been considered too acid by those unaccustomed to it, 
but it makes an exceedingly wholesome and palatable summer drink, and ia 
especially admired in the form of Catawba cobblers. When made into spark- 
ling wine or champagne, it has a very agreeable bouquet, and is preferred by 
those who become accustomed to it to the best imported champagne. It is 
purer, contains less alcohol, and is rapidly superseding them. 

WINE CONDUCIVE TO HEALTH AND TEMPERANCE. 

Taking into consideration the fact that the manufacture of wine is yet in 
its infancy in this country, the above results indicate that it is rapidly attain- 
ing a prominent place among the leading industrial pursuits, and materially 
aiding the cause of temperance by decreasing the consumption of distilled 
and fortified liquors. On this point an intelligent writer says : 

" Of the good or evil effects of drinking pure wine, Americans have small 
means of judging. The dogmas of total abstinence have been built upon facts 
existing in two countries where pure wine is'an almost unknown thing — upon 
British and American facts. Not in France, not in Spain, or Portugal, or Italy, 
or Switzerland, or South Germany, are gathered the awful statistics of the 
temperance lecturer ; but from Britain, from America, and other countries 
where a kind of necessity, or at lease a controlling fatality, has led to the 
using as a beverage what in grape-growing countries is hardly known save 
as medicine. 

" The advocates of abstinence, having made out their case against distilled 
spirits, demand judgment against wine also. Having shown that drinking 
whisky or rum tends in a dangerous degree to make men drunkards, they 
Jump to the conclusion that wine drinking must also tend in a like degree to 
the same calamitous result. By such reasoners it is assumed : 

" First, that alcohol as found in distilled spirits, and alcohol as found in 
wine that has not been distilled, exists in both cases under identically the 
same conditions, and has on the drinker the same effects. 

" Secondly, that foreign wines which are usually consumed in America and 
Britain are the same as what the people of the countries which produce them 
drink at home, and the same as wha4; we should drink in case we grew our 
own wines at home. 

'' But distilled and undistilled alcohol exist under very different conditions 
and have very different effects. And to reason from Port, Sherry, and Madeira, 
and other liquors that come to us in ships, to the wines that will spring from 
our own soil, if our vine culture bo blessed, is by no means admissible. Simple 
alcohol is not a drink at all. It is never taken without a large admixture of 
water, and usually of other substances. Brandy, whisky and rum contain 
nearly as much water as they do of alcohol, even before being diluted for 
drinking; while wine is in its nature a very delicate combination of various 
ingredients, with all of which we are not yet fully acquainted. Alcoholio 
drinks, then, being essentially compounds either naturally or artificially 
formed, they cannot be fairly judged without considering the properties of the 
substances which compose them, the proportions they bear to each other, and 



270 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



the manner in which they combine. And to assert that the alcohol which 
condenses in the worm of the still from the vapor of boiling wine is the very 
same thing to the drinker of it — to his stomach, brain and nerves — that it 
would have been if it had remained united with all those other constituents, 
with the sugar, acids, tannin, resin, salts and ethers which were its companions 
in the vine sap, were elaborated with it in the leaf, and ripened with it in the 
grape, is to say what requires the strongest proof to sustain it. But no such 
proof exists, while the contrary can be abundantly shown." 

As conducive to health, our light wines possess a special value deserving of 
more general appreciation. It has been said, with too much truth, that we are 
a nation of dyspeptics. For the cause of the frequency of dyspepsia, we may 
rationally look to the habit of eating fast, bolting the food in a half-masticated 
condition, drinking too largely of water and other liquids, the too common 
use of salt meat, particularly salt fat pork, among the hard-working classes, 
&c. There is a large portion of our population who, although not confirmed 
dyspeptics, are yet persons of feeble digestive powers — a condition sometimes 
brought upon themselves by their own improprieties or bad habits, and quite 
as often inherited from parents, for the progeny of such people are sure to 
inherit the "family failing." Now it generally happens that this class of 
people are under the necessity of accomplishing more work, either bodily or 
mental, than they are physically capable of doing without loss of vigor. Their 
powers of assimilation are unequal to the task of appropriating of each meal 
sufficient to meet the interstitial destruction or necessary out-goings of the 
system. Hence, they are always overworked, and live a life of fatigue. Their 
muscles are soft and flabby, and their vessels deficient in tonicity. They are 
liable to disease from various causes; the circulation in the extreme vessels 
being weak, they are unable to resist the effects of cold, and are hence liable 
to congestions. They have no power to resist malaria or contagious diseases. 
Under a feeling of relaxation and fatigue, they often resort to distilled spirits 
to their injury. 

It is certain that the habitual daily use of a small allowance of such a 
stimulus as our pure wines afford, would bestow upon such persons the nervous 
energy necessary to enable them to digest more food — to economize the waste 
of the system — to perform the duties of life with more ease and comfort, and 
would make them more useful members of society instead of the mere drones 
they often are and must continue to be under a total abstinence regimen. It 
would also better enable them to resist disease, which is an important con- 
sideration in malarious districts. When moderately taken with a regular 
meal, the small amount of stimulus contained in the light wines is very little 
felt; no unnatural appetite is created for such stimulus, but rather a feeling of 
satiety is produced, digestion is aided, the wants of the system are better 
supplied, and there is less inclination or craving for stimulus between meals. 
This would be particularly the case with the class referred to, who need "wine 
for the stomach's sake." As wine would enable the body to appropriate more 
food and gain strength, the feeling of fatigue, with the instinctive craving for 
stimulus, would be removed. 

While people continue to drink for the sake of drinking, by all means give 
them the least dangerous article. Let it be more abundant and cheaper than 
the more fiery and maddening compounds. 

Note. — The American Wine Company has made during the present year 100,000 gallons of 
wine, and from the vintage of 1870 will put up about 760,000 bottles of Imperial champagne. 
The increased production by other companies furnishes the most favorable showing, for the rapid 
growth and increase of the grape and wine business of the State of Miasour" 



MISSOURI AS A MANUFACTURING STATE. 



271 



Advancing civilization must necessarily stimulate and develop mechanical 
industry, by subordinating and bringing into practical use the metals and 
other materials of nature, for the benefit of man. Such is a wonderful feature 
in American civilization. Everywhere, upon the broad domain of the con- 
tinent, art and interest are rapidly creating foundries and factories. But a 
few years ago, the "Helper Book" called the attention of mankind, to behold 
the contrast between the dispoiling power of slavery and the quickening 
power of liberty, to be seen in the slave border States and in the free border 
States. The author, to make his Avork more effective, made the contrast b}- 
States. Missouri and Illinois, were put in contrast, and the world asked to 
behold the misfortune of the one and the glory of the other. But how sta-nds 
the account to-day. Stripped of slavery, Missouri wanted but an opportunity 
and she would rise superior to Illinois, as the figures below demonstrate. She 
was behind in 1860. She is ahead in 1870. She now ranks fifth as a mauu- 
facturing State, and will soon be the first. 

Table showing the manufacturing industry totals of the United States in 
1860 and 1870, with rank of States and rate of increase. 



Rank 
in 

1870 



1 

-2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

U 

16 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

3e 

37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 



STATES. 

New York 

Penusj'lvania 

Massachusetts 

Ohio 

Missouri 

Illinois 

New J ersey 

Connecticut 

Michigan 

Rhode Island 

Indiana 

Maine 

Wisconsin 

Maryland 

New Hampsiiire . . 

California 

Kentucky 

Iowa 

Virginia 

Tennessee 

Minnesota 

Vermont 

Georgia 

Louisiaua 

West Virginia 

Delaware 

Nevada 

Alabama 

Kansas 

Texas 

District Columbia 

Mississipjii 

Oregon 

Nebraska 

Floi-ida 

Arkansas 

Colorado 

Washington 

Montana 

Utah 

North Carolina 

New Mexico 

Idaho 

South Carolina..!! 

Wyoming 

Arizonia 

Dakota '. . " 



Amount 
in 

1870. 



iRank 

i in 
il860. 



$785,194 
712,178, 
553,012 
269,713 
206,2i:j. 
2U5,»i20, 
JG9,?37 
161,005 
118, o94, 
U1,41S, 
lU!?, 617, 
79,497 
77,214 
76,593, 
71,038, 
66,. ^94 
54,625, 
46, ^4, 
38,364, 
34,362 
33,110, 
32,184, 
31,196 
24,161, 
24,118, 
16,791 
15,870 
12.040, 
11,775, 
11,517 
9,292 
8,154, 
6.S77, 
5,738 
4,6.-*5, 
4,629, 
2,8.5: 
2,851, 
2.494, 
2,343, 
1,931, 
1,489, 
1,047 
985, 
765 
lai, 
178, 



651 00 
944 00 
568 00 
610 00 
429 00 
672 00 
32 00 
474 00 
976 00 
354 00 
278 00 
521 00 

326 00 
913 00 
'io9 00 
556 «) 
809 00 
322 00 
322 00 
626 00 

00 00 
f;06 00 
115 00 
905 00 

051 00 
382 00 
539 00 
6t4 fW 
823 Oil 
302 00 
173 00 

■5S 00 
387 00 
.512 00 
403 00 
234 00 
820 09 

052 00 
le 00 

019 W 

327 00 
868 00 
614 00 
898 00 j 
424 00 
410 OOi 
570 Wi 



1 

O 

3 

4 

11 

8 

6 

5 

17 

13 

10 

14 

18 

12 

16 

7 

15 
24 
9 
19 
32 
23 
20 
22 

26 

25 
31 
29 
30 
28 
33 
39 
35 
34 

36 

38 
21 
37 



Amount 

in 

1860. 



'Rate per cent 

of 
I increase. 



8378,870, 
2itO,12I. 
255,545, 
121,691, 
41,782 
57,. 580 
76,306, 
81,924 
32,658 
40,711 
42,803, 
38,193, 
27 749, 
41,735, 
37,5^6, 
68,2.53, 
37,931, 
13,971, 
50,652, 
17,987, 
3,373, 
14,637, 
16,925, 
15,587, 



03!» 00 
1»8 00 
922 00 
148 00 
931 00 
886 00 
104 00 
555 00 
356 00 
296 00 
469 00 
54 00 
467 00 
157 00 
,453 00 
223 00 
25J 00 
325 00 
124 00 
225 00 
172 00 
807 00 
.564 00 
473 00 



9,892,902 00 

10, 588, .566 00 
4,357,408 00 
6,. 577. 202 00 
5,412,102 00 
6,590,687 00 
2,976,761 00 
607,328 00 
2,457,969 00 
2,880,578 00 

1,606,921 00 

900,1.53 00 

10,678,698 00 

1,249,123 W) 

8,615,195 00 



107 
146 
117 
122 
394 
257 
162 

97 
262 
173.6 
1.53.7 
10» 1 
177.1 

83.6 



4 

230.2 

See West Va. 

91.4 

881 G 

119.8 

84.3 

.55 

23.3 

70 7 

13.7 

170.2 
75.1 
71.6 
33.5 
131 
844.8 
91.4 
60.7 



10; 



REMARKS. 



nearly 1,627,608,511 
do 1,647,687,128 
do 1,199,787,099 
do 597,685.351 

do 1,017,663.272 



Decrease 24 f*, cent. 
One state in 1860. 



Not reported in '60. 



2.6 



Not reported in '60. 



160.2 
19.2 



Not reported in '60, 



Decrease S8.4?* ct. 

[Not reported in '6iJ. 
iDccrease 8f;.5 ^. ct. 
[Not reported in '60. 

do do do 
I do do do 



ST. lOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT OITY. 

CENSUS OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

A Complete Exhibit — Returns of each County as Certified by the Census Superintendent. 



273 



Counties. Pop'n. 

Adair ".449 

Andrew 1 5.137 

Atchison 8,440 

Audrain 12,307 

Barry 10,373 

Barton 5,087 

Bates 15,960 

Benton 11,322 

EoUinger 8,162 

Boone 20,765 

Buchanan 35,109 

Butler 4,298 

■Caldwell 11.390 

Callaway 19,202 

Camden 6,108 

Cape Girardeau 17,558 

Carroll I7>445 

•Cass 19,296 

Carter 1,455 

Cedar 9,474 

Chariton I9>I35 

Clark '. 13,667 

Clay 15,564 

Clinton 14,663 

Cole 10,292 

Cooper 20,692 

Christian 6,707 

Crawford 7,982 

Dade 8,683 

Dallas 8,383 

Daviess 14,410 

DeKalb 9,858 

I^ent 6,357 

Douglas 3,915 

Dunklin , 5,982 

Franklin 30,098 

Oasconade 10,093 

Gentry 11,607 

Greene 21,549 

Grundy 10,567 

Harrison 14,635 

Henry 17,401 

Hickory 6,452 

Holt 11,652 

Howard 17.233 

Howell 4,218 

Iron 6,278 

Jackson 55,041 

Jasper 14.929 

Jefferson 15,380 

Johnson 24,649 

Knox 10,974 

Laclede 9,380 

Lafayette 23,623 

Lawrence 13,067 

Lewis 15,114 

Lincoln,.. 14.073 

L,inn 15,900 



Counties. Pop'n. 

Livingston 16,730 

Macon 23,230 

Madison 5.849 

Maries 5.915 

Marion 22,504 

McDonald 5,226 

Mercer ".557 

Miller 6,616 

Mississippi 4,982 

Moniteau ".335 

Monroe 17.149 

Montgomery 10,405 

Morgan 8,434 

New Madrid 6,357 

Newton 12,821 

Nodaway 14.751 

Oregon 3,287 

Ozark 3,363 

Osage 10,793 

Pemiscot 2,059 

Perry 9.877 

Pettis 18,706 

Phelps - , 10,506 

Pike 23,076 

Platte 17,352 

Polk 12,445 

Pulaski 4.714 

Putnam ",217 

Ralls 10,510 

Randolph 15.908 

Ray 18,700 

Reynolds 3.756 

Ripley 3.175 

St. Charles 21,304 

St. Clair 6,742 

St. Francois 9,741 

Ste. Genevieve 8,384 

St. Louis 351,189 

Saline 21,672 

Schuyler 7 .987 

Scotland 10,670 

Scott 7,317 

Shannon 2,339 

Shelby 10,119 

Stoddard 8,535 

Stone 3,253 

Sullivan 11,908 

Taney 4,407 

Texas 9,618 

Vernon 11,246 

Warren 9.673 

Washington ",7I9 

Wayne 6,068 

Webster 10,434 

Worth 5,004 

Wright 5,684 

Total 1,717,258 



FRANCIS A, WALKER, Superintendent of Census. 



i 



LEADING CITIES OF MISSOURI. 



THE CITY OF BOONA^LLE, MO., AND COOPEE COUNTY, IN BEIEF. 
HISTOEY, ADVANTAGES, MANUFACTUEING INDUSTEY, ETC. 

The early history of Boonville, the county seat of Cooper county, the county 
itself and sui'rounding country, comprising in itself a partial history of the early 
settlement of the Territory of Louisiana and State of Missouri, is replete 
with interest to the historian of the Great West, abounding as it does, with 
"early life on the frontier;" with its Indian war; its stockade rally of settlers 
in time of danger, its lone, hand-to-hand fights of traders and settlers against 
aborigines; the steady, earnest growth of the country known now as Central 
Missouri; and its present proud position as one of the richest, loveliest, and 
best portions of Missouri and the Great West, cannot be compiled in a few 
printed pages, and do justice to the subject. 

The reported rich mines of gold and silver in this vicinity, early in the eight- 
eenth century, attracted the attention of the earliest French settlers. In 1712, 
letters-patent, to a distinguished French gentleman named Crozat, were granted, 
and in 1817, the great "Mining Company of the West" was formed and the 
country visited and worked. Along the Blackwater and Lamine, in this 
county, considerable work was done, but the style of mining was superficial 
and, as proved now, with but little result. In 1717 these letters-patent Avere 
returned to the crown. 

In 1762 the territory west of the Mississippi was ceded by the French to 
Spain, but the French claimed the territory now embraced by the State of 
Missouri. Disputes occurred until about 1812, when, in midsummer, a terri- 
torial organization was formed, and Col. M. Lewis — the companion of Gen. 
Clark on the Missouri exploration — became Governor. In 1820 the territory 
became a State. 

Meanwhile the Boonslick country began to attract the attention of what few 
emigrants dared to come this fiir west, and in 1806 Samuel Boone, accompanied 
by a f(.w settlers, came to Avhat is now known as Howard county, but embrac- 
ing Cooper county and a section of country full sixty square miles in extent. 
Capt. Cole, Sarsliall Cooper, Wm. Head and Daniel Boone were among the 
leading spirits of tliat day. 

Old Franklin was laid off. as a town, opposite the bluff and plateau now 
occupied by the prosperous city of Boonville, and was for years the most 
promising village northwest of St. Louis, on the Missouri Eiver. 

Boonville, in 1817, numbered about thirty families. A county was laid off 
extending down to the Osage, and embracing what now comprises Cole, Cooper, 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 275 

Pettis, Benton, Moniteau, Morgan, Saline, and one or two more counties. 
Cole's Fort was established here for the protection of settlei-s. In 1819 the 
tMty of Boonville was laid off by Capt. A. Morgan and Charles Lucas. For years 
it progressed. Old Franklin gradi^ajly melted away under the encroachment 
of the river. Gradually and steadily Boonville Cofltintied to grow, receiving 
for years the great wealth of trade that came to it as an outfitting f)oint for the 
Santa Fe and Mexican trade. 

Now its population numbers about 6,000. The area of the county is 362,880 
acres, with a total population of about 28,000. It is watered by the Missouri, 
Lamine, Blackwater, Petite Saline, Moniteau and other streams, amounting to 
from four to six hundred miles of country whickis admirably adapted to nearly 
all classes of manufacture. The country abound^ in lead, iron, coal, and a class 
of mineral not yet sufficiently analytically understood to properly state. Tim- 
ber is found in abundance all over the country, consisting of oak, ash, walnut,, 
maple, hackberry, sycamore, etc. 

MINERALS. 

Veins of excellent bituminous coal, ranging from three to eight feet in thick- 
ness, have been found along the line of the Boonville branch of the Missouri 
Pacific E. E., along the line of the M. K. & T. E. E., and in some live or six 
other locations in the county. 

Hydraulic, enerinetal, and magnesia limestone is found in abundance all over 
the county. Fire clay has also been found near Boonville. 

In regard to the coal land, or facilities in the county, it is estimated that fully 
100,000,000 tons of excellent coal exists besides an equal amount of the or- 
dinary coal formation suitable for uses aside from manufacturing purposes. 

Lead in large quantities has been, and is being mined by the Central Missouri 
Mining Company, near the Lamine, and on what is known as the Scott lead 
mining district. All over the county this mineral has been found to a paying 
extent, and all it needs, as with the limestone formations, coal and iron, is 
capital to develop it and make it profitable to those investing, and success- 
fully worked. 

Iron ore of an excellent quality has been found in a number of places in the 
county. All that is wanted in Cooper county now to profitably develop its 
vast mineral resources is skill and capital. No better locality can be found in 
the State. 

MANUFACTORIES. 

With all the advantages of an abundance of timber and coal, with cheap 
river transportation, and railroad facilities already here and approaching, there 
is no spot in all the West where the capitalist and manufacturer can secure as 
safe an investment. There is already one of the best plow manufactories in the 
country at Boonville, as well as an excellent foundry, and one of the finest 
flouring mills on the Missouri slope. But the wants of the country are not ore- 



276 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

hundredth part supplied. More factories, machine shops, foundries, mills, etc., 
that go to make up the wealth of the countr^y, and to self, are in demand, and 
no better point than Booiiville can be found to establish them. 

PRICE OF LAND, ETC. 

The average pi'ice of land in Cooper county is about 813,00 per acre, and aa 
rich as the sun ever shone upon. Some of the poorest of these lands, appar- 
ently, are being converted into blooming vineyards, and there are now in and 
-around Boonville, an annual yield of twenty thousand gallons of the choicest 
Avines made in the State. Five acres readily yielding a profit of from 82,000 to 
$3,000. Wheat, oats, corn, potatoes, flax, hemp, etc., yield probably more re- 
muneratively in Cooper county than in almost any county in Central Missouri. 
Fruits of all kinds, adapted to the climate, yield in abundance. 

RAILROADS AND SHIPPING FACILITIES. 

Aside from the cheap river transportation at Boonville, via the Missouri 
river, they have the Boonville branch of the Missouri Pacific K. E., and the 
northeast extension of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Eailway, from Sedalia, 
crossing the Missouri river at Boonville, passing on via Fayette, the county 
seat of Moberly, thence on to the Mississippi river at Quincy, Illinois, tapping 
the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy E. E., and the Toledo, Wabash and West- 
ern Eailway, also on through to Chicago, thus connecting over this Boon- 
ville bridge, the great trade of Texas and the Gulf of Mexico, with that of the 
'■•reat Lakes, and thence on eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. 

With this, and the contemplated lines of railway centering at the Boonville 
bridge, which, under the management of its contractors, Messrs. Bomer & Co., 
of Chicago, promises to be the best on the Missouri river, affords additional in- 
ducements for capitalists and mechanics to locate there. Hundreds are visiting 
the city now weekly, looking after fields of operation, and few go away dis- 
satisfied. 

Eecenth^the Boonville gas company have commenced, and ai-e rapidly push- 
ing to completion, the work of supplying the city with gas. The gentlemen 
interested in the franchise are Messrs. S. Watts, Ed. E. Squiers, W. H. Heath, 
and Chas. E. Eamsey. On the first of January, 1873, the city under this con- 
tract is to be supplied with a superior article of gas. Numerous other improve- 
ments ai*e progressing there, which space will not permit us to mention, but it 
is regarded as one of the leading points in the State. Three weekly papers are 
published there. Three excellent private schools are in successful operation, 
and a more delightful place to live in, or better society, cannot be found in the 
State. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 277 

THE CITY OF CAPE GIRAEDEAU. 

Situation. — Situated on the west bank of tlie Mississippi river, and in 
that part of the State known as " Southeast Missouri," from a moderate 
elevation overlooking the " Father of Waters," is one of the oldest cities in the 
State, and noted as being the metropolis of the ''Southeast," enjoying a very 
extensive commercial trade, extending a distance of two hundred miles to the 
Southwest; the whole of northern Arkansas paying tribute to the Cape, on 
account of its superior shipping facilities; the landing for steamboats at this 
place being one of the best on the Lower Mississippi river; the sbore of the 
river consisting of a solid wall of marble, which is easily brought to the proper 
grade for local purposes. 

History. — Of the early history of Cape Girardeau, but little is known beyond 
the beginning of the nineteenth century, excepting traditional hearsay. It is a 
known fact, however, that Louis Lorimier, a Canadian by birth, is the origi- 
nal founder of Cajie Girardeau, who for a long time was Post Commandant in 
the service of the Spanish, as well as French govei-nment; both of which coun- 
tries owned this part of the State, prior to its transfer to the United States in 
(1804) eighteen hundred and four. As early as seventeen hundred and wtwety- 
/"owr, this place was inhabited by French missionaries, who, on friendly terms 
with the then existing tribe of Pawynaw Indians, tried to convert them to 
Christianity ; but an afflux of French immigration gradually caused the red men 
to give up his hunting grounds and seek repose in parts of Arkansas, leaving 
the white men to reign supreme. Since that early period, quite a large number 
of Germans have settled here and many from the older eastern and southern 
States, who have added considerably to its growth and prosperity. 

Population. — The material growth of Cape Girardeau, from its foundation by 
Louis Lorimier, in the year eighteen hundred and eight, has been considerable, 
considering the immense drawback it received during the late rebellion; when 
for nearly four years, the city was in a continued state of siege, by either Fed- 
eral or Confederate troops; thus passing through the ordeal of blood and fire. 
But after the night, came the day, and the horrid wound inflicted by civil war 
almost depopulating and devastating this section of the countr}'-, began to be 
healed by the angel of peace, and Cape Girardeau has at present a population 
of about five thousand inhabitants; consisting of quite a large German element, 
who are noted for their frugal and industrious habits, and we may look with 
confidence for present prosperity and future wealth. 

Education, Library, Newspapers — In this matter, it may safely be said, that 
Cape Girardeau has made a grand investment, and has now a system of public 
instruction, that may challenge comparison with any city of its size. Besides a 
free, graded public school, in successful operation, which is capable of accom- 
modating nearly six hundred scholars, it enjoys all the benefits to be obtained 



278 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

from an extensively patronized college, both theological and classical, and a 
young ladies' seminary, under the patronage of the Catholic Church, as well 
as other denominational, high, select, and private schools, thus offering to every 
child of the city, a good English or G-erman education, almost " without money 
and without price ; " besides a Public Library Association, containg a number 
of volumes of the most select and instructive authors, of which all classes of 
society may enjoy the full benefit. Six live newspaj^ers also add to the educa- 
tional progress of the city. 

Churches. — There are found two Catholic, one Lutheran, three Methodist, 
one Baptist and one Presbj'^teriah church, which are all under the supervision 
of able clergymen, and in a flourishing condition. 

Manufactures. — The industrial results of Cape G-irardeau have received a 
grand impulse during the last few years, and the general result shows a large 
increase over any preceding years. Until lately little was done in the 
way of manufactures, but the prospected railroad interest lends a new im 
pulse to its people and a new era has dawned upon the city. It has been 
discovered, that a thousand articles of primary and pressing need, can be 
made here just as well as elsewhere, as there are illimitable quantities of 
raw material which can be transformed into the thousand forms suited to the 
wants of the age, and so it can boast now of 3 flouring mills, 1 planing mill, 

1 woolen mill, 2 paint mills, 1 windmill, 1 stove factory, 1 tobacco factory, 

2 tanneries, 1 distillery, 4 breweries, 1 foundry, 1 furniture factory, 11 vine- 
yards and a host of cooper shops. 

Shipments. — The following statement shows the annual shij^ments from this 
port, mainly to St. Louis and New Orleans : 2,500 bales of cotton, 80,000 barrels 
of flour, 36,000 barrels vt lime, 58,000 barrels empty, pork, lard, and flour, 
12,000 barrels yellow ochre and Paris white, 35,000 raw hides, 25,000 coon and 
other skins, 10,000 pounds of wool, 5,000 jjounds of feathers. 

The woolen mills products are all consumed in this section, and their sup- 
plies are inadequate to the demand. This is the first year the vineyards have 
commenced shipping wine, there is about one hundred acres bearing vines, 
with three extensive wine cellars, now filled with the last years vintage. Large 
amounts of bacon, dried salt meats, and dried fruits, are brought to this market 
and shipped, principally to St. Louis and Chicago. 

Clays. — Some very extensive beds of porcelain clay, or " kaolin," have been 
discovered, and large quantities are shipped regularly to Cincinnati and St. 
Louis, for the manufacture of queensware and pottery-ware; also large beds 
of the finest white sand, for the fabrication of plate glass, and a great variety of 
excellent limestones, which will furnish any quantity of the best materials of 
that class for building purposes. 

Marbles. — There are also numerous and extensive beds of marbles of various 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTORE GREAT CITY. 279 

shades and qualities, some of them very valuable, which will become an im- 
portant item in our resources. In fact, what with lithographic limestones, 
gypsum, cement, clays, tire-brick^ paints of all description, granite, marble, 
sandstone, etc., the resources of Cape G-irardeau are inexhaustible, and will place 
it far ahead of any other place in the Southeast. 

CAPE GIRARDEAU AND STATE LINE RAILROAD. — BRIDGE. 

This is an enterprise which promises to have a most important and beneficial 
influence on the future of Cape Girardeau, and the country through which it 
runs. From Cape Girardeau, it runs in a southwesterly direction, across level 
land, but at the foot of the hill country, through forests of great density, and 
immense growth of timber of the most useful variety, such as oak, black and 
white walnut, poplar, hickory, ash, cypress, gum, catalpa, etc., and for thirty 
miles of its length, through the iron deposits of Stoddard and Butler counties, 
■which are of the pui-est and richest brown hematite, and in quantities entirely 
inexhaustible by human labor for ages to come, and also near rich deposits of 
lead, zinc, and copper, and affording the shortest and cheapest road to market 
for the agricultural products of southeast Missouri and northeast Arkansas. 

The facilities that this road will furnish for obtaining and bringing these ores 
and timber to Cape Gii"ardeau for manufacture — the iron ores, having to be 
transported but from thirty to sixty miles over a straight and level road (no 
grades exceeding ten and a half feet to the mile), and timber from beginning 
to end of road — when taken in connection with the facility with which coal of 
the best quality is obt-iined from the " Big Muddy," coal fields and the favora- 
ble locality of Cape Girardeau with its bluffs of purest limes, will certainly 
bring about at no distant day the establishment of such manufactories of iron, 
wood, cotton, crockery, queensware, paints, etc., as will make the Cape the most 
important manufacturing point on the banks of the Mississippi river from St. 
Paul to New Orleans. 

Other railroad projects, diverging from Cape Girardeau, that will soon be in 
successful operation, will contribute much to the growth and increase of the 
town. Among them may be enumerated the Memphis and St. Louis Levee 
railroad — the charter of which, makes Cape Girardeau a point on the line — the 
Grand Tower and Cape Girardeau railroad, the Jonesborough and Cape Girar- 
deau railroad, the Terre Haute and Southwestern railroad, the Cape Girardeau 
and Cairo i-ailroad, the Cape Girardeau and Iron Mountain (narrow guage), etc., 
•etc., furnishing a radiating system of roads that will confer great importance to 
their center, and will in a few years ensure the building of a bridge across the 
Mississippi river — the charter of the same having been already obtained; a solid 
rock bottom at a depth of from fifteen to twenty feet below low water, making 
the enterprise of comparatively easy accomplishment. 



280 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY 

CLINTOX, MO. 

Ciinton is situated on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Euilway, forty miles 
southwest of Sedalia; seventy-one miles northeast of Fort Scott, and two 
hundred and twenty-nine miles from St. Louis. 

Henry county was formed out oi the territory originally comprised within 
the limits of Eives county, in the year 183-t; and in 1835, Daniel Boone, 
Joseph Montgomery and Francis Parizett, were appointed commissioners by 
the County Court, to select a site and locate the seat of government, which 
they did, and named it Clinton. Joseph Fields laid off the tOAvn in lots in the 
same year } from this time until- 1860, the growth of Clinton was very slow, 
and the population was hardly more than six hundred j and in 1865, at the 
close of the war, its inhabitants scarcely numbered four hundred; but since 
that time, the improvements have been rapid and permanent. Few towns of 
the West can boast of a better class of buildings than Clinton; and every day 
matures new projects and plans, which grow into formidable business houses or 
ornamental dwellings. The growth continues to be rapid and the population 
now numbers four thousand, with one hundred and forty-one firms doing 
business; six churches already erected, and two contemplated; one public 
school, graded, an elegant building, which was erected in 1870, at a cost of 
$38,000; three newspapers, the Henry Count}' Democrat, Clinton Advocate 
and Southwest (Mo.) Enterprise, all large and ahly edited newspapers and iully 
alive to the interests of the city and surrounding country. 

Situated as is Clinton, convenient to water — Grand river flowing within two 
miles on the south; Big creek and Honey creek on the west, and Town creek 
very near the city ; these streams are skirted with an abundance of timber, 
suitable for manufacturing purposes, while in the immediate vicinity of the 
city, and in fact underlying the whole county, is an abundance of a very supe- 
rior quality of coal, which, with the railvvay facilities that Clinton will possess,. 
when her contemplated railroads are all completed, will render her as well 
adapted to manufacturing purposes as any city in the vast West. 

Clinton is surrounded for many miles in every direction by an excellent 
farming country — rolling prairies interspersed with timber and well watered — 
offering superior inducements to the emigrant. 

The Missouri, Kansas and Texas Eailvvay was completed to this city in 1870, 
which road has rendered material aid in promoting improvements of all kinds. 
There are also several roads projected : the Clinton and Memphis branch of the 
Tebo and Neosho Railroad, upon which the grading and masonry is completed 
forty miles south to Osceola; also the Clinton and Kansas City branch of the 
Tebo and Neosho Railroad, now in course of construction, which, when com- 
pleted, will make Ciinton a desirable railroad centre. 

In the line of manufactories, there is represented the wool trade, by a large 
woolen mill, now engaged in the manufacture of woolen goods, with consider- 
able local trade in wool. Also, three firms engaged extensively in manufactur- 
ing wagons and agricultural implements. An effort has been made to build up 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 281 

a foundry, and with proper enterprise and energy, and a sufficient investment 
of capital would make this a profitable investment. 

The county buildings consist of a court house, located in the centre of a 
beautiful square, a brick jail building, and a county infirmary, two miles from 
the city ; a larm of one hundred and sixty acres with all the conveniences of a 
well-stocked farm, for the indigent, founded on the plan, and with the object in 
view of making it self-sustaining. 

In addition to the public school (which has no equal of its kind in the south- 
west), there is "Dr. Cheney's Seminary," a most excellent school for young 
ladies, and a most invaluable addition to the city, and Prof. Dickinson's High 
School J also a Library Association. The citizens are fully alive to her educa- 
tional interests. 

Banks. — Clinton is well represented in banking houses; besides the old 
Banking House of Salmon & Stone, there is the First National Bank of Clinton, 
chartered in February, 1872. 

Mills. — The Clinton Mills and Tebo Mills do an extensive jobbing trade in 
grain and breadstufl^'s with the Southwest, which is so large as to be in no sense 
local, thus affording a market for home products. 

Clinton is the point of shipment for a large scope of country on either side 
of the M., K. & T. E. E., and has every facility for travel, having stage routes 
converging therefrom to Osceola and all points South and Southeast, and east 
to Warrensburg and Lexington. 

With an excellent local trade, a population in 1870 of 17,401 in the county, 
against 9,866 in 1860, from which to draw her trade, her course must necessarily 
be progressive, and with increased railway facilities, Clinton will be placed in 
active competition with some of her larger sister cities for the jobbing trade of 
the Southwest. 

COLUMBIA, BOONE COUNTY, MO. 

The county seat of Boone County is Columbia, a town of about four thousand 
inhabitants. Columbia is located in a rich and healthy region of timber near 
the centre of the county. It is one of the most charming and delightful retreats 
in the State, its streets being laid out regularly, nicely paved, and shaded in 
summer with beautiful trees. Its outskirts are bordered with beautiful lawns, 
in which stand stately and elegant residences, beautified with all that nature 
and art can contribute. Its people are elegant, refined and highly educated. 

The many educational advantages afforded by Columbia have given it a 
notoriety as " The Athens of the West." It is the great educational centre of 
the State. Here is located the State University, Dr. Daniel Eead, President. 
This institution is second to none in the West, for the opportunities it affords 
the youth for intellectual and moral training. A corps of learned professors 
contribute their wisdom and experience to its advancement. In connection 
with the University is the State Agricultural College, and also a Normal School 
for the education of young men and women for teaching. A Law Department 



282 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

has also been connected with the University, and it opened on October 16th, 
1872, with every prospect of success. 

Here are also located Christian and Baptist Female Colleges, presided over 
respectively by Elder J. K. Eogers, and Eev. E. S. Dulin. These institutions 
have justly attained a wide spread fame. There are none better to be found 
anywhere for the education of young ladies, and each year their w^cious halls 
are thronged with pupils ft-om every portion of the State; and many come from 
other States to acquire here the accomplishments in the varied branches of 
learning that these institutions impart. 

There is but little doubt that at no very distant d^^ both the Presbyterian 
and Methodist denominations will also establish colleges here. 

Cummings' Academy, C. E. Cummings, a colored man, principal, is the best 
colored school in the State, without exception. It is well disciplined and largely 
attended. The good results of this establishment are daily becoming more 
apparent on every side. 

Besides the above, there are numerous other schools in the town, all efficiently 
conducted and in a prosperous condition. On eVery side there is ample provi- 
sion for all who wish to drink at the fount of knowledge. In whatever branch 
of learning they may ask to be instructed, the means to satisfy them are ready 
at hand. 

In Columbia there are five churches — the Baptist, Christian, Presbyterian, 
Methodist and Episcopal, and two colored, the Baptist and Methodist. All have 
large congregations and flourishing Sunday schools. 

Columbia is a point of 'considerable business interest. The rich and thickly 
settled region aorund, and the large number of students that annually attend 
her colleges ci-eate a great demand for the necessaries of life. The market for 
the produce of the farmer is therefore always active and prices good. Trade ia 
nearly always brisk, and dry goods, drug and grocery stores, and boot and shoo 
stores transact every year a large business. The same can be said of every 
other branch of trade in Columbia. Banks, tailoring establishments, livery 
stables, book, hardware and grocery stores, jewelry stores, tin shops, saddle and 
harness shops, mills, etc., are in a prosperous condition. Mechanics find plenty 
to do at fair jjrices. The professions are well represented. 

There are printed in Columbia two weekly eight column newspapers — the 
Statesman, by Wm. F. Switzler, and the Herald, by Anderson & Stephens. 
The former is, except the St. Louis Bepublican, the oldest paper in the State of 
Missouri, having been established by its present proprietor in 1843. It possesses 
a wide circulation and commands a large and paying patronage, and was never 
in a more prosperous condition than at the present time. 

CANTON, LEWIS COUNTY, MO. 

Population, three thousand. Location : Canton is located on the west bank 
of the Mississippi river, one hundred and ninety miles north of St. Louis, 
twenty miles above Quincy, Illinois, and twenty-five miles below Keokuk, 
Iowa, and in latitude 40 deg. and 20 min. north, and 91 deg. and 30 min. west 



gT. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 283 

Here the I^ssiasippi makes its boldest swetep westward, at the western extrem- 
ity of which is located Canton, on a beautiful inclined plane, in the form of a 
crescent, about three miles in length and one to one and a half in width. The 
plane rises from the river at an elevation of seventy-five feet to the mile. It 
is arrested by a circle of hills of the most picturesque and beautiful outline. 
The location of Canton is regarded as one of the most healthy in the West. 
The climate is excellent, the air pure, and the water abundant and of the best 
quality. The table-lands which recede in either direction from the summit of 
the hills on the west of the town are regarded as the finest agricultural, grazing 
and fruit lands to be found in Northeast Missouri, 

The rival lines of steamboats on the Mississippi river, offer to our farmers 
and stock dealers fast and cheap transportation to one of the best markets in 
the West — St. Louis, the already commercial centre of the Westj and already 
the amount of wheat, corn and oats produced in the surrounding country and 
shipped from Canton to St. Louis, exceeds the amount raised and shipped by 
any otiier locality or place between St. Louis and St. Paul. 

In addition to the river communication, the Mississippi Valley and Western 
Eailroad is now completed from Keokuk, Iowa, to a point opposite to Quincy, 
Illinois, and will soon be finished to St. Louis, and the west branch of said 
railroad, which will run from Canton, west to Brownsville, Nebi-aska, is already 
graded for the distance of forty miles west from Canton, and will soon be ironed 
and in running order, and when completed Canton will indeed rival Hannibal 
in the lumber business, and then may soon expect an increase of several thou- 
sand inhabitants. 

The situation and facility of communication, makes Canton a peculiarly desir- 
able place for the location of manufactories. There are already one foundry, 
three planing mills, two sash, door and blind factories, one hub and spoke fac- 
tory, three flouring mills and one large saw-mill. The eastern portion of the 
town being along the bank of the river and just above high- water mark, offers 
very superior locations for machine shop, foundry, and rolling-mill purposes. 

The educational facilities of the town are good. Christian University, situ- 
ated on the summit of the hills west of the town, is a fine building, has an 
able corps of professors and teachers connected with it, and all the various 
branches of learning are here taught, which are also taught by the various uni- 
versities and colleges of the West. In addition to the College, thex-e are also 
two $10,000 public schools in the town, with a corps of nine public school 
teachers. 

The trade of Canton is principaMy retail, but there is one wholesale grocery 
store which has an excellent custom from Northeast Missouri. 

FREDERICKTOWN, MADISON COUNTY. 

Fredericktown is one of the oldest and prettiest towns in the State of Mis- 
souri. It is situated one hundred miles south of St. Louis, and is directly on 
the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad, leading from St. Louis to Belmont, 



28't ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Kentucky, and connecting with the pinncipal roads striking Memphis, Louis- 
ville, and New Orleans, and the older cities of the South. 

This town has a population of one thousand eight hundred, and was settled 
by the French, and by Kentuckians and Virginians in 1819. Portions of Madi- 
son County were settled long prior to this by the French and Spaniards. The 
unrivalled raining resources and mineral wealth of this county attracted, at a 
very early day, these people thei-e. Many of their descendants still live in the 
county. Fredericktown is situated on a lovely hill, which overlooks a beautiful 
and rich country. Its climate, as well as that of the whole region south of St. 
Louis, known as Southeast Missouri, is exceedingly salubrious. The summers 
are moderate and the winters mild and short. Stock is kept up but six weeks 
of the year, and snow and ice do not long remain. Peaches, gi-apes, and all 
kinds of fruits flourish as successfully as in Delaware and New Jersey. The 
town is the centre of a number of manufacturing enterprises. Numerous fine 
floui'ing and saw-mills are in successful operation, while the rapid development 
of the great mineral resources of the coxmty require many crushing mills and 
furnaces. In no county in Missouri is there such an abundance of fine yellow 
pine, cherry, ash, oak, hickory, and walnut timber. A large business in getting 
out and shipping this timber to the markets of St. Loiiis and the cities of the 
South is carried on. 

The soil runs from hills to valleys, and is well watered by numerous streams 
of constantly flowing water, on which water-powers can be kept in operation 
more than ten months of the year. The hills, besides being studded with 
majestic timber, are covered with fine, soft grass. Blue-grass here flourishes 
as well as it does in Kentucky. There are thousands of acres of land in this 
county, susceptible of the highest state of cultivation, on which tBe plow has 
never yet turned a furrow. It is cheap — ranging from $1.25 to $7.00 per acre 
for unimproved agricultural lands, and from $5 to $35 for improved and open 
farms. The country affords splendid facilities for stock raising. The agricul- 
tural products are wheat, oats, barley, rye, corn, potatoes, and tobacco, as well 
as peaches, pears, strawberries, and other fruits of like character. 

The educational advantages of Fredericktown and Madison county are excel- 
lent. During the year 1871, a fine, new common school building was finished 
in the town, at a cost of $10,000. The people heartily sustain the system of 
popular education, and school houses are scattered in every part of the county. 
Churches are numerous. The population is about evenly divided between the 
Methodist, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Baptist and Catholic denominations. 
Many eastern jjeople have settled in this county since the close of the war, and 
many Germans are to be found here. Since 1868, Fredericktown alone has 
trebled its population, and is still rapidly improving. A good society prevails, 
and all strangei's are heartily welcomed and kindly treated. The asperities 
growing out of the war have long been settled. 

The manufacturing enterprises in this county afford a better home market 
than is to be foiand in St. Louis. More than double the population of the 
county are engaged in the business of mining and manufacturing than are en- 
gaged in farming, hence no part of Missouri affords so fine opportunities for 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 285 

successful and profitable farming, than is to be found in this count}'. As a gen- 
eral rule, the timber cut and sold, will pay the price of the land, and the 
cost ot clearing it. No one class of men are so badly needed in this county as 
good, enterprising farmers. Sheep nowhere thrive better than here. 

Although this town and county were early settled, yet remaining as it did 
comparatively isolated, until the completion of the railroad, in 1868, which 
runs through it, it is in many respects a new county. Its resourccH, though 
rich, varied and illimitable, have just begun to be developed. A large woolen 
mill, a tan yard, a cheese factory, a shop for the exclusive manufacture of fur- 
niture by steam, and many other manufactories are needed. 

The St. Louis and Iron Mountain Kuilroad have recently erected large round 
bouses and machine shops at Fredericktown, and, as it is a central station of 
the road, the company contemplate enlarging them at an early daj-. The town 
is quite a business centre, and a large mercantile trade is carried on in it, with 
people living in the lower counties of Missouri, and upper Arkansas. 

In no county in Missouri is there to be found so varied an abundance of min- 
eral wealth as in Madison County. Its lead, copper, and nickel mines have 
been profitably worked for fifty years; and since the completion of the rail- 
road, its mines of hematite iron ore have been opened and largely developed. 
Great quantities of this iron exists here, and Mathews' Mountain — a mountain 
of almost solid iron — is but six miles north of Fredericktown. The celebrated 
LaMotte estate is in this county. It contains 24,010 acres, and the proprietors 
were recently offered $2,500,000 for it. On this estate over two thousand five 
hundred people are employed and supported, principally in the business of 
mining. It is questionable if another territory of its dimensions in the country 
presents the wonderful spectacle this magnificent estate and county does, for 
here is to be found in great and paying quantities, iron, tin, zinc, lead, copper, 
magnesia, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, bismuth, antimony, and silver. In geological 
substances kindred to metals, kaolin, fire-claj'-, grindstone, French burr-stone, 
building sand, moulding sand, brick-clay, Paris white, sulphur, silex, feldspar, 
lime-stone, granite, and marble also abound. 

All around Fredericktown is a vein of metal, and between it and beyond are 
the finest lands one would wish to feast his eyes upon, while within forty miles 
are the coal beds of Illinois. With the resources possessed by this count)'- it 
can not be doubted that it will necessarily, in the near future, be one of the 
wealthiest and most populous of the State, and that Fredericktown will grow 
to be a flourishing city of 30,000 population. 

LOUISIANA, MO. 

The original proprietors of the town of Louisiana, were Joel Shaw and Sam- 
uel K. Caldwell. The town was laid out in 1817, then in St. Charles County, 
territory of Missouri. In 1818, county seat of Pike County established at 
Louisiana. First circuit court held here by Hon. David Todd. In 1820, Mis- 
souri admitted into the Union, and Hon. Kufus Pettibone, first circuit judge, 
held several terms, and was then appointed one of the supreme judges of the 



286 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITT. 

State. Levi Pettibone, still living, was the first circuit clerk nnder the State 
Gov«rnment. The next circuit judge was Hon, Beverly Tucker, who held one 
term of the court at Louisiana, when, in 1824, the county seat was removed to 
Bowling Green, the present county seat. 

In 1845 the town of Louisiana was incorporated by act of the General 
Assembly, approved January 31, 1845, John C. Edwards, Governor; Claiborne 
F. Jackson, Speaker of the House of Representatives ; James Y©ung, President 
of the Senate. First Board of Trustees, Edwin Draper, .Horace H. Jenks, 
William C. Hardin, Edward G. McQuie and William Alexander. Second Board, 
1846, Edwin Draper, H. H. Jenks, C. M. Duke, William Alexander and William 
Lee. Third Board, 1847, Edwin Draper, William Alexander, James H. John- 
ston, William English and Silas W. Farber, January 3, 1848, ordinance passed 
authorizing the erection of a wharf. March 10, 1849, the act to incorporate 
the city of Louisiana, Missouri, passed, and William K. Kennedy was elected 
first Mayor. 

Railroads. — In 1837 the first railroad survey in the State of Missouri was 
made from Louisiana to Columbia, Missouri. The principal engineer furnished 
by the War Department of the United States. No work was ever done on said 
road, but the line was substantially the same as that from Louisiana to Mexico, 
now in successful operation by the Chicago, Alton & St. Louis Eailroad Com- 
pany, This company now runs two daily trains of passenger coaches over this 
road from Chicago to Kansas City, and two or more daily freight trains. 

The Quincy & Burlington Eailroad runs two daily trains each, passenger and 
freight, from Quincy to St. Louis, touching at Louisiana, and Eoad House, Illi- 
nois, making the time from Louisiana to St, Louis about five hours. 

The St. Louis & Keokuk Railroad (the charter line), through Louisiana, is 
graded from Louisiana, through Clarksville and Lincoln County, and most of 
the line through St. Charles, and will probably be ready for the cars by the 
middle of January, 1873, and then through trains will bring Louisiana within 
three hours run of St. Louis. The northern or Keokuk end of the road will be 
completed during the ensuing spring and summer. 

TRADE, ETC. 

The present population of the city is five thousand. There are two banks of 
discount and deposit, but none of issue. The National Savings Bank, formerly 
a branch of the Bank of the State of Missouri, and the Bank of Pike County, 
both doing a prosperous and safe business, furnishing exchange to all the prin- 
«.ipal cities of the Union and of Europe. 

The principal manufactures are four tobacco factories^ three steam flouring 
mills (all having good reputations in the market), five extensive lumber yards 
(carrying over §1,000,000 of capital), three planing mills (all doing a large and 
prosperous business), one foundry and machine shop (including the manufacture 
of car wheels), five blacksmith and plow shops, one carriage factory, five 
cooper shops, three furniture stores and manufactories, three saddle and harness 
factories, three merchant tailors, four clothing stores (exclusively), ten dry 



6T. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 287 

goods stores (including clothing)^ four millinery and fancy stores, tweuty-t^^o 
grocery and provision stores, three bakeries, three stove and hardware and iroa 
stores, eight hotels and boarding houses, three livery stables, two dairy estab- 
lishments, one pork packing and smoking house with steam engine and lard 
tanks, two large brick-yards, with large demands for brick (clay equal to any 
in the State). Many smaller trades and shops not enumerated. Also four 
butcher shops well supplied with the best of meats; permanent gas works; and 
the principal streets elegantly lighted, and constantly extending; two telegraph 
oflSces, Western Union and Atlantic and Pacific. 

EDUCATION AND SCHOOLS. 

One fine brick edifice, embracing all the branches of education taught in th 
best high and common schools, and two colored schools, all free, supported b 
special tax ; one high school or college under Baptist auspices, not free. 

GENERAL ADVANTAGES. 

1. Louisiana is admitted to be the most beautiful location, surrounded by th» 
most elegant scenery above St. Louis, embracing every variety of location for 
business, manufactures, and residences, of hill and valley, to suit the views or 
tastes of the most fastidious. Property is, with but few exceptions, compara- 
tively low. The navigation of the Mississippi, now supplied by two full daily 
daily lines of steamers, one tri-weekly line, and various irregular boats, will be 
the everlasting support of a ti-ade for rich and poor. 

2. With five lines of railroad, diverging from the city, east, Avest, north, and 
south, and probably the sixth, all co-operating, or competing with the river 
navigation, no place offers greater inducements for locating manufacturing 
establishments than Louisiana. The Louisiana and Missouri Eiver railroad, 
and Jetferson City branch, will supply all the coal needed, for generations 
to come. 

3. The hills, slopes, and valleys surrounding Louisiana, are extensively culti- 
vated in grapes and all the fruits suited to a temperate climate, and are not 
exceeded in quality or capacity by any place in America outside of California, 
which is perhaps better for grapes. These are raised here with but little skill, 
.but yield immense profits to the skillful and industrious vineyardist in quantity 
and quality. 

4. Louisiana, from its peculiar location and access to all parts of the county, 
is now, and probably continue to be the chief commercial town of the county 
of Pike, long known as the "Egj^pt" of North Missouri, for supplying the 
country with corn and bread, when other localities fail. If she has not had a 
Joseph to manage her immense natural resources, as in daj^s of old, she has 
come as near it as she could, in furnishing one United States Senator, two Con- 
gressmen, one State Supreme Judge, three Circuit and Common Pleas Judges 
and plenty of others who would willingly sacrifice themselves for the publi* 
good in the same capacities. Very likely some of the immense throngs o 



288 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

children attending her schools, may some day furnish a President of the United 
States at least as soon as St. Louis has the White House ready for his recep- 
tion. 

MEXICO, AUDEAIX CO., AND ITS AGRICULTUEAL AND COMMER- 
CIAL ADVANTAGES. 

The city of ]\Iexico is simuted at the inierseciion of the North Missouri Rail- 
way with the Louisiana and Missouri River and South Branch Railways, one 
hundred and eight miles northwest from St. Louis, fifty miles north of Jefferson 
City, the State capital; fifty miles southwest of Louisiana, on the ^lississippi 
River; one hundred and sixty miles east from Kansas City, and is the county 
eeat of Audrain County, Missoui-i. 

The city has a population of about 4,000 people ; ten churches, many of them 
large, beautiful and costly brick structures ; two newspaper and job printing 
establishments J two banks in operation, and a new National Bank in process 
of organization, with a capital fixed at one hundred and fifty thousand dollars; 
a well established s^-stcm of graded schools; three hotels, first-class; a woolen 
factory, flouring nulls, saw mills, wagon and carriage manufactories, etc., etc. 

In the heart of the city stands an elegant and commodious new court house, 
in the midst of a public park, which is handsomely decorated with evergreen 
and ornamental shade trees, and surrounded by an iron fence — all erected at a 
cost of about $60,000, and now entirely paid for. 

Audrain County lies in about 39^ degrees north latitude, embracing about 
700 square miles, with a population of 15,000. Its climate is most healthful, 
with short and mild winters, while the springs, summers, and autumns are most 
delightful. 

The laiid< of the county comprise rich and rolling prairie and timber lands, 
beautifully diversified and well watered by running streams, and all its lands 
are of easy cultivation, and largely prodi>|».ive in all cereal products. As a 
grass growing country it stands unrivaled, even by the famous blue grass re- 
gion of Kentucky, making it one of the most profitable stock growing regions 
in the world. 

During the past year w^ere grazed within an area of twenty-five miles of Mex- 
ico, 34,000 marketable cattle, w^hile the grazing capacity of the county is equal 
to 200,000 head. 

Our county is also very inviting to the fruit grower. Apples, peaches, pears, 
plums, and the smaller fruits being grown with unusual certainty, quantity, and 
of peculiar delicacy of flavor. 

While the population of the county is rapidly increasing by immigration, 
there yet remain large quantities of unimproved lands near thriving new 
settlements, and which can be purchased at prices ranging from five to ten dol- 
lars per acre, and improved lands at an average of twenty dollars per acre. 
The unimproved lands of the county now in market, offer larger inducements 
for the investment of capital and the selection of homes, than any portion of 
the West. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITT. 289 

No inland city has more facilities for manufacturing than has the city of 
Mexico. Abundance of fuel, timber and water, can be had in and around the 
city. Coal of the best quality underlies large portions of the county, and even 
the city itself; while lands in the city for the location of manufactories can be 
obtained at merely nominal rates. While all manufactured articles can be 
made in the city cheaper — together with an unlimited home demand — we have 
the advantage of all themarkets east, west, north, south, and of cheaper freight 
by the net-work of railroads that run thi-ough our city. 

The trade of the city, in all its branches, is enormous, being larger than that 
of any other point on the roads between St. Louis and Kansas City. A large 
portion of the surrounding counties is tributary to the city, and its stock trade 
is larger than any inland city in the State. The freight handled at the depot of 
the N. M. fi. R. Co. alone, during the past year, amounted to 16,215 tons, on 
which was collected S70,000 freight bills; while the whole value of live-stock 
marketed from this countj^ during the same time will reach $1,250,000. 

The population of the city and county are industrious, liberal, intelligent 
and progressive ; great interest being taken in our public schools, the system 
of which is equal to that of any of the older States, with an ample school fund, 
and now in full operation throughout the county, in tasty and comfortable school 
houses, from six to ten months in each year. All looking westward for invest- 
ment or a home, should visit Mexico before making a final location. 

SPRINGFIELD, MO. 

The city of Springfield is situated on Wilson Creek, two hundred and forty- 
one miles southwest of St. Louis, on a high table-land near the summit of the 
Ozark Mountains, being some 1,200 feet higher than St. Louis, and the county 
seat of Greene County. It had acquired a considerable reputation as an Indian 
trading post and frontier village as early as 1820, being known in the Middle 
and Western States as a superior hunting ground, and healthful locality. 
Along the course of Wilson Creek were beautiful groves of walnut, sycamore, 
black jack, and oak trees, of luxuriant growth of perhaps a half a century, 
from among which the underbrush had been cut away, making one of the 
handsomest hunting grounds in all the Southwest. There stretched out on the 
north and east rich timbered lands, and on the south and west beautiful prairies, 
which in early days were cultivated by the aborigines as a Jield or native 
Lidian farm. Around this pioneer village and handsome field were many 
living springs, from which it took the name of Springfield. 

The Indians gave up this hunting ground very reluctantly, holding it tena- 
ciously against the intruding pale faces, until 1830, when they found themselves 
in the minority, and Springfield was then incorporated as a town, with a popula- 
tion of five hundred. In 1835, Hon. W. F. Switzler, now editor of the Columbia 
Statesman^ passed through this town on his way from Boonville to Alexandria, 
Louisiana, and recorded in. his diary that Springfield was a poor place; some 
eight or ten log cabins altogether, constituted the place. There were four 
Btores, two groceries, two blacksmith shops, and a tan yard. Its population 



290 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CTTY. 

remained about the same until 1857, when it began to increase, and in 1860 it 
had twelve hundred inhabitants. It had a varied fortune during the rebellion, 
being occupied by both armies, at different times, and each time to the detriment 
of the city. It came out of the rebellion in 1865, badly 'demoralized in every 
respect, with a population of five hundred. At this time it began to increase 
. rapidly, some of its former citizens returning, while its chief increase was from 
Tennessee, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, and Kentucky. According to the 
census of 1870 it had a population of five thousand five hundred and sixty- three. 
For many years Springfield has been the metropolis of all of southwest Mis- 
•souri, northern Arkansas, southern Kansas, and northern Texas, supplying 
those sections with nearly all their goods and supplies. The Atlantic and 
Pacific Eailroad was formally oldened to this city, May 3rd, 1870, which some- 
what changed the jobbing trade of Springfield, cutting off some of its scope of 
country and taking some of its trade to St. Louis. It still, however, supports 
three large and exclusive wholesale dry goods and grocery houses, all doing 
;a good business. The city has been obliged to turn itself to its local trade and 
manufacturing for its chief support. It has now one hundred and fifty business 
'firms in all departments of trade, which sold goods in the year 1871 to the 
tamount of S2,618,773; this amount has been largely increased the present year. 

Since the advent of the raih'oad constant shipments have been made of the 
large quantities of wheat, corn, oats, rye, buckwheat, tobacco, and herds of 
cattle, mules, sheep, and hogs, with apples, peaches, pears, grapes, etc., with 
which this country is very prolific. In 1871, 185,433 bushels of wheat were 
shipped, two hundred and sixty-three car loads of stock, and other produce in 
proportion. 

Springfield has two National banks, each with a ca])ital of §100, 000, and 
each doing a safe and prosperous business. It has three first-class hotels, the 
Metropolitan, St. James, Ozark, and four well established newspapers, the 
Patriot. Leader, Times, and Advertiser. Springfield has generously encouraged 
manufacturing interests, of which the oldest is the Springfield Iron AVorks, a 
prosperous stock company, doing a business amounting to near §100,000 a year, 
making engines, boilers, mill machinery, and everj- description of farm imple- 
ments. These works have substantial buildings covering three-fourths of an 
acre of ground, worth §65,000, emjjloj^ing sixty operatives, and have §200,000 
in working capital. The Springfield Manufacturing Company was organized in 
March, 1872, with a capital stock of §40,000, a working capital of §20,000, em- 
ploying fifty workmen and turning out fifteen wagons per week, atul th<> 
demand not half supplied. M. K. Smith's woolen mill was established in 187-;, 
worth §20,000, employing fifteen operatives, and has §2,200 of working capital. 
The Springfield Cotton Manufacturing Company began with a capital stock of 
§100,000, has erected a building worth §30,000 and put in machinery worth 
§60,000, leaving §10,000 working capital. 

Springfield has three flouring mills, two planing mills, seven lumber yards, 
and the machine shops of the Atlantic and Pacific railroad, with, capacity for 
seventy-five men. It has twenty practicing physicians and forty practicing 
lawyers. The bar of Springfield is worthy of special mention, it having no 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 291 

superior for integrity and ability anywhere in the State. The courts, too, both 
the circuit court and the probate and common pleas court, are noted for their 
integrity and ability. 

Eleven church societies are in a prosperous condition, and one of the beat 
regulated free graded schools to be found in the West, in session ten months in 
the year, in a line three-story brick edifice, and a two-story brick building used 
for a colored school, together with a fine school at North Springfield, in a two- 
story brick building, all costing $60,000. The people are intelligent, orderly, 
and industrious. The city has doubled its population and wealth since 1869. Its 
present population is over seven thousand, and its present taxable wealth over 
^3,000,000, and raj^idly increasing. Over two hundred houses have been built 
the present year, with every prospect that many more than that will be built 
the coming year. A second railroad is now being built to Kansas City, and a 
company has been organized to construct another south toward Galveston. 

Considering the healthfulness of the location, its educational and commercial 
advantages, supported as it is by manufacturing interests and a rich, productive, 
farming country, Springfield becomes one of the most desirable locations in 
the West. 

STE. GENEVIEVE • ITS EAELY HISTORY. 



The ancient town of Ste. Genevieve is beautifully situated on the west bunk ot 
the magnificent Mississippi, about sixty miles below St. Louis. Reposing in 
beauty amidst the surrounding hills, it presents a most charming view Irom 
the river, whilst the interior is delightfully diversified by beautiful streams, 
which meander through the town, on their way to mingle with the Father of 
Waters. 

The commerce of Ste. Genevieve, must also become important. Fojc, besides 
being the place whence the lead from the rich mines of southeastern Missouri 
is shipped, it is now, and must remain, the depot and shipping point of ihe in- 
calculable quantity of iron produced at the Pilot Knob and Iron Mountain, 
distant about forty-two miles. When the contemplated railway from Ste. 
Genevieve to those vast deposits of iron is completed, and a line of steamboats 
established between this point and St, Louis, Ste. Genevieve will, in a few 
years, become a commercial city of no inconsiderable importance. 

I'he immediate vicinity of Ste. Genevieve abounds in natural wealth — marble, 
limestone, rose-colored granite, sand, sandstone, and building materials exist in 
vast quantities. The marble and sandstone is worked with much ease and 
cheapness, it is well adapted to the manufacture of tombstones and monuments, 
and is a most beautiful material for building. 

The Ste. Genevieve lime is estimated to be a very superior quality, and a 
large amount is made hei-e annually, and shipped to Memphis and New Orleans 
markets. The sand, which is of a beautiful, dazzling white, resembling loaf 
sugar, la oonsidered the best in the United States for the manufacture of glass 



292 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTUEE GREAT CITY. 

and large quantities are shipped to Boston and Pittsburgh, for the manufactories 
of those cities. 

Possessing so many elements of wealth, and affording so many sources of 
profitable employment, we may well indulge the thought that the day is not far 
distant when Ste. Crenevieve will have an active, numerous and wealthy popula- 
tion, and become one ol the most important manufacturing towns in the State 
of Missouri. 

The present town of Ste. Genevieve was settled by a few French families 
about the year 1785, previous to " L'annee des Grandes Eaux," (the j-ear oC the 
great flood.) In consequence of the overflow of the Mississippi in 1785, a jtor- 
tion of the inhabitants of Kaskaskia, in Illinois, and of " Le Vieux Village" 
(the old town of Ste. Genevieve), emigrated to this place, and it was not until it 
received this addition to its population that it assumed the character of a village. 
The old village of Ste. Genevieve was settled about the jear 1735, and was 
located in what is now called '' Le Grand Champ" (the Big Field), about three 
miles distant from the present town. Of the old village nothing remains. 
Originally " Le Grand Champ," which lies immediately beloAv the town of Ste. 
Genevieve, contained four thousand acres of land, all under one fence, and cul- 
tivated in common by the inhabitants, but it is now diminished in size, caused 
by the caving in of the banks of the Mississippi. This " Le Grand Champ," 
is one of the most beautiful and fertile bottoms on the face of the globe ; and is 
every year decorated by its rich products, that lie on its surface in magnificent 
profusion, furnishing most of the necessaries of life to all the inhabitants of Ste. 
Genevieve, a great number of whom are cultivators of "Le Grand Champ.'' 

The original settlers of the town of Ste. Genevieve, are Joseph Loiselle, Jean- 
Bapt. Maurice, Frangois Coleman, Jacques Boyer, Julien Choquet, and others, 
who had settled here previous to " L'annee des Grandes Uaux" (the year of the 
great waters), and by Jean-Bapt. St. Gemme Beauvais, Vital Beauvais, Jean- 
Bapt. Valle, Sen., Heni'i Maurice, Parfait Dufour, Joseph Bequette, Jean-Bapt. 
Thomure, Joseph Govreau, Sen., and Francis Valle, commandant at the post of 
Ste. Genevieve, who came here immediately after the great flood of the same 
year 1785. These persons were all remarkable for their strong constitutions, sim- 
plicity of manners, and honesty of purpose; and were endowed naturally with 
good minds, but without the advantage of a liberal education. They were free 
of ostentation and a display of pleasure, except such as were of an innocent 
character. Their clothing was remarkablj^ plain, they wore heavy striped 
wingham pants, without the support of suspenders, but fastened by a belt and 
clasped around the waist, without vest, a blue or colored shirt, a white 
Mackinaw blanket coat, with a capuchon, moccasin shoes, and a blue cotton hand- 
kerchief around the head. The apparel of the early female inhabitants was also 
very eim})le, they wore cotton and calico dresses, and the waist fastened by 
calico strings, their beautiful shoulders ornamented with a mantle, their necks 
decked with a rich madras handkerchief, and their feet clad with moccasin shoes j 
their heads were encircled with a blue or colored cotton handkerchief. 

The patriarchs of Ste. Genevieve were by occupation cultivators of the soil, 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 293 

and voyageurs with barges and keel-boats to New Orleans. They were aUo 
traders in European goods, which they exchanged for furs, peltries and lead. 

These adventurers in their early settlement of St. Genevieve, had to en- 
counter many privations, and they passed through the ordeals of many romantic 
adventures ot a savage life; and well they deserve the appellation of pioneers, 
who felled the forest, and made way for the advance of civilization in the great 
"West ot our Union, But they have sunk into their graves, and are now no 
more. But a few days ago, one of the patriarchs above mentioned, could be 
seen in the town of Ste. Genevieve, leaning on the stafi' of old age, with ease 
and grace, his head seemed bleached with nearly one hundred winters. This 
venerable old man was John-Bapt. Valle, Sen. His wife, also, lived to an old 
age, loved and venerated by all. Some years previous to her death, in accord- 
ance with an old French custom, she was re-married to her husband, John-Bupt. 
Valle, Sen., after half a century of the enjoyments of a married lite. It was an 
imposing and solemn ceremony to see this venerable couple renewing tho tirst 
vows of their early affection and loves at the hymeneal altar. , 

At an early period, know as " L'annee du conp" (the year of the blow), the in- 
habitants of " Le Vieux Village de Ste. Genevieve," were called upon to defend 
St. Louis, which was then tlireaiened to be attacked by the English and differ- 
ent tribes of Indians. Sylvis Frances Cartabona, a governmental officer, was 
ordered to Ste. Genevieve by Bon Ferdinand Leyba, then Lieut. Governor of the 
post of St. Louis, to enlist a company of militia men for the ])rotcction of St. 
Louis. A com])any of sixty men was raised under the immediate commund of 
Capt. Charles Valle of the post of Ste. Genevieve, which went up in a keel-boat, 
and were stationed at St. Louis j. but whilst there the Lieut. Governoi-, Don 
Ferdinand Leyba, did not furnish them with ammunition, which they were mostly 
destitute of, thus causing much disappointment and mortification to the gallant 
men, who had left their homes to go and defend their friends in St. Louis. 
Little did the Ste. Genevieve compan}' think, at that time, that the Lieut. Gov- 
ernor was acting in bad faith towards them and the town of St. Loujs, but hia 
subsequent conduct fulU' proved his treacheiT, and placed the Ste. Genevieve 
company in a false position, as they had parti}' to obey orders under the des- 
potism of Spain, which was repugnant to their feelings. 

Previous to the attack upon St. Louis, an old man named Quenelle, a resident, 
had crossed the Mississippi river, and went to the mouth of the Kahokia creek, 
5!) Illinois, and from what he had seen of the disposition of some Indians, and 
a notorious outlaw named Duchorme, on his return he informed the Lieut. 
Governor Leyba, that an attack would soon be made, for which he was treated 
with contempt, and sent to prison. 

About the time of the attack upon St. Louis, the commandant of the Ste. 
Genevieve company, seeing that he was deprived of powder by the Lieut. Gov- 
ernor, Don Ferdinand Leyba, sent five men to take three kegs of powder, 
which an old lady, resident of St. Louis, had at that time, but did not wish to 
deliver up, insisting on them not to do ber any harm, should she refuse to give 
up the i)owder. They, however, conveyed the powder to headquarters, and the 



294 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

comTnandant, Charles Valle, seeing the treachery of the Lieut. Governor^, 
determined not to obej' orders. 

Whilst the commandant of Ste. Genevieve was absent from his head- 
quarters, Leyba oi-dered the company to march up into the garret and spike 
their guns, and some of the men had obeyed the order, but as it was about 
being executed by the whole company, the brave commandant of the Ste. 
Genevieve company came up, and at once perceived the treacherous order, 
and said, " Que son poste est prbs de son canon, et non dans un grenier, et que si 
Vennemi viendrait qu'il serait pret d se defendre ;" and standing to his post, 
ordered his men to stand by him, and did all he could under the circum- 
stances, to aid the citizens of St. Louis, when the post was attacked by the 
enemy. It is well known that Lieut. Governor Leyba acted in bad faith, 
and was despised by all the inhabitants of St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve, on 
account of his treacherous conduct, and feeling conscious of his own foul 
act, died shortly after. It was thought that he terminated his own life by 
poison. After the attack on St. Louis had failed, the company returned to 
their home, "Le Vieux Village de Ste. Genevieve." 

At the early settlement of the present town, Ste. Genevieve, the Peorias, a 
tribe of Indians, from the State of Illinois, were located immediately south of 
the town of Ste. Genevieve, along the bluffs, and having a great many 
enemies amongst the Osages and Shawnees, did not venture far in the forest, 
but felt safe in this locality under the protection of the commandant of this 
post. 

Ste. Genevieve is now made the deposit for all the iron ore from Pilot 
Knob and Iron Mountain, to be shipped to divers cities, but principally to 
Pittsburgh. Also is here deposited, all the lead, cobalt and copper, made in 
the neighboring counties in southeast Missouri. Two newspapers are now 
established in Ste. Genevieve, the Pioneer, and the Democrat. The telegraphic 
line that connects Nashville and St. Louis passes through the town of Ste 
Genevieve. Nothing seems more surprising and magic like, than the flashes 
of intelligence flying with the rapidity of lightning through the old town of 
Ste, Genevieve. 

ST. JOSEPH. 

HISTORY. 

The founder of St. Joseph, the pioneer who, as early as 1803, pitched on 
the " Black Snake Hills" his tent, and erected his huts and made profitable 
exchanges of glass beads and '' fire water" for the valuable furs and peltries 
of the Indians, was Mr. Joseph Robidoux, who was bqrp in St. Louis in 
August, 1774. Mr Robidoux selected this spot, impressed by its richness and 
extent of country, and by the fact that here the Indians were in the habit of 
crossing the river, going on to the Kansas, Big Blue, and other streams of 
the prairie beyond, for the summer, and returning to winter, where, in the 
rich bottoms and heavy timber of the Missouri, they could always keep warm 
and find plenty of game. The Indians knew the place by the euphonious 



ST. L0U18 THE lUTURE GREAT CITY. 295 

title of the " Black Snake Hills," and so it was called by the early pioneer, 
even after it had grown into a populous city. In 1840, the United States, by 
treaty with the. Sacks, Foxes and lowas, acquired possession of the ''Platte 
Purchase," now comprising the counties of Platte, Buchanan, De Kalb, 
Nodaway, Holt and Atchison, which was thus thrown open to settlement, the 
Indians moving into the Indian Territorj-. Mr. Robidoux preempted the 
160 acres comprising the " original" town in 1743, naming it after his patron 
saint, ''Joseph," although it was not incorporated until 1845. The first sale 
of town lots took place in September, 1843, $100 being the uniform price of 
the lots, except corner lots, which were held at $160. In the first year of 
its infancy, it was honored by a visit from the great naturalist, Audubon, on 
his river trip to the Yellowstone, who thus records his favorable impression 
of the place, May 5th, 1843 : " After grounding on sand-bars and contending 
against low winds and currents, we reached the "Black Snake Hills Settle- 
ment," which is a delightful site for a populous city which will be here some 
fifty years hence. The hills are two hundred feet above the level of the river, 
and slope down gently on the opposite side to the beautiful prairies that 
extend over thousands of acres of the richest land imaginable." At this date 
there was but three block houses in the Avhole settlement, but rapidly the 
town began to gather hardy adventurers, willing to endure the discomforts of 
frontier life for the great encouragements the future held out to them. 

In 1851, she applied to, and obtained from the Legislature of the State, an 
act of incorporation as a city. 

In 1849, the city became the great point for the fitting out and departure of 
emigrant trains bound for the then new eldorado — California. It was a bust- 
ling town, full of hopeful men, arriving and departing, allured by the expec- 
tancy of untold riches in the new country beyond the Sierras. The patronage 
which the town thus gained was of immense advantage to its merchants, who 
gathered rich harvests of profit, and devoted their energies and means to 
opening communication by rail, eastward. 

POPULATION AND PROPERTY VALUATION. 

From its inception to the present time, the growth of the city has been 
very rapid. In 1843, it contained but three log houses, erected by its founder, 
as trading houses. At the close of the year 1845, it contained six hundred 
people, and its property was assessed at $40,000. In 1846, the county seat 
having been removed from Sparta, it gained a large accession of population. 
In 1850, it numbered 3,460 people, and taxable property to the amount of 
$583,016, and in 1860, 8,932 people, and taxable property $5,134,249. During 
the years of the war, it suffered greatly and lost a large portion of its people, 
who withdrew from the troubled scenes of which the city was for a time the 
place of struggle, so that, at the close of the conflict in 1865, the city con- 
tained but 7,500 people. It but needed a cessation of hostilities to regain all 
it bad lost, and to keep up its former steady growth. In 1870, the census 
showed 19,565 people, and at this date, 1878, it is calculated by the best of 



296 



8T, LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 



judges, that it nuinbera not less than 25,000. Its future is so promisiug, that 
in less than the half centurj- predicted by the great naturalist, it will have 
grown far beyond the utmost vision of his prophecy, a city spreading far and 
wide its influence in commerce and manufactures. 

BUSINESS GROWTH. 

In the earlj^ history of St. Joseph, its natural geographical position caused 
a great inflowing of business capital. It is the center of an immense and 
highlj^ productive agricultural region, which is naturally tributary to it. It 
thus commands a trade unequaled by any citj^ west of St. Louis, and the 
growth of its commercial enterprises, is but the history of the growth of the 
country around. The increase of the wholesale trade is fully twenty per 
cent, per annum, a suggestive fact taken into consideratiorl, the competition 
of older and larger cities with their great facilities for shipment, and their 
active and earnest efi'orts to control trade. The exclusively wholesale trade is 
represented by six grocery houses, one of which in 1872 did a business of 
over $1,800,000; six dry goods; four boot and shoe; three hardware; two 
hat and cap; two wholesale clothing; four druggist supplies. The aggregate 
sales, wholesale and retail, in 1872, were upwards of $25,000,000. The capital 
employed in business is rated as follows : 8500,000 and* above, 9; $200^000 
to $500,000, 25 ; $100,000 to $200,000, 40 ; $50,000 to $100,000, 28; $30,000 to 
$50,000, 27 ; $10,000 to $30,000, 95. It has six banks, representing an aggre- 
gate capital of $1,800,000. Its merchants have always maintained a standard 
reputation for solid capitaj and solid credit, and in her mercantile capacity, 
no city has shown more energy or sagacity, 

RAILROADS, 

On the 22d of July, 1859, the Hannibal and St. Josepb Railroad, destined 
to fulfill a most important part in developing the great State of Missouri and 
the West beyond, was finished, and long held the honor of being the pioneer 
route of the great highwaj- across the continent. The completion of this 
enterprise was a great event in the history of the city and added largely to 
its business facilities. During the following year the Poney Express was 
organized to carry rapid messages across the country to San Francisco. 
Everj' morning the rider started, with his saddle bags strapped to his horse, 
to deliver the same at the night relay, to the next postman. So, with the 
rapid and increasing transmission from rider to rider, and horse to horse, 
on the twelfth da^^ thereafter the enterprising merchant in San Francisco, 
was reading the rates of merchandize in New York and the eastern cities. 
In 1865, the Atchison and St. Joseph, and Atchison and Western Eailroads, 
afterward consolidated under the name of the Missouri Valley Railroad, were 
finished to Kansas City, giving a connection by way of the Missouri Pacific 
with St. Louis. In July, 1868, the St. Joseph and Council Bluffs Railroad 
was completed and consolidated with the Missouri Valley, under the name of 
the Kansas City, St. Joseph and Council Blufts Railroad — a line one hundred 
and thirty-three miles long, hugging the banks of the river, and controlling 



ST. LOUH, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 297 

the trade formerly monopolized by the many lines of steamers that Dlied up 
and down the "Big Muddy, and forming a connection with the great national 
highway, the Union Pacific Railroad at Omaha. 

In 1870, the St. Louis and St. Joseph Eaih-oad, seventy-six miles long, was 
completed, forming another chain of communication with St. Louis, by way 
of the North Missouri Railroad. In February, 1871, the projection of the 
Kansas City, St. Joe and Council Bluffs Railroad up the Nodawaj' Valley, 
rich in fertility, and producing immense crops of corn and wheat was com- 
pleted to the Iowa State line; and in December of the same year, it made 
connection with the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad, thus opening a 
new and important route to Chicago, and the East. 

The St. Joseph and Denver City Railroad is completed two hundred and 
twenty-six miles, to Hastings, and graded within a -few miles of Kearney, 
and will, at an early date, the coming year, unite with the Union Pacific at 
Kearney Junction, forming an important link in the route to the Pacific 
coast, saving seventy miles in the routes from New York to Denver at 
present traveled. 

THE MISSOURI RIVER BRIDGE. 

The St. Joseph Bridge Building Company was organized and incorjiorated 
in January, 1871, by the citizens of St. Joseph. The preliminary survey 
was made in February, which resulted in finding rock at a depth of from 
fort}' to forty-eight feet; and on the 15th of March, the engineer. Col. E. D. 
Mason, reported to the Company, recommending the site selected, and esti- 
mating the cost of a bridge at $715,000. On the tenth of June the contract 
was let to the Detroit Bridge Company at $71 0,000. The contract provides 
that the bridge shall have six piei-s, each three hundred feet; 'a draw span 
span three hundred and sixty-threee feet, and a shore span eighty feet 
in length. The style of the bridge to be a quadrangular, Pratt truss. 
On the 2nd of January, 1872, pier six was comj^leted; pier five, Febru- 
ary 2nd; pier four, March 18th; upper draw rest. May 2l8t; pier two, 
November 6th (the long delay in sinking being caused by the three months' 
high water) ; pier three, January 25th; and the work of sinking pier one is 
now progressing. Qlie span between pier five and six is finished, and that 
between four and five partially ; audit is predicted that within sixty days after 
the breaking up of the ice, the whole superstructure, which will weigh 1425 
tons, will be completed. The total cost of the bridge will be about $1,200,000, 
for which the city of St. Joseph subscribed $500,000, twenty year ten per 
cent, bonds, and the company issued first mortgage bonds to the amount of 
$800,000. It is estimated that when completed the $100,000 will be left in 
the treasury. 

CHURCHES, SCHOOLS, AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

St. Joseph has twenty-two church organizations, and nineteen churches, 
viz: three Presbyterian, four Methodist, three Catholic, two Baptist, one Con- 
gregational, one Episcopalian, one Unitarian, one Protestant Evangelical, 



298 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

one Jewish, one Baptist, one Methodist, and one Presbyterian missionary 
chapel. Its pulpit talent is excellent, and all the various religious denomina- 
tions are in a flourishing condition. It has fourteen public schools, including 
a High school, with one superintendent, and thirty-two teachers. In the 
High school, puj)ils are prepared for admission into any college or university 
iu the country. The value of the school property is $100,000. Besides her 
public schools, the city has several large and flourishing private schools, 
including the Young Ladies' Institute, Academy of Sacred Heart, School of 
the Immaculate Conception, St. Joseph Day School, and the St. Joseph Col- 
lege, conducted by the Christian Brothei-s. During the past year Mr. Milton 
Tooble erected a magnificent opera house, with a seating capacity of fourteen 
hundred, costing $125,000. Its stage is 40x60, with a proscenium thirty-two 
feet, and in its appointments and fui-nishing it may, without exaggeration, be 
styled the handsomest auditorium in any western city. The location here of 
the State Lunatic Asylum for the Northwest, to cost $200,000, will cause the 
erection, the jiresent year, of a building highly ornamental to the city. The 
beautiful convent, crowning the hill, w^hose golden cross catches the latest 
rays of the setting sun — 

'•■ To tell His life of gloiy run," 
the many handsome residences, the solid and substantial stores, the Pacific 
House, of goodly reputation, go to make up a town of unusual solidity and 
comfort. 

MANUFACTURING INTERESTS. 

The industrial advantages of St. Joseph have been steadily on the increase, 
and the active efforts being made to invite hither manufacturing skill and 
enterprise, together with the natural growth of institutions already estab- 
lished, bids fair to make the city a prominent point for productive industries. 
There are laudable and earnest efforts being made through an organization 
known as the "St. Joseph Improvement and Manufacturers' Aid Association,'' to 
encourage and foster manufactures which will consume existing material and 
supply the wants of the community. No manufacturing undertakings have 
been started here that have not been successful. The facilities for shipment 
by means of the various railroads centering here, to any point, and the cheap- 
ness of material, with the demand for certain products from the various 
wholesale houses, gives an unrivaled position to this city for the disposal of 
articles of productive skill and industry. Being the center of the cluster of 
cities which have sprung up in the Valley of the Missouri, all of which are 
within easy railroad distance, it can supply their wants with facility and 
promptness and command a trade wide reaching in its influence and results. 
The furniture factory of Lewis Ilax is the largest of the kind in the West. 
During 1872 it turned out $190,000 worth of furniture of all kinds, using for 
this manufacture 250,000 feet of walnut, and over 300,000 feet of pine and Cot- 
tonwood — all native growth, except the pine. He emploj-s one hundred 
hands — men and boys. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 299 

The woolen mills of George Buell manufactured 70,000 yards of cloth, and 
40,000 pounds of yarn. He employs forty-five hands. 

The saddle and harness factory of Wm. Newyeth & Co., manufactured 
20,000 collars, using forty tons of straw. They also made 4,000 whips, 1,200 
sets harness, and 3,000 saddles. The}' employ fifty-two men and boys. 

J. C. Dandis produced $60,000 worth of material, and employ's thirty-five 
men. 

J. Pfeiffer^& Son manufactured stone work to the extent of $150,000, ship- 
ping to Chicago for six new buildings there. 

The St. Joseph Starch Factor}- is a branch of the Madison Starch Factory 
of Madison, Indiana. It was located here through the etforts of the citizens, 
and commenced operations in ]!^ovember, 1872. It consumes 1,000 bushels 
of corn jDer day, averaging twenty-four pounds of starch to the bushel. Its 
buildingsfcost $50,000, and its working capital is 80,000. Its president is 
O'Neill Bayley. This company is shipping largely to Germany. It employe 
eighty men and boys. 

The two foundries of Burnside, Crowther & Co., and Ambrose, Ford & Co., 
turned out $160,000 of foundry and machine work, employing forty-eight 
hands. 

There are one cracker and spice mill, four manufactories of boots and shoes 
(three of which commenced business in 1872), four flour mills, one distillery, 
three breweries, several small wagon factories, etc. The business of pork 
packing is largely represented, upwards of 100,000 hogs having been packed 
the past season. 

CONCLUSION. 

St. Joseph has enjoyed from the beginning only continued prosperity,, 
except from 1861 to 1865. She has improved her streets until now she has- 
thirty-five miles of macadamizing. She has increased her railroad facilities 
until now she commands communication with every section of the country 
about her. She has multij)lied her mercantile advantages until now she rep- 
resents in her wholesale trade a stock unequaled by any city west of St> 
Louis. She has inaugurated a school system so that her educational advan- 
tages stand among the first. She has fostered and encouraged manufactures 
80 that they have grown into remunerative enterprises of great productive 
capacity, and she invites men of capital and skill to a field which will yield 
all their ambition can ask for or fond hopes desire to realize. 

SEDALIA. 

Sedalia, Missouri, has been widely and favorably known for the last five 
3'ear8 as an unusually thriving and beautiful young city, and was early in its 
precocious life christened by its admirers "the Queen of the Prairies," and 
the thousands of travelers and strangers that have annually visited it since, 
have acknowledged the appropriateness of this appellation, whether hailing 
from the colder plirof^te of the more northern States or the warmer climes 



300 ST. LOtriS, THE PUTLRE GREAT CITY. 

and summer skies of the sunny South, from the granite hiils and rock-bound 
coasts of the Atlantic States, or the gold and silver ladened mountains and 
valleys of the Pacific slope ; and they alike admired the elegance and beauty 
of the palatial residences that adorn its beautiful Broadway, which extends 
for nearly two miles through the heart of the city proper, and for nearly a 
mile upon the highest swell of the rolling prairie which this enterprising 
young city crowns. 

This street is one hundred and twenty feet intvidth, and is ornamented with 
four rows of thrifty young trees, set out when Broadway was first opened, 
about twenty-five feet apart, with a roadway sixty feet wide in the center, 
neatly turnpiked by the enterprising property-holders on either side. Broad- 
way, with ten years' growth added to its thousand trees, and its hundred 
additional elegant residences, will be one of the most attractive and beautiful 
streets that can be found in any of the thousand beautiful and thriving 
towns that crown the broad and fertile prairies of the West, between this 
Father of Waters and the "setting sun," and will render Sedalia doubly 
beautiful. 

On this magnificent avenue are the elegant mansions of General George R. 
Smith, the founder of the city ; Cyrus Newkirk, the President, and Col. A. 
D. Jaynes, the Cashier, of the First National Bank ; Ex-Mayor Parker, D. 
H. Smith, and others of our wealthy and influential citizens, and an imposing 
340,000 Public School building. 

One mild, bright day last December, we were permitted, by the courtesy 
of General Smith, to study the panoramic beauties of the landscape from the 
observatory of his elegant residence. The northern view from it presented 
a charming landscape even at that season of the year. Three miles away to 
the north could be seen the " spires and smoky turrets " of the pretty village 
of Georgetown, the former county-seat of Pettis county, with a belt of tim- 
ber and a meandering stream between, while beyond the bluffs of the Muddy 
and the timber belts, were the high swells of the prairie, which shut out the 
view miles awa}- to the north. To the West the broad belts of timber that 
mark the windings of the Muddy, added beauty to the view ; seven miles 
distant was the pretty and quiet little village of Dresden, while the beautiful 
swells of the prairie beyond, in gentle undulations taded away in the dis- 
tance toward the border of Johnson county. 

On the south, another belt of timber marked the course of Flat Creek, from 
far away in the southwest, and Spring Fork from the south, which unites 
with it a short distance above the water-works, three miles from the city, the 
smoke of which^ from their never-slumbering fires, isalwaysto be seen, hang- 
ing like a drapery of clouds above the then bare and leafless trees, while far- 
ther to the southeast the widening belts and larger swells of the prairie 
beyond this creek, in its eastward flow, seemed to clasp hands with the blue 
arch above, and kiss the sunny skies in the hazy distance, miles beyond where 
the "argentiferous y-alena" lies hidden in the fruitful bosom of old Pettis' 
rich and fertile prairies that bound the vision in this direction; while miles 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 301 

to the east, Farmers' City and Smithton mingled in the dissolving views of 
human vision in that direction. 

In sprini', summer and early autumn, when old mother earth is bedecked 
in her mantle of green, the tirst exclamation that escapes from the admiring 
beholder, when this lovely landscape first meets his eye, is " O, how beauti- 
ful ! " and truly, but few towns in the West have such beautiful surroundings. 

This much we say by way of shading our pen picture, and now we pro- 
ceed to the picture itself 

ITS LOCATION. 

Sedalia is the county seat of the fertile, well-watered and populous county 
of Pettis, and is situated on the Missouri Pacific Eailroad, 189 miles west of St. 
Louis, the " future great city," 96 east of Kansas City, the thriving metropo- 
lis of Western Missouri. It is at this point that the Lexington Branch diver- 
ges from the Missouri Pacific, and it is also at this point that the Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas Kailway, the great through line from Chicago to Galves- 
ton, Texas, ei-osses the above road. 

It is regularly laid out and delightfully and centrally located in the geo- 
(Taphical centre of the county, and on one of the highest swells of the 
beautiful rolling prairie, by which it is surrounded in almost every direction. 
The profile of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas road shows that its site is the 
highest point on the line of that road, between Moberly on the North Missouri 
road, and Fort Scott, Kansas. 

It has long been noted as the commercial, manufacturing and railway 
metropolis of Central Missouri. It was laid out in 1860, and in 1861 it 
became the western terminus of the Missouri Pacific Kailroad, and though a 
military post until the close of the war, in 1865, it then contained but about 
one thousand inhabitants. 

The beauty of its location, the healthfulness and salubrity of its climate, 
the fertility of the surrounding country, and the energy and enterprise of its 
inhabitants, attracted many of the officers and soldiers of both armies, who 
became acquainted with the many advantages and inducements that Sedalia 
and Pettis county held out to industrious and enterprising men, whether they 
possessed much or little capital besides ; and these brave sons of Mars, hail- 
ing from almost every State in the Union, induced many of their friends and 
companions to come with them to this inviting country, rich in its undevel- 
oped agricultural and mineral wealth, only waiting for energy, industry and 
capital to develop and utilize them. So successful were they in this, that, 
although but twelve short years have elapsed since the virgin prairie of this 
portion of the "old Smith plantation," was laid off into town lots, yet so 
wonderful has been its growth in this time, that it is now the chief agricul- 
tural commercial, manufacturing and railway center — the chief metropolis 
of this portion of the State — containing over eight thousand of as enterpris- 
ing, public-spirited, energetic and intelligent inhabitants as can be found in 



302 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY, . 

any city of its size in the United States. In proof of this we cite the fact 
that Sedalia has been lighted with gas for the last five years, and has had the 
famous Holly system of water-works in successful operation for nearly six 
months. A school system and school buildings, second to no city west of St. 
Louis, one of the buildings erected five years since, at a cost of $40,000, 
another three years since, costing 310,000, and the third for the colored pupils, 
costing SS^OOO. 

It has eleven church societies and elegant and comfortable church buildings. 
It has two first-class and pojjular hotels, and another nearly completed, and 
several of less pretensions; two National banks and one private one"; 
three foundries and machine shops ; one agricultural implement, and 
one first-class carriage manufactory ; a first-class flouring mill, with a 
capacity for making four hundred and ninety-nine barrels of flour per 
day ; three live daily and weekly jjapers, and is the headquarters of 
the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Eailway Company, and here are located its 
machine, paint and repair shops, round house, etc., and the Missouri Pacific 
Company have already bought extensive grounds, and commenced the re- 
moval of all their shops on the road, outside of St. Louis (fi"om Jeff'erson 
City, Holden, Kansas City and Atchison)j_to this point, and the foundation 
for its mammoth round-house is already completed; a first-class woolen fac- 
tory, a soap factory, and an energetic board of ti-ade, comprising the active 
business men of the city ; a mechanical and agricultural association, one of 
the largest and most successful in the State, whose premium list last year was 
over $12,000, and its grounds are among the largest and best arranged in the 
country, comprising about fifty acres in the western part of the city, with a 
splendid floral hall and amphitheatre, capable of seating ten thousand per- 
sons, and more than half a mile of stalls for horses and cattle. It has an in- 
corporated library association, a year and a half old, whose rooms are among 
the finest and best furnished in the West — its library containing over a thou- 
sand volumes, and its leading-rooms well supplied with the choicest mao-a- 
zines and the leading daily and weekly papers, literaiy, miscellaneous and 
political. It has also a public school library, containing nearly a thousand 
volumes of choice and standard works. It has six Masonic and two Odd- 
Fellow societies, and over three hundred business firms, and more elegant 
brick residences and business houses than any other city of its size or age in 
the West. 

Its trade for the year 1870, amounted in round numbers to over $3,000,000; 
in 1871, to $3,500,000, and for the year just closed over, $4^000,000; (on an 
assessed valuation of $2,000,000), and its trade is being rapidly extended in 
every direction into the surrounding counties, and it is fast becoming a job- 
bing and wholesale centre. Some of the large wholesale houses have their 
commercial travelers on the road all the time, and have thus worked up, dur- 
ing the past year, sales varying from $50,000 to $160,000 per annum. As a 
wholesale and jobbing point, no off-river interior town has such a flattering 
prospect as has Sedalia ; and in the onward march of progress it is destined 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 303 

at no distant day to become the ''Future Great City" of Central Missouri — 
its chief commercial, agricultural, mineral, manufacturing and railway metro- 
polis. It has doubled its population, wealth and business, during the last 
four years, notwithstanding the " hard times ;" and fi-om the number, amount 
and character of the many improvements made during the past season, in the 
face of an unusual stringency of the mone}- market, we are very sanguine 
that it will more than double its population, wealth and business during the 
next four 3'ears, judging from the well-known energy, enterprise and business 
tact of her citizens. 

During the year 1871, forty-two brick business houses, most of them two, 
and some three story, were erected, and over one hundred brick and other 
residences, at a cost of several hundred thousand dollars, and during the past 
year about half as many two and three story brick business houses, and a 
large number of elegant brick residences, and nearl}' a hundred other ones, 
have been completed. 

The erection of the machine shops of the Missouri Pacific Railroad in this 
city the coming spi'ing, will give great additional impetus to Sedalia's growth 
the ensuing season ; and it now has more, and a finer class of elegant brick 
residences and business houses, and more miles of macadamized streets and 
good sidewalks, better schools and churches than any city of its size in the 
West. With all of these advantages, and with coal, iron and lead in inex- 
haustible quantities underlying " old Pettis," and at the very doors of this 
city — ^with all these elements of progress within and about her, who shall 
dare predict anything but a glorious future for Sedalia. 

Last year over 150,000 tons of freight were shij)ped from this station, and 
the entire freight and passenger traffic amoimted to nearly |1, 500,000, and 
for 1872, over ^2,000,000; and ere the present year closes this large amount 
will be more than doubled by the completion of the gigantic young Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas Railway, which will monthly pour into this city thousands of 
tons of Texas and Chicago freights; and wnth the vast and unusually rich 
agricultui'al and mineral fields opened uj) to, and inviting the enterjirise and 
energy of its business men to the rich, ripe and golden harvest awaiting them 
along the line of this road, from Sedalia to (xalveston and the Eio Grande, 
through which the grand trunk of this road and its branches will penetrate, 
and instil new life and vigor into all branches of industrial and commercial, 
agricultural and mineral enterprises, with the elements of which the entire 
country through which they will pass, abounds in such a remarkable degree. 

With its present yearly rate of increase in wealth, population and enter- 
prise, it needs no prophet "nor the son of a prophet," to foretell that who- 
ever lives to see it ten years hence, will find Sedalia not the future great city 
of Central Missouri, but the then present great one, with a population of not 
less than 25,000 industrious and enterprising inhabitants, as distinguished and 
as well-known as those of to-day for their public spirit, intelligence and integ- 
rity ; and we know of no more attractive and desirable place for all who ai-e 
■.seeking pleasant and western homes, good society, schools and churches, or 



304 ST. lOUlS, THE rUTURE GREAT CITY. 

certain and profitable investments for surplus capital, than to invest in the 
various agricultural^ commercial and manufacturing industries that are so 
imperatively demanded, and are being so rapidly built up in this progressive 
and rapidly-expanding young city, whose Avaterworks are sufficiently ample 
to supply all that may be needed for a manufiacturing metropolis of 50,000 
inhabitants. The great question now is, who shall reap the golden harvest 
awaiting the enterprising capitalists who shall establish, on a grand scale, 
any of the following much-needed, industrial entei-prises, and invest not less 
than $100,000 in each; to-wit: A railway freight and passenger car manufac- 
tory; an agi'icultural implement manufactory; a cotton factory; a foundry 
and machine shop ; an elevator and warehouse ; pork and beef packing estab- 
lishment, and many others of equal importance to the industries and trade of 
the Great West, and on which freight is paid both ways — first, on the raw 
material, eastward, and then on the manufactured goods, westward — on arti- 
cles which could be manufactured in the "Queen City of the Prairies" just as 
cheap, if not cheaper, than in the East; and the margin of freights on them 
alone, would roll up handsome dividends for whoever will engage in manu- 
facturing them in this city. 

KANSAS CITY, MO. 

In the history of cities, no town has grown so rapidly as this young empo- 
rium of the Missouri Valley. Situated at the great bend in the ^iissouri river, 
just below the mouth of the Kansas, it is an admirable position for commer- 
cial advantages. It is the centre of a vast fertile territory, whose rich 
productions will yearly increase its growth, its jwealth, and its importance 
as an inland market. With no rival nearer than three hundred miles, this 
place will improve with the improving country, developing as it develops, 
until this town becomes a great and prosperous business mart. The site is 
hilly and picturesque, commanding a fine view of the surroundings, and 
blessed with a healthy and invigorating atmosphere. 

Twenty-five years ago, Kansas City was known as " Westport Landing," 
and enjoyed that modest appellatioi^ until 1844, when its corporate name be- 
came recognized and known. The town grew slowly until 1850, when the 
California gold fever was so prevalent throughout the West, and in 1857 was 
one of the most flourishing places on the frontier. When the war broke out 
it had a population of 7,000, and a business that was remarkable in its extent 
and value. The four years' conflict fell with disastrous force upon the young 
city. The avenues of trade were blocked, trade was diverted, and the popula- 
tion dwindled down to four thousand souls. With the close of the war, the 
blockade was removed, and trade began again to flow into its natural chan- 
nels. 

In October, 1865, the first railroad reached Kansas City. This was the 
Missouri Pacific, and since its completion the history of this "City of the 
Bluffs " has been one continued succession of commercial triumphs. At that 



tST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 305 

time the population was barely 6,000, while to-day it is upwards of 40,000. 
Then, it had but one railroad ; now nine great iron thoroiighfares make this 
point their terminus, and pour into this bus}' mart their increasing wealth of 
trade and traffic. To Kansas City belongs the honor of building the first 
bi'idge across the Missouri river. It was finished in the summer of 1859, 
after a work of two years, and at an expense of nearly one million dollars. 
In the past seven years there has been no " stand still" in the prosperity of 
Kansas City. Its population and business have more than doubled, while its 
splendid buildings, its many railw^ays, its increasing wealth, and sleepless en- 
terprise, challenge the admiration of the East as well as the West. 

The following are the lines that make Kansas City a great railroad centre : 
The Missouri Pacific, running to 8t. Louis, a distance of 283 miles ; the Mis- 
souri Eiver Eailroad, running to Atchison, Kansas, and there connecting with 
a line that passes through Northern Kansas into Nebraska ; the St. Louis, 
Kansas City and Northern Kailway, running to St. Louis, with a branch fi-om 
Moberly into Iowa ; the Missouri Eiver, Fort Scott and Gulf Road, which 
traverses the border tier of counties of Kansas to Baxter Springs, a distance 
of 160 miles j the Kansas Pacific, running to Denver, Colorado, a distance of 
620 miles ; the Kansas City, St. Joseph and Council Bluffs Road, which runs 
northward into Iowa, and connects at Council Bluffs with the Union Pacific 
and the line to Sioux City; the Quincy and Kansas City Road, which con- 
nects at Quincy with lines running to Chicago and the East; the L. L. & G. 
Railway, running to the southern boundary line of Kansas, and connecting 
with the M. K. & T. Railway, and the Kansas City and Santa Fe Railway, 
completed to Qttawa, Kansas, which makes the ninth iron i-adiation from the 
Western " hub." Four more new roads are in process of construction : the 
Kansas City & Lexington R. R., (narrow guage), the Kansas City and De 
Soto, the Keokuk and Kansas City Railway, and the Kansas City and Mem- 
phis Railroad. The railway system of Kansas City is the work of but a few 
years, yet how wonderful is the result. From a village of four thousand it has 
grown to a city of forty thousand in the marvellously short time of eight 
years. 

Among the most prominent institutions of Kansas City is the Stock Yards, 
This enterprise was started a little over a year ago, as an outlay of §82,00Q< 
Its success was demonstrated last year in the fact that the commission busi- 
ness alone amounted to over .$2,000,000. There are four packing houses, and 
in 1871 there was more beef packed than at any other city in the United 
States, Kansas City is the great beef-packing centre of the continent, and 
will soon take the lead in the pork trade. 129,000 hogs were barreled last 
year. 

Kansas City may feel proud of her public schools. There are ten elegant 
school buildings, erected at an average cest of $10,000 each. The enrollment 
of pupils last year was 4,078, and the number of teachers employed, 57. The 
town has 28 churches, many of them large and handsome edifices. The 



306 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Board of Trade was organized a year ago last January, and now has a large 
membership. There are two libraries, the Mechanic's Institute and a law 
library, that contains 3,000 volumes, and is valued at §2.5,000. Another 
prominent enterprise of the citizens is the Agricultural and Mechanical Fair 
Association, with a capital of 8100,000. The total receipts of the Fair last 
year were 863,990.25, while the attendance one day was as high as 50,000 
people. The Fire Department is composed of four fire engines, two hook and 
ladder companies, and fifty-three firemen. There are now five miles of street 
railroads in operation. 

The actual wealth of Kansas City is put down at over twenty millions. The 
assessed valuation last year was 810,957,250. The business for 1872 is as 
follows : Total hog and beef products, 81,859,496 j manufactured articles, 
«l,162,000j post office receipts, 844,218.97 ; jobbing trade, 817,097,176 ; retail 
trade, 85,653,308 ; expended in building, 81,011,630; real estate sales, 
83,016,486; insurance business, 8160,537; grain manufactured, 8849,334; while 
the railroad business for the past year was immense. For public improve- 
ments there were 8124,547 expended, which includes four miles of sti'eet 
grading and two miles of sidewalks. Five daily newspapers are published, 
four English and one German, together with a number of weekly and monthly 
periodicals. Among the weeklies, is one published in the Swedish lan- 
guage, and among the monthlies is a medical journal, issued under the 
auspices of the College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

In the development of the Great West, with its fertility of soil and bound- 
less natural resources, Kansas City is bound to play a prominent part. She 
will grow with the growing country, increasing every day in wealth and 
power ; she will wear the golden crown and royal purple, and be hailed, 
"Queen City of the Missouri Valley!" 

EOLLA, PHELPS COUNTY, MO. 

Eolla, the county seat of Phelps County, is situated on the line of the 
Atlantic and Pacific Eailroad, about one hundred and thirteen miles south- 
west of St. Louis. It lies on the high lands, between the Meramec and the 
Gasconade Elvers. For a long time the terminus of the railroad it became a 
place of very considerable importance. It still retains much of its trade. The 
population is about three thousand (3,000). There are several steam flouring, 
saw, planing, and woolen mills, and two steam manufactories. Its trade in 
all kinds of goods is extensive and important. Its merchants deal with the 
inhabitants as far south as the State of Arkansas, and cotton is hauled a dis- 
tance of from ninety to one hundred and twenty miles, for shipment to St. 
Louis. 

The town has an important trade in peltries, and many thousand of bear, 
wolf, fox, and other skins, are shipped annually to the East from here. 

There are two weekly papers, having extensive circulation throughout the 
district. 



ST. LOUIS^ THE PUTLRE GREAT CITY. 307 

The '' School of Mines " (a branch of the State University), endowed by 
Congress, is located here. Magnificent buildings are to be erected for its use, 
and it is hoped that it will become, under the able management of Director 
Charles P. Williams, one of the most important institutions of learning in the 
State. 

There is a large, and well-attended public school. 



THE MANUFACTURE OF STEEL, 

OR 

THE IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING STEEL, AND ITS WARES 

IN ST. LOUIS AND MISSOURI. 



IRON ORE AND STEEL HAIR SPRINGS— MAGNETIC ORES OF DANNEMORA, 

SWEDEN AND SHEPHERD MOUNTAIN, MISSOURI—EUROPEAN 

AND PITTSBURG STEEL— CLAIMS FOR STEEL WORKS 

IN ST. LOUIS— ARTISANS WANTED. 



BY HENRY COBB. 



On a fair average, in the mine, 100 pounds of iron ore are worth only one 
cent; but, in a wholesale jeweler's store, the same weight — 100 pounds — of 
fine steel hair springs for ladies' watches, as shown on diamond scales and 
careful calculations by Eugene Jaccard & Co., are worth more than ($1,000,000) 
one million dollars. 

What makes the difference ? 

The skilled labor of the artisan has purified the metal from the dross, and 
turned the rude, raw material of nature into a delicately refined product of 
the useful arts. 

True, 100 pounds of iron ore will not yield 100 pounds of steel hair springs; 
but, although the artisan may make only one per cent, of steel hair springs 
out of the raw ore, still, even then only 10,000 pounds of ore are consumed — 
worth at the rate stated only one dollar — out of which $1,000,000 are pro- 
duced by the skilled labor of the artisan. 

The train of thought here started may be conducted with pleasure and 



308 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

profit to the public mind, and awaken many strong-minded men as well as 
women to view the miner, manufaeturer and mechanic — the skilled workman 
in the usel'ul arte, the artisan — with more favor and respect than heretofore. 

But the hint here given has served its purpose, for present, b}^ gaining a 
glance at tiie immense wealth realized in turning a very common raw material 
into a highly retined and useful article. 

The practical point now aimed at, is the production of steel in St. Louis, 
within the next decenniuni, to the value of at least $5,000,000 yearly; while, 
at the same time, factories for the production of edge and also artisan tools, 
of cutlery and other steel hardware, of carriage and car springs, of steam 
boilers, of rails for roads and armor for boats, maj^ be started, which, together 
with the extension of the bridge, railway supplies, plow and saw works, may, 
within the same time, yearly pour $5,000,000 more of manufactures of steel 
into the store-houses of the solid and liberal merchants of the city. 

Without entering into a minute detail of facts sustaining and defending au 
argument to this end, the $20,000,000 yearly of breadstufs and provisions 
manufactured in St. Louis is a fact of gi-eat force. 

The ^earl}' consumption of more than 23,000,000 bushels of stone coal and 
coke in St. Louis — over 20,000,000 bushels of which coal is mined in St. Louis 
county and the adjoining county of St. Clair, Illinois — and the fifteen iron 
furnaces of Missouri — seven stone coal furnaces in St. Louis, and eight char- 
coal furnaces among the mities — having a capacity to produce 133,000 tons of 
pig-iron yearly, are facts of great weight. 

A multitude of other surrounding and vitally supporting forces might be 
rallied into the ranks of a full ai-gument on the subject — among them the 
powerful item of more than $100,000,000 of manufactures produced, amidst 
more than 310,000 inhabitants, in St. Louis during the year ending June Ist, 
1870. But the main element, which neither Pittsburg nor even England 
possesses, in t:he production of the best cast-steel, lies close by the door of St. 
Louis; and that element is the magnetic iron ore, like the Dannemora ore of 
Sweden, from which the best English cast-steel is made. 

Although once — seventeeii years ago — so well known that it became a fact 
of history^ yet since — through change of ownership of the property, desola- 
tion of the civil war by battle on the spot, and the destruction of much 
, valuable documentary evidence on the subject — for years nothing has been 
heard on the question of the superior qualifications of the magnetic iron ore 
of Shepherd Mountain, Missouri, for the production of the best cast-steel, 
unsurpassed by any steel produced from other iron ores known in America ch* 
on the earth. 

Kecurriiig to history : In the pages of the Wtstern Jounud and CiviUany 
vol. xi., published i)i 1853-54, the following paragraphs, under the title of 
"Manufacture of Missouri iron," may be found, as taken by the author of 
this contribution, from the lips of the late Horace T. Bailey, an iron master, 
manager of the works, and an old resident of the Iron Mountain region ; a 
man of great skill in iron, and of pure integrity of character, as is attested 
by Colonel.iBogy. 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITV. 309 

Omitting many interesting historical items regarding tlie productions of 
i'lirnaces and forges there in the days before tlie railroad, only those facts 
which beai-upon the point in question are here represented as follows: 

" The Madison Iron and Mining Company, at Pilot Knob, own the Pilot 
Knob, .Shepherd Mountain, Bog^' ore bank ; also the 8hut-in, Christy, Pratte, 
iind Eussell banks; all of whicb banks are within six miles of the Pilot 
Knob; the Shepherd Mountain, being only a half a mile distant. The 
Shej)herd, Bogj-, Christy, and Shut-in ores are all of the first quality for 
making iron direct from the ore in the Catalan fire. That of tlie Shepherd 
Mountain is peculiarly adapted to the manufacture of steel of all kinds; it is 
one of the most valuable ores in Missouri, and fully equal to the Dannemoru 
ores of Sweden, from which the best English cast-steel is made. The Bogy 
and Christy ores partake of the same nature with the Shepherd Mountain 
ore, and are very valuable for sieel Irori. 

" Tbe company have a forge of six Catalan fires making iron direct from 
the ore at Pilot Knob, capable of turning out 1200 tons of blooms per year. 
It has been in operation for the last three years, and all its products have 
been used for steel, manufactured at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 

'< During the year 1853, about 1200 of blooms were sent to Messrs. Mc- 
Kelvy k Blain, and to Singer, Hartman k Co., of Pittsburg, to be converted 
by the former firm into cast-steel, and l»y the latter into plow and spring 
steel." 

This evidence is only a part of tiiat which can be furnisbed to sup]>ort the 
claim of the superior quality of Shepherd Mountain ore for the production of 
the best steel; as, from the ruins of the past, this writer has discovered and 
been placsd in possession of the correspondence of the Pittsburg firms pro- 
ducing steel in 1853-4, in which correspondence, the high rank of the Shep- 
herd Mountain ore is strongly corroborated, as may be instanced by the 
acknowledgment of the manufacturer:^, their lively rivalry for the largest 
quantity of blooms from this ore, and the strenuous efforts made to gain a 
controlling interest in the mine, as they state, to justify them in sending more 
skillful workmen to forge the blooms, and investing capital in Missouri for 
the erection of improved works, with repeated solicitations for blooms from 
the pure magnetic ore of Shepherd Mountain. 

Other valuable evidence, derived from practical sources, might l»e ofll'cred in 
confirmation of this claim, which seem ignored, but enough is here furnished 
to awaken an interest in favor of the establishment of large and numerous 
steel-producing works at St. Louis, rivalling those of Pittsburg, which, 
according to their report on the production of steel, last year, yielded more 
than (-55,000,000) five million dollars in value, while at the same time not a 
pound was produced in St. Louis. 

In order not only to awaken a feeling, but further to rivet and clinch the 
attention of the public mind on this neglected industrial interest of Missouri 
steel, the facts stated and oj»inions expressed by eminent scientific men, on 
this subject, must be highly prized. 



310 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 

Overman, in his work on the "Manufacture of Iron," published in 1851, at 
Philadelphia, states, on page 50, on the subject of magnetic oxide of iron, 
that the black magnetic ore, among other places mentioned, is found in Mis- 
souri; and with only a few words on the subject, remarks : "By proper treat- 
ment, it affords the very best and safest kind of bar iron; but by carelessness, 
or by an injudicious saving of fuel, very short, brittle iron. By careful 
roasting, and the cold blast, Sweden and Russia furnish excellent iron." 

In his chapter on the "Manufacture of Steel," page 482, Overman, in a few 
words, places the steel "derived from common Swedish or Russian iron, both 
of which were smelted from magnetic ore," and the steel "made from Dan- 
nemora iron, the latter smelted from magnetic ore," in the high rank of Eng- 
lish cast-steel and "the best razor steel from Sheffield." 

But a higher authority, bearing more directly on the point, is the private 
report by the late Professor Benjamin Silliman, Sen., late of Yalo College, to 
a Boston company, who, nearly a generation ago, sought and made invest- 
ments in the Big Muddy coal beds of Illinois, and in the iron mines of Mis- 
souri, mainly between Mine la Motte and the Mississippi river, which report 
may be found in the possession of Dr. Bidwell. 

Prof. Silliman introduces his report as follows : 

"In company with an able coadjutor and guide, Mr. Forrest Shejiherd, I 
have, agreeably to your invitation, visited and examined those parts of the 
mineral lands of Missouri and Illinois in which you are interested, and now 
beg leave to communicate the result of my observations." 

On page 12 may be seen the following paragraph : 

"The black iron stone, or magnetic oxide of iron. It is very sensible to 
to the magnet, and is often itself a magnet, then called the loadstone, with 
north and south poles, attracting and repelling the magnetic needle; it con- 
sists of two oxides, the protoxide, which is the most abundant, and the 2)er- 
oxide in much smaller proportion." 

Prof. Silliman describes the famous Iron Mountain, Pilot Knob, Shepherd 
Mountain and sui-rounding scenery with enthusiasm, and by his word sketches 
them with an accuracy surpassing photographic pictures. 

Treating minutely of the ores of that region, on page 18, Professor Silliman 
mentions certain peculiar facts, and declares his conclusive ojiinion as follows: 

"Although these ores may be regarded with sufficient accuracy as peroxides, 

« 

there is some little variety, especially in Shepherd Mountain, where a por- 
tion of the pulverized ore is taken up by the magnet, and is therefore in the 
state of protoxide, since the peroxide is scarcely attractable. On the Pilot 
Knob I found a piece of a pound weight or more, which was decidedly a mag- 
net, attracting the needle at one point and repelling it at another. Other 
cases of this kind afterwards occurred, and probabl}', on careful examination, 
they would not prove to be rare. As to the capability of these ores to be 
converted into castings, and also into malleable iron and steel, fitted for every 
purpose of human society, all doubt has been dissijiated by many successful 
experiments, made in the vicinity and elsewhere, on a scale usually small and 



ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURE GREAT CITY. 311 

with rude means, but perfectly decisive, as appears from manufactured articles 
shown or reported to me, and also from the reports of trials made for the 
government of the United States, as related in the pamphlet herewith trans- 
mitted/' 

To this powerful testimony of Prof. Silliman, the report of Dr. Litton, of 
St. Louis, gives additional weight, and furnishes two analyses of these ores. 
Dr. Litton, assistant State Geologist, with Prof. Swallow, on page 81 of his 
report states : 

• "The ores obtained from Shepherd Mountain are the magnetic, the specular, 
and a mixture of the two. In a specimen of the last variety, from which the 
magnetic portion was carefully separated by a magnet, there was found twenty 
per cent, of magnetic iron ore. 

"The specimens of ore from the different parts of the Janis vein were 
analyzed, and gave the following results. Both were compact, and the second 
was taken from the greater depth : 

1 gave Silica 1.04 

Alumina 0.60 

Peroxide of iron 98.80—68.83 iron. 

2 gave Silica 1.81 

Alumina Trace. 

Peroxide of iron 99.18 

Numerous European authorities at hand might be quoted to prove that the 
best iron and steel from Sweden and from Russia, as heretofore stated by 
Overman, is derived from the magnetic ores, such as those of Shepherd 
Mountain are clearly shown to be; and much more light should be thrown 
on this subject, especially regarding the adaptability of the rich and popular 
specular ores of the Iron Mountain, ihe red oxides of the Meramec mines, 
and other ores of Missouri, for the production of steel, by the Bessemer and 
other improved methods. 

On the authority of Robert Hunt, the most eminent statistician of England, 
the pi'oduction of steel in 1868, was stated in the last edition of Ure's Dic- 
tionary, as follows : 

'J'ons. Value. 

France produces 14,954 £ 443,850 

Prussia 5,468 170,824 

Austria 13,037 .321,073 

United States 10,000 212,500 

England 40,000 1,470,000 

The same figures for quantity are, however, also found on the last page, 
288, of Fairbairn's Work on Iron, published in 1865. The product has vastly 
increased since then ; and the Bessemer pi-ocess has given a new era to steel 
production. 

The United States tariff on steel averages about 30 per cent, on bars, in- 
gots, sheets and coils, and about 45 per cent, on edge tools and other manu- 
factures of steel. 



312 ST. LOUIS, THE FUTURa GREAT CITY. 

The amount of capital in St. Louis is well known to be greater than the 
amount in Pittsburg, SLhd if the statement is doubted, it may be easily proved, 
as in their report for 1870, the manufacturers of Pittsburg claim only ($90,- 
00^,000) ninety millions of dollars in value of their products, while the Uni- 
ted States census shows that in the same year the manufacturers of St. Louis 
produced more than ($100,000,000 ) one hundred millions of dollars in value 
of their products, even though among the items the Pittsburg manufacturers 
claim that ''the aggregate value of the production of their sixty-Jive glass facto- 
ries is estimated to be nearly seven millions of dollars, annual!}', or about 
half ot the toUil value of all the glass manufactured in the country," while 
that of St. Louis was re})orted by the United States census, for the same 
year, at only $399,i^00. 

The exact statement of the manufacturers of steel in Pittsburg, condensed, 
in the words and figures of their report, is as follows : 

"The capital invested in these nine establishments cannot be less than 
$4,000,000. The annual products amount to 18,500 tons. The sales of the 
various establishments for the year ending 1870, amount in the aggregate to 
a total of $5,460,000. 

Missouri blooms are quoted along the Ohio valley at a higher price — $90, 
$95 and $100 per ton, than blooms from other States — $75 to $85 and $92.50 
per ton — and new bloomeries in St. Louis and along the Iron Mountain rail- 
road have been lately started to make iron for the steel works in Pittsburg. 

The profit on the manufacture of steel rails in St. Louis is estimated by Mr. 
Rosenberg at more than 50 per ceat. per annum. 

The main question now left is. How can the skilled labor of the artisan in 
this cast and spring steel branch of industry be secured from England, iVance, 
Germany, and our Atlantic States, so that St. Louis, where now not a pound 
of steel is produced, may soon rival Pittsburg in the production of these use- 
ful articles, to the value, yearly, of more than $5,000,000? 



APPENDIX. 



THE vST. LOUIS MUTUAL LIFE INSUHAXCE COMFANY^ 

Is the leading financial institution of the great West. lis rise and progress 
presents a fair illustration of the rapid, j^et substantial growth of St. Louis 
during the past few years, and of the quickness of the American mind to ap- 
preciate whatever is really valuable and meritorious in new schemes of busi- 
ness. 

Twenty-five or thirty years ago, life insurance was scarcely known in this 
country. Now there are seventy to eighty companies, some of which have 
attained proportions not reached by European companies short of a century 
of existence. 

This Company controls assets to the amount of some seven millions of dol- 
lars, which are increasing at the rate of a million or more annually. It has 
paid out nearly five millions of death losses, dividends, and other claims; and 
has an annual income of nearly three millions. It has established agencies in 
nearly every State and Territory in the Union, and in Canada. 

The Company was first chartered in 1857, and was organized on the 18th of 
November of that year, as the St. Louis Mutual Life and Health Insurance 
Company, with a guarantee eapital of $50,000. The officers were Dau'l H. 
Donovan, President; Samuel Willi, Vice-President; Heniy Stagg, Secretary. 

On the 1st of May, 1858, Mr. Stagg resigned the Seci"etaryship, and was 
succeeded by William T, Selby. In November, 1858, Mr, Donovan and Mr. 
Willi, changed place, the latter becoming President and the former Vice-Pres- 
ident. 

In February, 1859, the charter was amended, on Mr. Selby's recommenda- 
tion, so as to confine the business of the Company to the insurance of lives of 
persons, the guarantee capital was authorized to be cancelled, and for it was 
substituted a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars, which was 
promptly subscribed. 

In .January, 1859, Mr. Wm. N. Benton was appointed C4eneral Agent, which 
position he held until the close of the year 1870, when he became, from 
choice, the manager of the St. Louis City and County Department. 

The present charter was adopted in 1861, when the Legislature of the State 
passed "An act relating to the St. Louis Mutual Life Insurance Company, to 
reduce to one act the several acts heretofore passed in relation thereto, and to 
amen(] the sume." 



314 APPENDIX. 

By this charter the following gentlemen were appointed corporators, viz: 
Samuel Willi, John W.Wills, Dan'l H. Donovan, Chas. W. McCord, Chas. H. 
Peck, Eob't Fisher, Francis Beehler, John F. Thornton, Sam'l Kirkman, 
George E. Eobinson, John Hogan, and Herman Achenback. They were 
authorized to increase the number of directors to twenty-one, which was 
done in April, 1861. 

In January, 1866, Mr. Willi retired from the presidency, and was succeeded 
by D. A. January, the eminent merchant. Mr. Donovan having left the 
State, Mr. James H. Lucas became Vice-President, and held the office until 
1867, when he resigned to take the Presidency of another company, and was 
succeeded by 3Ir. Chas. H. Peck, the present President of the Company. 

In June, 1871,Mr. January, in contemplation of an extended tour to^Europe, 
resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. Peck. Mr. Wm. T. Selby was at the same 
time elected Vice-President, and the other offices were filled by their present 
incumbents. 

For the first few years of its existence, owing to the fact that Life Insur- 
ance was a new business and little understood; and latei*, to the occurrence of 
the war, the progress of the Company was slow. 

On the close of the war, however, as prosperity and confidence returned, 
and Life Insurance came to be more generally known, and better understood, 
the business of the Company began raj^idly to increase. 

The following table exhibits its progress from 1863 to the end of 1871 • 

1863, Policies issued 231, Assets on December 31 $ 222,547 



1864, 






574, 




a 


430,990 


1865, 






948, 




ii 


750,114 


1866, 






.... 2,701, 




u 


1,.395,162 


1867, 






4,676, 




« 


2,609,747 


1868, 






.... 4,668, 




u 


3,619,670 


1869, 






.... 5,230, 




li 


4,507,066 


1870, 






.... 6,604, 




<( 


5,518,971 


1871, 






4,238, 




u 


5,821,625 



The year 1872 has not yet closed, but will, no doubt, exhibit a large in- 
crease of business over the year 1871. 

The above results sufficiently attest the merit of the gentlemen who have 
so successfully managed the business of this prosperous company. It may not 
be injustice to others, however, to say, that the Company is very largely 
indebted for its success to the labors of Mr. Wm. T. Selby and of Mr. Wm. N. 
Benton. ^ 

The former filled the office of Seeretary from May, 1858, until June, 1871, 
a period of over thirteen years, during which he successfully managed all the 
office details of a business far more complicated and perplexing than any other 
with which we are acquainted, and won general eonfidence by his ability and 
integrity of character. He is really entitled to be called the Father of the 
Company. Mr. Benton was the General Agent from January, 1859, to De- 
cember, 1870, a period of twelve years, and was one of the most indefatigable 
and successful workers in this line ol business in the United States. The well- 



APPENDIX. 315 

known nanae of D. A. January has been a tower of strength to the Company. 
During bis Presidency of over five years, the institution assumed its place 
among the leading companies of the country, acquired an enviable reputation 
for honest and skillful management, and its assets increased from a few hun- 
dred thousand dollars to nearly six millions. 

The present President, Mr. Chas. H. Peck, has always been a valued 
member of the corporation. Like Mr. January, he is one of the self-made 
men of St. Louis, and has been very successful. By his energy and business 
sagacity he has amassed a splendid private fortune; and is in every way 
competent to preside over the intricate affairs of a large and growing life 
company. Under his supervision, aided as he is by an experienced and able 
corps of assistants and Board of Directors, we may expect this institution, in 
a few years, to place itself abi'east with the leading companies of the East 
and of Europe. 

Below is a complete list of the present officers and Directors : 

OFFICERS. 

(;HAS H. PECK, ... - President. 

WM. T. SEl-BY, - . - - Vice-President. 

AT.EX. P. ^^TEWART, - - - .Secretary. 

•J. S. MILLER, - - General Manager of Agencies. 

J. (i. CATLIN, Cashier. 

W.E.HARVEY, . - - . Actuai-y. 

WM. M. McPIIEETERS, M. D., - - Medical Officer. 

.JXO. T. IIODGEX, M. D., - (onsulting Physician. 
( LINE, .JAMISON & DAY, - - Legal Advisers. 

DIEECTORS. 

<»LIVKR GARRISON, WM. T. SELBY, 

SAMUEL WILLI, NICH. SCHAEFFER, 

THEODORE LAVEILLE, WILLIAM T. GAY, 

CHAS. H. PECK, WM. C. .JAMISON, 

LEVI L. ASHBROOK, R. P. HANEKAMP, 

.JULES VALLE, L.H.BAKER, 

GEO.R. ROBINSON, D.A.JANUARY, 

ROBERT E. CARR, WM. .T.LEWIS, 

•JOHN F. THORNTON, .J AS. O. CARSON, 

DAVID K. FERGUSON, JACOB TAMM, 
HON . JOHN HOG AN . 

Several of the State agents, by their energy, enterprise and success, have 
entitled themselves to special mention, as among the effective workers in 
building u,- the company. Among them are S. K. Foote, Louisville, Ken- 
tucky; Major George Johnson, (formerly Geo. K. Mitner & Co.,) Alexandria, 
Virginia; J. M. Street, St. .Joseph, Missouri; Gregory & Houston, New 
York ; J. G. Lonsdale & Co., Memphis, Tennessee ; R. R. Sloane (formerly 
Frank Remington,) Cleveland, Ohio ; J. E. Godfrey & Son, Atlanta, Georgia; 
N. P. Dolen, Houston, Texas ; E. P. Taylor, St. Louis; Harmon Doane, New 
Orleans; John O. Osborne, Chicago; W. P. Adams, Philadelphia; T. J. 
Rutledge, Opelika, Alabama ; E. A. Whitcomb, Indianapolis ; E. C. Morton, 
Little Jlock ; Carey W. Lambeth, Nebraska ; M. S. James, St. Paul ; J. M. 
Sears, Mobile ; R. A. Diver, San Francisco ; J. D. Ferree, Keokuk ; R. S. 
Baird, Toronto. 



316 A.PPENDIX. 

The Company having a large and increasing amount of assets, 
be be safely and permanently invested, thought it wise to apply a 
small portion of tliese funds to the erection of a building that would 
supply their office room, and afford an income besides, from rents. The 
result is the magnificent structure at the corner of Sixth and Locust — a 
building alike worthy- of the genius and deputation of the distinguished 
architect, Geo. I. Barnett, and creditable to the enterprise and business sagac- 
ity of the Company. There is no doubt the building will furnish the 
Company with office accommodations without cost, and afford in rents a 
handsome income on the investment. It is the handsomest architectural or- 
nament St. Louis possesses, and marks the beginning of a new era in the 
style of architecture in our great city. 



L>fiY GOODS OF ST. LOUIS— DODD, BROWN & CO. 

The dry goods business of St. Louis for the spring trade promises to be the 
most active of any corresponding season for several years. A large number 
of merchants from different sections of the country are already here. 

The wholesale house of Dodd, Brown & Co. is literally crowded with buy- 
ers and salesmen. Tl»e passenger elevator is almost constantly in motion, 
conveying customers to the different floors of their spacious building, 100 by 
150 feet, five stories high, with basement. The business transactions of the 
house in 1872 excelled in magnitude that of any similar house in St. Louis, 
and judging from the grand opening for the spring trade, their sales will far 
exceed in 1873 those of 1872. 

Messrs. Dodd, Brown & Co. have already received one of the largest and 
best stocks of all lines of foreign and American dry goods and notions ever 
brought to St. Louis. Their stock of ladies' dry goods, such as pure mohairs 
and black alpacas, Japanese poplins and silks, Pongee silks, grenadines in 
plain and fanc}' colors, striped and fancy goods of all styles, is superior in 
quality and greater in variety than can be found in any similar house west of 
New York. 

Their large invoice of jaconets, lawns, percales, etc., is very attractive. 
Their stocks of prints, sheetings, etc., is unequaled by any wholesale house 
in the West, and their endless variety of notions embraces about everything 
known to the markets of our country coming under the head of notions. 
This house has 90,000 square feet of space, upon which is transacted their 
immense business. The piles of goods upon each floor are really a grand 
sight. Here can be seen, in a few hours, samples of all the world's industry 
in the dry goods line. 

Messrs. Dodd, Brown & Co., at the establishing of the house, determined 
to pursue a more liberal policy than had been practiced in St. Louis for a 
series of years. 

They had the sagacity to fores,ee that the true policy to follow, in order to 



Ari'ENDIX. 317 

concenti-ate a trade in St. Louip, was to buy in large quantitiep, and sell on a 
very email margin, by which they were able to duplicate New York quota- 
tions. The result has been that, in the short space of seven years, they take 
rank with the largest and most popular dry goods houses in our country. 

They are among the most enterprising and responsible business houses on 
the western continent, and have contributed much in the centralization of a 
large trade to St. Liouis, Avhich formerly dealt iii New York, Boston or Phila- 
delphia. 

This house is emphatically the headquarters for the merchants residing 
west of the Missouri river, and does a large business in New Mexico and the 
Southern and Southwestern States. They are offering inducements for the 
spring trade that will bring to them a very large trade that formerly dealt 
elsewhere. 



BOOT AND SHOE TEADE. 

St. Louis is eminently the boot and shoe market of the Great West. Her 
merchants are men of ample capital, and fully up to the wants of the age. They 
carry larger stocks and a more varied assortment than can be found in any city 
in this country, and these are consUintly reinforced and freshened by all the 
novelties of the season as they appear. In no branch of mercantile industry 
has there been greater ability displayed than in the management of the boot 
and shoe business for the past ten years, and to-day there is no market East 
or West where buyers from the Mississippi Valley, and the States and Terri- 
tories beyond, can be so well suited as in St. Louis. At present the volume 
of trade is in goods of Eastern manufacture — mainly from the shoe districts of 
which Boston is the great center, though the productions of New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio and Michigan find a ready market. 
Within the past few years, however, there has been a growing demand for a 
more peculiarly western and a better class of goods than can be obtained from 
eastern manufactories. To satify this demand, home production has become 
a necessity, and now St. Louis has fairly put in her appearance as a manu- 
facturing city in this department. Some half a dozen or moi'e manufactories 
are already in successful operation, and finding rapid sale for all they can 
produce, the principal ones being Appleton, Noyes & Co., Giezike Bros., and 
Brolaski & Co. The total amount sold annually in St. Louis may be esti- 
mated with tolerable accuracy as follows: $15,000,000 to 117,000,000 at whole- 
sale, and 82,500,000 to $4,000,000 at retail, or a total of about 120,000,000. 

The house taking the lead in this line is Appleton, Noyes & Co., whose 
business does not vary much from $2,000,000, inclusive of goods produced in 
their own factory. This firm commenced business in the fall of 1862, on a 
small scale, with small immediate expectations, while the cannon of hostile 
armies were thundering along the whole line, and their present position is the 
result of thatreeistJess energy which makes great achievements possible. And 



318 APPENDIX. 

this sjjirit of progress and determiuation to equal the demands of this new 
era in her history, is fully awakened and is hereafter to characterize increas- 
ingly the new-thoroughly aroused and vitalized St. Louis, and will assuredly 
place her on that proud eminence toward which her destiny is pointing and 
beckoning the future great city of the world. 

THE IRON FOUNDEY OF MESSRS. SHICKLE, HARRISON & CO. 

The extensive establishment of Messrs. Shiekle, Harrison & Co. is one of 
the largest and most complete in the country, and is truly a credit to our city. 
The firm, which is composed of Frederick Shiekle, John W. Harrison, and 
Thomas Howard, succeeded the old and well-known firm of Thomas Howard 
& Co., who were located on the corner of Eighth street and Clark avenue, 
and who established and ran for many years, the Excelsior Foundry at that 
place. Finding the space rather contracted on Clark avenue, the new firm 
purchased the ground which they now occupy, and commenced the erection 
of buildings sufficiently spacious to accommodate their large and constantly 
growing business. The buildings now used by them cover an area of four 
acres, running north and south from Gratiot street nearl}* to Chouteau ave- 
nue, and extending west from Twelfth to. Thirteenth street. Three hundred 
and fifty hands are employed ; from eight to ten thousand tons of iron used 
annually, and the sales amount to over a million dollars per annum. 

Possessing all the latest improvements in machiner}-, Messrs. Shiekle, Har- 
rison & Co. have every capacity for doing the largest class of castings that 
can be made. The iron principally used is Missouri iron, made at the Scotia 
and Carondelet furnaces, and Scotch pig iron. The plant consists of a foun- 
dry and machine shop for the manufacture of architectural works, and piping 
for gas and water. A great feature in the foundry proper, which is separated 
from the finishing and pattern shops by Papin street, is a sj'stem of steam 
cranes and derricks so arranged as to enable the workmen to handle and 
shift from one end of this large building to the other, castings weighing as 
much as twenty tons. Two of these cranes are particularly worthy of men- 
tion as they are the only ones of the kind in the country. They were de- 
signed by, and built under the personal supervision of Mr. Frederick Shiekle, 
and command the most unbounded admiration of all iron manufacturers who 
have seen them. Built entirely of iron and run by steam, they work with an 
accuracy almost human. The smaller of these cranes is capable of handling a 
ten-ton casting, and cost five thousand dollars. The other cost eight thous- 
and dollars, and has a capacity of twenty tons. Surrounding each of these 
cranes are the pits wherein gas and water piping is cast. 

Opposite, and just north of the foundry, is the finishing shop, in which are 
located many expensive and complicated pieces of mechanism used in polish- 
ing, finishing and perfecting the castings turned out from the foundry. The 
finishing shop is connected with the foundry by a series of railroad tracks, 
which render the transfer of heavy castings a comparatively easy aflfair. 



APPENDIX. 319 

ST. LOUIS TYPE FOUNDRY. 

Among the oldest and most important manufacturing establishments in our 
cit}', and one in ever}- way worthy of mention, is the St. Louis Type Foun- 
dry, established in 1840, and which has grown from a small concern, occupy- 
ing limited quarters, in an alley between Main and Second, and Market and 
Chestnut streets, to its present mammoth proportions — requiring two build- 
ings, on the north side of Pine street, with ten floors 18x20 feet each, or a 
space, if all were on one floor, of 19,440 square feet. 

This establishment manufactures everything required in a printing-ofiice 
except cylinder and the various job presses now so jDopular with the trade. 
Of these articles, however, it keeps a number in stock, suited to the trade of 
the "West, and ready for shipment at the shortest notice. 

We recently passed through the buildings, and were surprised at the 
immense business conducted by this house. Ascending, by means of a pow- 
erful steam elevator to the fifth floor, we found about a dozen type machines 
with operators apparently grinding out types, while a crowd of boys, techni- 
cally known as " breakers," were removing the jets left on the type by the 
machines. From this department type passes to the finishing room, where a 
large number of girls are employed in rubbing, kerning, setting, etc., and 
through whose hands the type passes to finishers, who smooth body-ways, 
and groove the characters at the bottom. After all this manipulation, the 
type in " sticks," is placed on stands, and critically examined with a magnify- 
ing glass, all imperfect letters being discarded; after being wrapped in paper, 
and properly marked, the type passes to the salesroom shelves. 

In another room about half a dozen men were emploj'ed in making brass 
rule of various designs, labor-saving metal furniture, slugs, leads, etc., while 
machinists were repairing old, and building new type machines for use in the 
adjoining apartment. 

On the fourth floor we found the electrotyping department in full blast, 
engaged on cuts, book and blank work, etc. The details of the process of 
electrotyping are very interesting to an observer, but limited space compels 
us to pass with this brief allusion. 

Adjoining this department is the case workshop, where a number of skillful 
Artisans are engaged in making cases — all styles — cabinets, stands, and furni- 
ture peculiar to printing-ofiices. 

We found the third floor wholly occuj)ied by the machine shop. Here is 
manufactured the famous Washington Hand Press, of various sizes, while 
rebuilding and repairing all kinds of machinery is also a specialty. In this 
shop we noticed three hand presses, a large Hoe cylinder, and three or four 
smaller job presses, in process of repairing and rebuilding. In connection 
with the machinery department is a finely-equipped blacksmith shop, where 
chases are made and the necessary forging for presses, etc., is done. 

Descending to the second floor, we found it literally packed with fine 
papers, envelopes and card stock, with clerks busily employed in packing and 



320 APPENDIX. 

shipping to all parts of the country — from Indiana in the East, to California, 
and from Minnesota to Texas. ' 

On the first floor is the main, or type salesroom. On the left, as you enter, 
is seen a row of shelving over one hundred feet in length, reaching from floor 
to ceiling, which is filled with type suflftciently varied to meet the wants of 
any printer, no matter how fastidious his taste. Here will also be found the 
various styles and sizes of job presses in use — Universal, Gordon, Liberty, 
Nonpareil, etc. 

Adjoining this department is the storeroom for printing papers, containing 
piles on piles of the various sizes and qualities of book and news re(juired by 
the trade. 

Descending to the basement, we found a large room, lighted by gas, and fit- 
ted up for second-hand machinery. Here we noticed presses of old and mod- 
ern styles in varied stages of pei-fection, suited to the wants of printers of 
limited means, and equally acceptable to more opulent members of the 
craft. 

The book-keeping and financial part of the establishment is presided over 
by Mr. Kauffman, who has been identified with the house since its incorpora- 
tion in 1861. 

The general office will be found on the first floor, in charge of Mr. Wm. 
Bright, who is secretary and general business manager. This gentleman has, 
we understand, been in the establishment for the past twenty-seven years, and 
few indeed are the western printers and publishers who do not know him 
personally, and" favorably at that. His experience is unlimited; during the 
last ten or twelve years he has had charge of the concern, and its products 
have been so perfected that they stand equal to the best in the country. 

The skilled workmen, clerks, salesmen, etc., employed by the company, 
number over ninety. In the sales department are practical printers, of large 
experience who carefully attend to the execution of orders, and at times ren. 
der valuable assistance to purchasers. 

We heartily recommend the printers of the West and South to visit the St. 
Louis Type Foundry, when in our city. A ramble through its various 
departments will amply repay you for time so employed. 



POJ^CELAIN MANUFACTUEES. 

L. U. Keavis, Esq. — 

Dear Sir : In your many valuable works^ setting forth the great advan- 
tages of the West, atid of St. Louis in particular, for becoming at an early 
day a great manufacturing city, you have sung loud, long and well, of the 
Iron, and several other mineral interests which abound in great purity and 
profusion in Missouri, and the States and Territories tributary to St. Louis as 
a great manufacturing center. 

With the mere mention of the existence of potter's clays, fire clays, sand. 



APPENDIX. 321 

etc., yen seem to have OTerlooked largel}'^ the important branch oi prodnctive 
industry they enter so largely into^ and -which^ if properly cared for and 
fostered by the monied and enterprising men of St. Louis — will soon make 
this city as celebrated for its fine porcelain china, and pariati wares, as 
Staffordshire in England, or Sevres in France. 

We may justly pride ourselves in the varied, rapid and wonderiul develop- 
ments in the manufacture here, of iron, zinc^ silver, lead and other useful 
metals in the last few years. These are in keeping with the astonishingly 
rapid increase of population and growth of cities and towns all over the 
" Great West" — and in keeping with thef^e, should come foi-lh all Ihe pro- 
duction of every other necessary article of common use. 

I came to St. Louis in May, 1857, and took a small interest in a pottery at 
Upper Alton, Jll., in 1859 since then I have been gathering careful data of 
the location, and qualities and quantity of clays_, kaolins, spars, flints and 
other ingredients, found in Missouri and the West^ and necessary in the 
manufacture of fine porcelains. The coarser kinds of crockery, common 
stone ware^ red ware, fire bricks and tiles, stone ware pipes, etc., etc.^ seemed 
to be the ultimatum of ail clay manufacturers ambition. Most of these pro- 
ductions, until within a few years, were rough and rude, in finish and utility 
far below desirability. The production of these articles did not consume or 
i-equire the finer clays, which are as abundant comparatively, and in as great 
variety as are iron ores. 

In 1872^ we established the manufacture of white granite, or iron stone 
china — and common or C. C. ware, using the clays of Missouri and Illinois^ 
and allowing our customers and visitors to be the judges, " we are produc- 
ing in great variety^ fine table wares, fully equal to the best imported 
English goods." 

Through the courtesy and kindness of citizens everywhere, we are in 
frequent receipt of choice articles, in use by us, from many of which 1 am 
satisfied, the very choicest and finest or hard, or soft, and translucent wares 
can be made, equaling in quality of materials used, those made in any part 
of the world. 

With workmen of taste and culture, thoroughly skilled in the ceramic art, 
gathered into shops and properly encouraged here, in St. Louie, as they 
might and should be, this important productive industry, would rapidly assume 
large proportions, and yield millions of wealth to our people and city, and 
importance to the nation. 

Over $12,000,000 worth of crockery was made in one district (Staffordshire 
England), in 1871. Of this, over $6,600,000 was sent to the United States 
that year. Now shall we remain supinely indifferent to this great industry, 
surrounded as St. Louis is, with inexhaustible supplies of the very best 
materials for potting, and pay tribute to foreign manufacturers and importers 
on such goods as can be made profitably at home. 

All that is needed, is for the monied institutions and enterprising men of St. 



322 ' APPENDIX. 

Louis to give these manufacturing interests liberal encouragement, such as 
nearly every manufacturing interest needs in its incipiency, and which is, in 
most Eastern cities, bestowed to build up, rapidly enlarge, and tirmly establish 
them. 

St. Louis, so far inland, and the third city of the Union in population, 
may rapidly become the first in size — and the great center of every variety 
of manufactures, turning the eyes of the whole nation to its work shops for 
supplies, proudly and fully occupying the position so fortunately hers. 

Yours Eespectfully, H. M. Thompson. 

MISSOUEI CAE AND FOUNDEY COMPANY. 

The most gratifying evidences of the growth and prosperity of St. Luois, 
is the rapid development of her manufacturing industry. Of the various 
branches that pertain to the manufacture of wood and iron, no city can boast 
of such progress within the last few years as St. Louis. 

Among the most prominent of her recent establishments, is the Missouri 
Car and Foundry Company. This establishment is only three years old, and 
yet in growth and character is one of the largest manufacturing companies 
in the city. It has a paid-up capital stock of $300,000 The works 
arc divided into two departments. The car department is 1401 North Main 
street, where are situated the machine, blacksmith, wood, setting-up, finish- 
ing and painting shops. This department covers about five acres. The foun- 
dry department covers Lami and DeKalb streets, and consists of two brick 
buildings of 70 b}' 150 feet. In one is melted twenty tons of pig-iron per 
day, and this is made into railroad castings. In the other building thirty tons 
are melted per day, for car wheels. The first year the company built eight 
hundred cars; the second year two thousand, and the third year three thou- 
sand. The establishment has a capacity for turning out twelve freight cars 
per day, and intend shortly to build passenger coaches. It employs five hun- 
dred men, and pays out over S30,000 per month in wages. It carries a large 
itock of white oak, and pine lumber. The oak is obtained principally from 
Illinois, and the white pine from Wisconsin ; yellow pine from Missouri, and 
long-leaf pine from Georgia and Louisiana. The establishment consumes 
30,000 feet of lumber per day, bar iron twelve tons, and pig-iron fifty tons 
per day. 

Great care is taken to do the best quality of work. 

By means of a combination of the best car-wheel irons to be obtained, 
metal is gathered in from Maryland, Alabama, Kentucky, Ohio and Missouri; 
which, together with the purchase, at large expense, of the sole right to the 
use of Cochran's Patent Annealing Process for ear wheels, this company 
claim to be producing car wheels which cannot be excelled for strength, chill 
and wearing qualities. 

Their product for the past twelve months has been 2-5,000 ear wheels. 

They melt daily into railroad castings twenty tons of Missouri pig iron. 



APPENDIX. 323 

mostly from the Cai'ondelet furnaces. They also have an extensive bi'ass 
foundry, where they manufacture car, locomotive and machine boxes, pro- 
ducing over 1,000 pounds per day. 

During the past twelve months the Company have furnished cars to rail- 
roads in all directions. The following are a few : N. O., J. & G. Northern ; 
St. L. & I. M. E. E. ; Cairo & Fulton ; Arkansas Central ; A. & P.; I., B. & W. ; 
Great West'n Desp. Co.; C. C. C. & I.; C. D. & V.; Iowa Central; A. S. & 
Santa Fe; Midland Pacific; 111: & St. Louis; etc., etc. 

OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY : 

Hon. Warren Currier, President ; John S. Newberry, Vice-President ; James 
McMillan, Secretary ; Wm. McMillan, Treasurer &nd. General Manager. 



/ Phpp]]'? UP^P 



Thus have I written a new record — a new prophecy of a city central to a continent of resources, 
whose productive energies are greater than those possessed by all the world besides, and upon 
which is destined to reside a population greater than now exists on the globe — of a city, which I 
know will stand upon the American continent "in the latter day," the grandest material achieve 
ment of the civilization of the world — a city, destined to become the all-directing head, and the 
central moving heart of the great family of man — a city, from out whose throbbing life and com- 
prehensive brain will go forth new laws and new principles of civilization for the better government 
of states and nations — a city, destined to control the commerce of more than one hundred thousand 
miles of railway, reaching with equal facility to every extremity of the continent, to gather the 
surplus products of more than one hundred populous States, and to whose central life more than , 
one hundred continental cities, populous and powerful, as all the present existing cities of the 
globe, will contribute prosperity and greatness — a city, which, in its perfect development, its terri- 
torial expanse, its architectural elaboration, its industrial growth, its commercial supremacy, its 
financial power, its achievements in arts, its fame in literature, its mental strength, its moral 
purity, and its perfect government, will flash upon the mind of the human race, and the world 
will behold in America the city of prophecy — the Apocalyptic City — 

"The New Jerusalem the ancient seer 
Of Patmos saw." 

All hail! mistress of nations, and beautiful queen of civiliza